وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اَعۡمَالُہُمۡ کَسَرَابٍۭ بِقِیۡعَۃٍ یَّحۡسَبُہُ الظَّمۡاٰنُ مَآءً ؕ حَتّٰۤی اِذَا جَآءَہٗ لَمۡ یَجِدۡہُ شَیۡئًا وَّ وَجَدَ اللّٰہَ عِنۡدَہٗ فَوَفّٰٮہُ حِسَابَہٗ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَرِیۡعُ الۡحِسَابِ ﴿ۙ۴۰﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ أَعۡمَٰلُهُمۡ كَسَرَابِۭ بِقِيعَةٖ يَحۡسَبُهُ ٱلظَّمۡـَٔانُ مَآءً حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا جَآءَهُۥ لَمۡ يَجِدۡهُ شَيۡـٔٗا وَوَجَدَ ٱللَّهَ عِندَهُۥ فَوَفَّىٰهُ حِسَابَهُۥۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَرِيعُ ٱلۡحِسَابِ
c. 14:19. (close)
a. 14:19. (close)
2621. Important Words:
سراب (mirage) is derived from سرب. They say سرب الماء i.e. the water flowed. سرب الرجل means, the man went at random. سرابmeans, anything which on account of the heat of the sun in the middle of the day appears as if it is water reflecting buildings and trees, etc. mirage. The Arabs say ھو أخدع من السراب i.e. he is more deceptive than mirage (Aqrab).
قیعة (plain) is derived from قاع which means, he desisted, etc. قیعة is syn. with قاع and means, even place, plain or level land that produces nothing, low and free from mountains and herbage (Lane & Mufradat). See 20:107.
See next verse. (close)
اَوۡ کَظُلُمٰتٍ فِیۡ بَحۡرٍ لُّجِّیٍّ یَّغۡشٰہُ مَوۡجٌ مِّنۡ فَوۡقِہٖ مَوۡجٌ مِّنۡ فَوۡقِہٖ سَحَابٌ ؕ ظُلُمٰتٌۢ بَعۡضُہَا فَوۡقَ بَعۡضٍ ؕ اِذَاۤ اَخۡرَجَ یَدَہٗ لَمۡ یَکَدۡ یَرٰٮہَا ؕ وَ مَنۡ لَّمۡ یَجۡعَلِ اللّٰہُ لَہٗ نُوۡرًا فَمَا لَہٗ مِنۡ نُّوۡرٍ ﴿٪۴۱﴾
أَوۡ كَظُلُمَٰتٖ فِي بَحۡرٖ لُّجِّيّٖ يَغۡشَىٰهُ مَوۡجٞ مِّن فَوۡقِهِۦ مَوۡجٞ مِّن فَوۡقِهِۦ سَحَابٞۚ ظُلُمَٰتُۢ بَعۡضُهَا فَوۡقَ بَعۡضٍ إِذَآ أَخۡرَجَ يَدَهُۥ لَمۡ يَكَدۡ يَرَىٰهَاۗ وَمَن لَّمۡ يَجۡعَلِ ٱللَّهُ لَهُۥ نُورٗا فَمَا لَهُۥ مِن نُّورٍ
2049. In vv. 37-39 above an appreciative reference is made to a class of men—the lovers of Divine Light and the righteous servants of God. The present and the immediately preceding verse speak of another class of people—the sons of darkness. People of one class accept the Divine Light and walk in it. Their enviable condition is described in the simile, 'light upon light.' The other class of people reject the Divine Light and choose to grope in the darkness of doubts. All their works prove futile and deceptive like a mirage. They love darkness, follow darkness and live in darkness, so their unenviable condition has been very aptly and graphically described in the words, their deeds are like thick layers of darkness spread over a vast and deep sea on whose surface rise waves above waves, above which are clouds— layers upon layers of darkness. (close)
2622. Important Words:
لجی (vast and deep) is relative noun from (lujjun) which is derived from لج (lajja) which means, he persisted in wrangling. لج فی امر means, he persisted or persevered in the affair, or he persisted obstinately in an affair, even if it became manifest that it was wrong; or he persisted in contention. لججت السفینة means, the boat entered the لجة i.e. the main sea, or the fathomless deep, or the great expanse of sea of which the limits could not be seen. بحر لجی means, a vast and deep sea (Lane & Aqrab).
