اِنَّمَا کَانَ قَوۡلَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ اِذَا دُعُوۡۤا اِلَی اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ لِیَحۡکُمَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ اَنۡ یَّقُوۡلُوۡا سَمِعۡنَا وَ اَطَعۡنَا ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۵۲﴾
إِنَّمَا كَانَ قَوۡلَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ إِذَا دُعُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ لِيَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ أَن يَقُولُواْ سَمِعۡنَا وَأَطَعۡنَاۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ
2056. The present and adjacent verses point to a basic and most fundamental Islamic principle, viz. that Islam is a perfect code of laws and its injunctions and commandments cover all the different aspects of human life and that the Holy Prophet is the final authority on all matters that concern the national life of Muslims. (close)
The present and adjacent verses point to a basic and most fundamental Islamic principle, viz. that Islam is a perfect code of laws and its injunctions and commandments cover all the different aspects of human life and the Holy Prophet is the final authority on all matters that concern the national life of Muslims. See also 4:66. (close)
وَ مَنۡ یُّطِعِ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ وَ یَخۡشَ اللّٰہَ وَ یَتَّقۡہِ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡفَآئِزُوۡنَ ﴿۵۳﴾
وَمَن يُطِعِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَيَخۡشَ ٱللَّهَ وَيَتَّقۡهِ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡفَآئِزُونَ
a. 4:14. (close)
a. 4:47. (close)
وَ اَقۡسَمُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ جَہۡدَ اَیۡمَانِہِمۡ لَئِنۡ اَمَرۡتَہُمۡ لَیَخۡرُجُنَّ ؕ قُلۡ لَّا تُقۡسِمُوۡا ۚ طَاعَۃٌ مَّعۡرُوۡفَۃٌ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ خَبِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۵۴﴾
۞وَأَقۡسَمُواْ بِٱللَّهِ جَهۡدَ أَيۡمَٰنِهِمۡ لَئِنۡ أَمَرۡتَهُمۡ لَيَخۡرُجُنَّۖ قُل لَّا تُقۡسِمُواْۖ طَاعَةٞ مَّعۡرُوفَةٌۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ
b. 5:93; 64:13. (close)
b. 5:93; 64:13. (close)
2629. Important Words:
جھد أیمانھم (their strongest oaths). جھد means, he strove or laboured; he exerted himself; he employed himself vigorously or with energy; he took extraordinary pains. جھد فی الامر means, he did his utmost or used his utmost power in prosecuting the affair. جھد (jahdun) means, utmost power or ability or extraordinary painstaking, etc. جھد أیمانھم means, the most solemn; strongest or most forcible or energetic oaths (Lane & Aqrab). (close)
قُلۡ اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اَطِیۡعُوا الرَّسُوۡلَ ۚ فَاِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاِنَّمَا عَلَیۡہِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ مَّا حُمِّلۡتُمۡ ؕ وَ اِنۡ تُطِیۡعُوۡہُ تَہۡتَدُوۡا ؕ وَ مَا عَلَی الرَّسُوۡلِ اِلَّا الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۵۵﴾
قُلۡ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيۡكُم مَّا حُمِّلۡتُمۡۖ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهۡتَدُواْۚ وَمَا عَلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ إِلَّا ٱلۡبَلَٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ
c. 4:14; 33:72; 48:18. (close)
d. 16:36; 29:19; 36:18. (close)
c. 4:14; 33:72; 48:18. (close)
وَعَدَ اللّٰہُ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا مِنۡکُمۡ وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ لَیَسۡتَخۡلِفَنَّہُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ کَمَا اسۡتَخۡلَفَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ ۪ وَ لَیُمَکِّنَنَّ لَہُمۡ دِیۡنَہُمُ الَّذِی ارۡتَضٰی لَہُمۡ وَ لَیُبَدِّلَنَّہُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡدِ خَوۡفِہِمۡ اَمۡنًا ؕ یَعۡبُدُوۡنَنِیۡ لَا یُشۡرِکُوۡنَ بِیۡ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ مَنۡ کَفَرَ بَعۡدَ ذٰلِکَ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡفٰسِقُوۡنَ ﴿۵۶﴾
وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنكُمۡ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ لَيَسۡتَخۡلِفَنَّهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ كَمَا ٱسۡتَخۡلَفَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمۡ دِينَهُمُ ٱلَّذِي ٱرۡتَضَىٰ لَهُمۡ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ خَوۡفِهِمۡ أَمۡنٗاۚ يَعۡبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشۡرِكُونَ بِي شَيۡـٔٗاۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ بَعۡدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡفَٰسِقُونَ
2057. Because it serves as a prelude to the introduction of the subject of Khilafat emphasis is repeatedly laid in vv. 52-55 on obedience to Allah and His Messenger. This emphasis implies a hint to the status and position of a Khalifah in Islam. The verse embodies a promise that Muslims will be vouchsafed both spiritual and temporal leadership. The promise is made to the whole Muslim nation but the institution of Khilafat will take a palpable form in the person of certain individuals who will be the Holy Prophet’s Successors and the representatives of the whole nation. The promise of the establishment of Khilafat is clear and unmistakable. As the Holy Prophet is now humanity’s sole guide for all time, his Khilafat will continue to exist in one form or another in the world till the end of time, all other Khilafats having ceased to exist. This is, among many others, the Holy Prophet’s distinctive superiority over all other Prophets and Messengers of God. Our age has witnessed his greatest spiritual Khalifah in the person of the Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement. See also "The Larger Edition of the Commentary," pp. 1869, 1870. (close)
