لَقَدۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اٰیٰتٍ مُّبَیِّنٰتٍ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَہۡدِیۡ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ اِلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۴۷﴾
لَّقَدۡ أَنزَلۡنَآ ءَايَٰتٖ مُّبَيِّنَٰتٖۚ وَٱللَّهُ يَهۡدِي مَن يَشَآءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٖ مُّسۡتَقِيمٖ
وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ اٰمَنَّا بِاللّٰہِ وَ بِالرَّسُوۡلِ وَ اَطَعۡنَا ثُمَّ یَتَوَلّٰی فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡدِ ذٰلِکَ ؕ وَ مَاۤ اُولٰٓئِکَ بِالۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۴۸﴾
وَيَقُولُونَ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَبِٱلرَّسُولِ وَأَطَعۡنَا ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّىٰ فَرِيقٞ مِّنۡهُم مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ ذَٰلِكَۚ وَمَآ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ بِٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
وَ اِذَا دُعُوۡۤا اِلَی اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ لِیَحۡکُمَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ اِذَا فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَ ﴿۴۹﴾
وَإِذَا دُعُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ لِيَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ إِذَا فَرِيقٞ مِّنۡهُم مُّعۡرِضُونَ
a. 3:24. (close)
وَ اِنۡ یَّکُنۡ لَّہُمُ الۡحَقُّ یَاۡتُوۡۤا اِلَیۡہِ مُذۡعِنِیۡنَ ﴿ؕ۵۰﴾
وَإِن يَكُن لَّهُمُ ٱلۡحَقُّ يَأۡتُوٓاْ إِلَيۡهِ مُذۡعِنِينَ
2627. Important Words:
مذعنین (running in all submission) is active participle from أذعن which is derived from ذعن. They say أذعن له i.e. he was or became quick in obedience to him or it; he was or became humble to him; he confessed to him. The Quranic words یأتوا الیه مذعنین mean, they come quickly in obedience (Lane & Aqrab). (close)
اَفِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ مَّرَضٌ اَمِ ارۡتَابُوۡۤا اَمۡ یَخَافُوۡنَ اَنۡ یَّحِیۡفَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗ ؕ بَلۡ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿٪۵۱﴾
أَفِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ أَمِ ٱرۡتَابُوٓاْ أَمۡ يَخَافُونَ أَن يَحِيفَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَرَسُولُهُۥۚ بَلۡ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ
2055. The verse signifies that disbelievers suffer from one or all of the three spiritual diseases, or that some of them suffer from one disease and others from other diseases. In fact, the three main things that stand in the way of a man’s spiritual progress and retard and arrest it are doubt, fear and envy. (close)
The verse signifies that disbelievers suffer from one or all of the three spiritual diseases or that some of them suffer from one disease and others from other diseases.
In fact, the three main things that stand in the way of a man’s spiritual progress and retard and arrest it, are doubt, fear and envy. These must be conquered before any real and substantial progress is possible. (close)
اِنَّمَا کَانَ قَوۡلَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ اِذَا دُعُوۡۤا اِلَی اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ لِیَحۡکُمَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ اَنۡ یَّقُوۡلُوۡا سَمِعۡنَا وَ اَطَعۡنَا ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾
إِنَّمَا كَانَ قَوۡلَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ إِذَا دُعُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ لِيَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ أَن يَقُولُواْ سَمِعۡنَا وَأَطَعۡنَاۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ
2056. The present and adjacent verses point to a basic and most fundamental Islamic principle, viz. that Islam is a perfect code of laws and its injunctions and commandments cover all the different aspects of human life and that the Holy Prophet is the final authority on all matters that concern the national life of Muslims. (close)
The present and adjacent verses point to a basic and most fundamental Islamic principle, viz. that Islam is a perfect code of laws and its injunctions and commandments cover all the different aspects of human life and the Holy Prophet is the final authority on all matters that concern the national life of Muslims. See also 4:66. (close)
وَ مَنۡ یُّطِعِ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ وَ یَخۡشَ اللّٰہَ وَ یَتَّقۡہِ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡفَآئِزُوۡنَ ﴿۵۳﴾
وَمَن يُطِعِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَيَخۡشَ ٱللَّهَ وَيَتَّقۡهِ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡفَآئِزُونَ
a. 4:14. (close)
a. 4:47. (close)
وَ اَقۡسَمُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ جَہۡدَ اَیۡمَانِہِمۡ لَئِنۡ اَمَرۡتَہُمۡ لَیَخۡرُجُنَّ ؕ قُلۡ لَّا تُقۡسِمُوۡا ۚ طَاعَۃٌ مَّعۡرُوۡفَۃٌ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ خَبِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۵۴﴾