In vv. 38-39 above an appreciative reference was made to a class of men—the lovers of divine light and the righteous servants of God. The present and the immediately preceding verse speak of another class of people—the sons of darkness. People of one class accept the divine light and walk in it with the result that they are doubly blessed, both in this world and in the next. Their enviable condition is described in the simile, "light upon light." The other class of people reject the divine light, choose to grope in the darkness of doubts and misgivings and hanker after the illusory and transient pleasures and profits of this world and end by incurring God’s displeasure. All their works prove futile and deceptive like a mirage. They love darkness, follow darkness and live in darkness and thus their unenviable condition has been very aptly and graphically described in the words, "their deeds are like thick darkness in a vast and deep sea, covered by a wave, over which is a wave, above which are clouds—layers of darkness, one upon another." (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یُسَبِّحُ لَہٗ مَنۡ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ الطَّیۡرُ صٰٓفّٰتٍ ؕ کُلٌّ قَدۡ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَہٗ وَ تَسۡبِیۡحَہٗ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِمَا یَفۡعَلُوۡنَ ﴿۴۲﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُۥ مَن فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱلطَّيۡرُ صَـٰٓفَّـٰتٖۖ كُلّٞ قَدۡ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهُۥ وَتَسۡبِيحَهُۥۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِمَا يَفۡعَلُونَ
a. 17:45; 59:25; 61:2; 62:2. (close)
2050. Angels of the Heavens. (close)
2050A. Animate and inanimate things which are upon the earth such as men, animals, vegetables, and minerals. (close)
2050B. The birds which fly in the air. In a spiritual sense, the three expressions respectively signify: (a) persons of very high spiritual status; (b) worldly-minded men whose whole attention and efforts are devoted to the acquirement of material pursuits and who have no thought or time for spiritual things and (c) people whose spiritual condition is midway between that of the two above-mentioned categories. (close)
2051. Whereas the clause, Whose praises all who are in the heavens and the earth celebrate, refers to the collective testimony that the whole universe bears to the Unity and Holiness of God, the words, Each one knows his own mode of prayer and praise, refer to the evidence which everything bears to Divine Unity and Holiness individually and separately by carrying out faithfully the task allotted to it by God. Salat has different meanings with reference to different objects. Used in connection with God it means Divine mercy; used in connection with angels, it means their asking forgiveness of God for men and used in connection with man, it means the prescribed form of Prayer (Lane). (close)
The word من (who) taken to mean both animate and inanimate things, the expression "who are in the heavens and the earth and the birds with their wings outstretched" would signify three classes of beings i.e. (1) angels of the heaven; (2) animate and inanimate things which live upon or are related to the earth such as man, animals, vegetables, and minerals; (3) and the birds which fly in the air. Taken in a spiritual sense, the words "who are in the heavens," would mean persons of very high spiritual status, and "who are in the earth" would signify those unfortunate worldly-minded persons whose whole attention and efforts are devoted to material pursuits and who have no thought or time for spiritual things, and the words "the birds with their wings outstretched" would apply to those people whose spiritual condition is midway between that of the two above-mentioned categories. At one time they soar spiritually so high as to touch the very confines of the celestial firmament and at another time sink so low as to grovel in the dirt and dust of the earth.
The words کل قد علم صلاته و تسبیحه may mean: (i) each one of these beings and things knows his or its own mode of prayer and praise; (ii) God knows the reality of the prayer and praise of each one of these classes, God being the subject of the verb علم. Moreover, whereas the clause "Whose praises all who are in the heavens and the earth celebrate," refers to the collective testimony that the whole universe bears to the Unity and Holiness of God the words, "each one knows his own mode of prayer and praise," refer to the evidence which everything bears to Divine Unity and Holiness individually and separately by carrying out faithfully the task allotted to it by God. This may be the significance of the words "his own mode of prayer and praise." صلاة (prayer) has different meanings with reference to different objects; used about God, it means Divine mercy; used about angels, it means their asking forgiveness of God for men and used about men it means the prescribed form of Prayer (Lane & Aqrab). (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ مُلۡکُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ۚ وَ اِلَی اللّٰہِ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿۴۳﴾
وَلِلَّهِ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۖ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ
a. 3:190; 5:121. (close)
b. 3:190; 5:121. (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ یُزۡجِیۡ سَحَابًا ثُمَّ یُؤَلِّفُ بَیۡنَہٗ ثُمَّ یَجۡعَلُہٗ رُکَامًا فَتَرَی الۡوَدۡقَ یَخۡرُجُ مِنۡ خِلٰلِہٖ ۚ وَ یُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مِنۡ جِبَالٍ فِیۡہَا مِنۡۢ بَرَدٍ فَیُصِیۡبُ بِہٖ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ یَصۡرِفُہٗ عَنۡ مَّنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ یَکَادُ سَنَا بَرۡقِہٖ یَذۡہَبُ بِالۡاَبۡصَارِ ﴿ؕ۴۴﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُزۡجِي سَحَابٗا ثُمَّ يُؤَلِّفُ بَيۡنَهُۥ ثُمَّ يَجۡعَلُهُۥ رُكَامٗا فَتَرَى ٱلۡوَدۡقَ يَخۡرُجُ مِنۡ خِلَٰلِهِۦ وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن جِبَالٖ فِيهَا مِنۢ بَرَدٖ فَيُصِيبُ بِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَصۡرِفُهُۥ عَن مَّن يَشَآءُۖ يَكَادُ سَنَا بَرۡقِهِۦ يَذۡهَبُ بِٱلۡأَبۡصَٰرِ
b. 30:49. (close)
c. 13:14. (close)
2052. The verse may signify that for some the revealed Law serves as timely rain which proves highly beneficial and for others it takes the form of hail and storm which brings in its wake destruction and ruin. (close)
a. 30:49. (close)
b. 13:14. (close)
2624. Important Words:
رکاماً (piles up) is derived from رکم. They say رکم الشیء i.e. he heaped up, piled up or accumulated the thing; he collected together the thing and put one part of it upon another. رکام means, clouds or sand collected together and piled up (Lane & Aqrab).
ودق (rain) is derived from the root ودق (wadaqa). They say ودق الیه i.e. he became near to him. ودق السماء means, it rained. ودق السیف means, the sword became sharp. الودق means, rain, violent or gentle (Lane & Aqrab).
سنا (flash) is infinitive noun from سنا (sana). They say سنت النار i.e. the fire became high in its light. سنا البرق means, the lightning shone, shone brightly or gleamed or shot up. سنا means, light, or the light of lightning; or light shining or diffusing itself and rising, a high light; shining of weapons (Lane).
The verse gives another simile about the spiritual development of man and about the changes and processes which it undergoes to reach its perfection. The knowledge of such changes and processes is essential to the spiritual pilgrim because without such knowledge he may not know what turnings and crossroads he may have to meet on the way and consequently may despair of success. The verse purports to say that man’s spiritual development is like the formation of clouds from vapours. It begins in this way. The sun of God’s love and grace shines upon that inexhaustible store of man’s capacity to receive and assimilate the Divine Word with which he has been endowed and then it raises vapours which are moved about by the winds of Divine mercy. Just as in the earlier stages the vapours are not visible, so does the change wrought in the pilgrim’s mind by the Sun of Divine love and grace remain unfelt in the earlier stages of his spiritual development with the result that the impatient spiritual wayfarer sometimes loses patience and gives up the endeavour in despair. The simile points out that like invisible vapours which assume a visible form, the change in man’s moral and spiritual progress under Divine mercy assumes a palpable form and begins to be dimly perceptible. But the character and nature of the change is still in a formative stage, where it has not yet attained fixity and strength enough to be helpful to others. The progress, however, continues till like vapours that condense and take the form of showers of rain and sometimes of hail, the God-intoxicated spiritual wayfarer, who has donned the mantle of a Divine Messenger, becomes بشیر i.e. the Bearer of good news for the believers and نذیر i.e. Warner for those who reject the heavenly messages. Even among the believers his influence is not uniform; some benefit by his precept and practice more than the others according to their natural aptitudes, as are the different parts of earth benefited by rain according to the nature of the soil.