۞وَأَقۡسَمُواْ بِٱللَّهِ جَهۡدَ أَيۡمَٰنِهِمۡ لَئِنۡ أَمَرۡتَهُمۡ لَيَخۡرُجُنَّۖ قُل لَّا تُقۡسِمُواْۖ طَاعَةٞ مَّعۡرُوفَةٌۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ
b. 5:93; 64:13. (close)
b. 5:93; 64:13. (close)
2629. Important Words:
جھد أیمانھم (their strongest oaths). جھد means, he strove or laboured; he exerted himself; he employed himself vigorously or with energy; he took extraordinary pains. جھد فی الامر means, he did his utmost or used his utmost power in prosecuting the affair. جھد (jahdun) means, utmost power or ability or extraordinary painstaking, etc. جھد أیمانھم means, the most solemn; strongest or most forcible or energetic oaths (Lane & Aqrab). (close)
قُلۡ اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اَطِیۡعُوا الرَّسُوۡلَ ۚ فَاِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاِنَّمَا عَلَیۡہِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ مَّا حُمِّلۡتُمۡ ؕ وَ اِنۡ تُطِیۡعُوۡہُ تَہۡتَدُوۡا ؕ وَ مَا عَلَی الرَّسُوۡلِ اِلَّا الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۵۵﴾
قُلۡ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيۡكُم مَّا حُمِّلۡتُمۡۖ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهۡتَدُواْۚ وَمَا عَلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ إِلَّا ٱلۡبَلَٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ
c. 4:14; 33:72; 48:18. (close)
d. 16:36; 29:19; 36:18. (close)
c. 4:14; 33:72; 48:18. (close)
وَعَدَ اللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مِنۡکُمۡ وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ لَیَسۡتَخۡلِفَنَّہُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ کَمَا اسۡتَخۡلَفَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ ۪ وَ لَیُمَکِّنَنَّ لَہُمۡ دِیۡنَہُمُ الَّذِی ارۡتَضٰی لَہُمۡ وَ لَیُبَدِّلَنَّہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡدِ خَوۡفِہِمۡ اَمۡنًا ؕ یَعۡبُدُوۡنَنِیۡ لَا یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ بِیۡ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ مَنۡ کَفَرَ بَعۡدَ ذٰلِکَ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡفٰسِقُوۡنَ ﴿۵۶﴾
وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنكُمۡ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ لَيَسۡتَخۡلِفَنَّهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ كَمَا ٱسۡتَخۡلَفَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمۡ دِينَهُمُ ٱلَّذِي ٱرۡتَضَىٰ لَهُمۡ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ خَوۡفِهِمۡ أَمۡنٗاۚ يَعۡبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشۡرِكُونَ بِي شَيۡـٔٗاۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ بَعۡدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡفَٰسِقُونَ
2057. Because it serves as a prelude to the introduction of the subject of Khilafat emphasis is repeatedly laid in vv. 52-55 on obedience to Allah and His Messenger. This emphasis implies a hint to the status and position of a Khalifah in Islam. The verse embodies a promise that Muslims will be vouchsafed both spiritual and temporal leadership. The promise is made to the whole Muslim nation but the institution of Khilafat will take a palpable form in the person of certain individuals who will be the Holy Prophet’s Successors and the representatives of the whole nation. The promise of the establishment of Khilafat is clear and unmistakable. As the Holy Prophet is now humanity’s sole guide for all time, his Khilafat will continue to exist in one form or another in the world till the end of time, all other Khilafats having ceased to exist. This is, among many others, the Holy Prophet’s distinctive superiority over all other Prophets and Messengers of God. Our age has witnessed his greatest spiritual Khalifah in the person of the Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement. See also "The Larger Edition of the Commentary," pp. 1869, 1870. (close)
This verse deals with one of the most vital Islamic principles. The Surah under comment enjoys this distinction that in no other Surah has so much light been shed from the point of view of Islam on so many important moral, social and political problems as in this Surah. While the preceding few Surahs dealt with the great and triumphant future of Islam, this Surah tells us how the promised bright future of Islam will take a material shape. Whereas in verse 36 above an implied reference was made to Khilafat which was to be the main instrument for establishment of the spiritual and political hegemony of Islam, the present verse deals with the subject of Khilafat in clear and unmistakable terms. The preceding few verses, i.e. vv. 52-55, however, serve as a prelude to its introduction. In these verses emphasis is repeatedly laid on obedience to Allah and His Messenger. This emphasis implies a hint to the status and position of the Khalifah in Islam. Being the Successor of a Prophet he must be given unconditional obedience.