Or the significance of the verse may be that for some the revealed Law serves as timely rain which proves highly beneficial and for others it takes the form of hail and storm which brings in its wake destruction and ruin. (close)
یُقَلِّبُ اللّٰہُ الَّیۡلَ وَ النَّہَارَ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَعِبۡرَۃً لِّاُولِی الۡاَبۡصَارِ ﴿۴۵﴾
يُقَلِّبُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّيۡلَ وَٱلنَّهَارَۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَعِبۡرَةٗ لِّأُوْلِي ٱلۡأَبۡصَٰرِ
2053. The verse purports to say that the spiritual development of man referred to in the preceding verse is not always uniform and uninterrupted. Sometimes it is very rapid, at another time it is slow and yet at some other time it comes to a dead stop. This ebb and flow in the spiritual development of man is called Qabd (contraction) and Bast (expansion), or the alternation of night and day in spiritual terminology. Everything in the world is subject to the law of acceleration and retardation and so is the spiritual evolution of man. (close)
The verse means to say that the spiritual development of man referred to in the preceding verse is not always uniform and uninterrupted. Sometimes it is very rapid, at another time it is slow and yet some other time it comes to a dead stop. This ebb and flow in the spiritual development of man is called قبض (contraction) and بسط (expansion) or the alternation of night and day in spiritual termin-ology. Everything in the world is subject to the law of acceleration and retardation and so is the spiritual evolution of man. (close)
وَ اللّٰہُ خَلَقَ کُلَّ دَآبَّۃٍ مِّنۡ مَّآءٍ ۚ فَمِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّمۡشِیۡ عَلٰی بَطۡنِہٖ ۚ وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّمۡشِیۡ عَلٰی رِجۡلَیۡنِ ۚ وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّمۡشِیۡ عَلٰۤی اَرۡبَعٍ ؕ یَخۡلُقُ اللّٰہُ مَا یَشَآءُ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۴۶﴾
وَٱللَّهُ خَلَقَ كُلَّ دَآبَّةٖ مِّن مَّآءٖۖ فَمِنۡهُم مَّن يَمۡشِي عَلَىٰ بَطۡنِهِۦ وَمِنۡهُم مَّن يَمۡشِي عَلَىٰ رِجۡلَيۡنِ وَمِنۡهُم مَّن يَمۡشِي عَلَىٰٓ أَرۡبَعٖۚ يَخۡلُقُ ٱللَّهُ مَا يَشَآءُۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
a. 25:55. (close)
2054. The verse describes the nature and form of the progress of spiritual pilgrims to their destined goal. The progress of some of them is extremely slow. They creep and crawl to their destination. Others go quicker like animals that move on two legs, yet others go faster like four-legged animals. What is hinted at here is speed and not the method of locomotion. The four- legged animals are, as a rule, speedier of movement than the bipeds or the crawlers. The same is true of spiritual travellers. (close)
This verse describes the nature and form of the progress of spiritual pilgrims to their destined goal. The progress of some of them is extremely slow. They creep and crawl to their destination. Others go quicker like animals that move on two legs, yet others go faster like four-legged animals. What is hinted at here is speed and not the method of locomotion. The four-legged animals are, as a rule, speedier of movement than the bipeds or the crawlers. The same is the case with the spiritual travellers. (close)
لَقَدۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اٰیٰتٍ مُّبَیِّنٰتٍ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَہۡدِیۡ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ اِلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۴۷﴾
لَّقَدۡ أَنزَلۡنَآ ءَايَٰتٖ مُّبَيِّنَٰتٖۚ وَٱللَّهُ يَهۡدِي مَن يَشَآءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٖ مُّسۡتَقِيمٖ
وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ اٰمَنَّا بِاللّٰہِ وَ بِالرَّسُوۡلِ وَ اَطَعۡنَا ثُمَّ یَتَوَلّٰی فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡدِ ذٰلِکَ ؕ وَ مَاۤ اُولٰٓئِکَ بِالۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾
وَيَقُولُونَ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَبِٱلرَّسُولِ وَأَطَعۡنَا ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّىٰ فَرِيقٞ مِّنۡهُم مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ ذَٰلِكَۚ وَمَآ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ بِٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
وَ اِذَا دُعُوۡۤا اِلَی اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ لِیَحۡکُمَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ اِذَا فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَ ﴿۴۹﴾
وَإِذَا دُعُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ لِيَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ إِذَا فَرِيقٞ مِّنۡهُم مُّعۡرِضُونَ
a. 3:24. (close)