The present verse embodies a promise that Muslims will be vouchsafed both spiritual and temporal leadership. The promise is made to the whole Muslim nation but the institution of Khilafat will take a palpable form in the person of certain individuals who will be the Prophet’s Successors and the representatives of the whole nation. They will be, as it were, Khilafat personified. The verse further says that the fulfilment of this promise will depend on the Muslims’ observing the Prayer and giving the Zakah and on their obeying the Messenger of God in all religious and temporal matters concerning the nation. When they will have fulfilled these conditions, the boon of Khilafat will be bestowed upon them and they will be made the leaders of nations; their state of fear will give place to a condition of safety and security, Islam will reign supreme in the world, and
above all the Oneness and Unity of God—the real purpose and object of Islam—will become firmly established.
The promise of the establishment of Khilafat is clear and unmistakable. As the Holy Prophet is now humanity’s sole guide for all time, his Khilafat must continue to exist in one form or another in the world till the end of time, all other Khilafats having ceased to exist. This is among many others the Holy Prophet’s distinct superiority over all other Prophets and Messengers of God. Our age has witnessed his greatest spiritual Khalifah in the person of Ahmad, the Promised Messiah.
The Quran has mentioned three kinds of Khalifahs:
(1) Khalifahs, who are Prophets such as Adam and David. About Adam God says in the Quran, "I am about to place a vicegerent in the earth" (2:31) and about David He says: "O David, We have made thee a vicegerent in the earth" (38:27).
(2) Prophets who are the Khalifahs of another and a greater Prophet such as the Israelite Prophets who all were the Khalifahs of Moses. About them the Quran says: "We have sent down the Torah wherein was guidanceand light. By it did the Prophets who were obedient to Us judge for the Jews" (5:45).
(3) Non-Prophet Khalifahs of a Prophet, with or without temporal powers, such as godly people learned in the Law. Their mission is to protect and preserve the law from being tampered with (5:45).
Briefly, the verse under comment covers all these categories of Khalifahs, viz. the Holy Prophet’s rightly-guided Khalifahs, the Promised Messiah, his Successors and the spiritual Reformers or Mujaddids. Their mission, as the above verse says, is to protect the Law and to bring back "the erring flock into the Master’s fold."
The special marks and characteristics of these Khalifahs are:
(a) They are appointed Khalifahs through God’s own decree in the sense that the hearts of believers become inclined towards them and they voluntarily accept them as their Khalifahs.
(b) The religion which their mission is to serve becomes firmly established through their prayers and missionary efforts;
(c) They enjoy equanimity and peace of mind amidst hardships, privations or persecution which nothing can disturb; and
(d) They worship God alone, i.e. in the discharge of their great responsibilities they fear no one and they carry on their duties undaunted and without being discouraged or dismayed by the difficulties that stand in their way.
The verse may also be regarded as embodying a prophecy which was made at a time when Islam was very weak and idols were being worshipped throughout Arabia and the Muslims being small in number feared for their very lives, and yet in the course of only a generation the prophecy was literally fulfilled. Idolatry disappeared from Arabia and Islam became firmly established not only in Arabia but also reigned supreme in the whole world and the followers of the Holy Prophet, erstwhile regarded as the dregs and scum of humanity, became the leaders and teachers of nations.
The words, "Whosoever is ungrateful after that, they will be the rebellious," signify that Khilafat is a great Divine blessing. Without it there can be no solidarity, cohesion and unity among Muslims and therefore they can make no real progress without it. If Muslims do not show proper appreciation of Khilafat by giving unstinted support and obedience to their Khalifahs they will forfeit this great Divine boon and in addition will draw the displeasure of God upon themselves. (close)