This verse deals with one of the most vital Islamic principles. The Surah under comment enjoys this distinction that in no other Surah has so much light been shed from the point of view of Islam on so many important moral, social and political problems as in this Surah. While the preceding few Surahs dealt with the great and triumphant future of Islam, this Surah tells us how the promised bright future of Islam will take a material shape. Whereas in verse 36 above an implied reference was made to Khilafat which was to be the main instrument for establishment of the spiritual and political hegemony of Islam, the present verse deals with the subject of Khilafat in clear and unmistakable terms. The preceding few verses, i.e. vv. 52-55, however, serve as a prelude to its introduction. In these verses emphasis is repeatedly laid on obedience to Allah and His Messenger. This emphasis implies a hint to the status and position of the Khalifah in Islam. Being the Successor of a Prophet he must be given unconditional obedience.
The present verse embodies a promise that Muslims will be vouchsafed both spiritual and temporal leadership. The promise is made to the whole Muslim nation but the institution of Khilafat will take a palpable form in the person of certain individuals who will be the Prophet’s Successors and the representatives of the whole nation. They will be, as it were, Khilafat personified. The verse further says that the fulfilment of this promise will depend on the Muslims’ observing the Prayer and giving the Zakah and on their obeying the Messenger of God in all religious and temporal matters concerning the nation. When they will have fulfilled these conditions, the boon of Khilafat will be bestowed upon them and they will be made the leaders of nations; their state of fear will give place to a condition of safety and security, Islam will reign supreme in the world, and
above all the Oneness and Unity of God—the real purpose and object of Islam—will become firmly established.
The promise of the establishment of Khilafat is clear and unmistakable. As the Holy Prophet is now humanity’s sole guide for all time, his Khilafat must continue to exist in one form or another in the world till the end of time, all other Khilafats having ceased to exist. This is among many others the Holy Prophet’s distinct superiority over all other Prophets and Messengers of God. Our age has witnessed his greatest spiritual Khalifah in the person of Ahmad, the Promised Messiah.
The Quran has mentioned three kinds of Khalifahs:
(1) Khalifahs, who are Prophets such as Adam and David. About Adam God says in the Quran, "I am about to place a vicegerent in the earth" (2:31) and about David He says: "O David, We have made thee a vicegerent in the earth" (38:27).
(2) Prophets who are the Khalifahs of another and a greater Prophet such as the Israelite Prophets who all were the Khalifahs of Moses. About them the Quran says: "We have sent down the Torah wherein was guidanceand light. By it did the Prophets who were obedient to Us judge for the Jews" (5:45).
(3) Non-Prophet Khalifahs of a Prophet, with or without temporal powers, such as godly people learned in the Law. Their mission is to protect and preserve the law from being tampered with (5:45).
Briefly, the verse under comment covers all these categories of Khalifahs, viz. the Holy Prophet’s rightly-guided Khalifahs, the Promised Messiah, his Successors and the spiritual Reformers or Mujaddids. Their mission, as the above verse says, is to protect the Law and to bring back "the erring flock into the Master’s fold."
The special marks and characteristics of these Khalifahs are:
(a) They are appointed Khalifahs through God’s own decree in the sense that the hearts of believers become inclined towards them and they voluntarily accept them as their Khalifahs.
(b) The religion which their mission is to serve becomes firmly established through their prayers and missionary efforts;
(c) They enjoy equanimity and peace of mind amidst hardships, privations or persecution which nothing can disturb; and
(d) They worship God alone, i.e. in the discharge of their great responsibilities they fear no one and they carry on their duties undaunted and without being discouraged or dismayed by the difficulties that stand in their way.
The verse may also be regarded as embodying a prophecy which was made at a time when Islam was very weak and idols were being worshipped throughout Arabia and the Muslims being small in number feared for their very lives, and yet in the course of only a generation the prophecy was literally fulfilled. Idolatry disappeared from Arabia and Islam became firmly established not only in Arabia but also reigned supreme in the whole world and the followers of the Holy Prophet, erstwhile regarded as the dregs and scum of humanity, became the leaders and teachers of nations.
The words, "Whosoever is ungrateful after that, they will be the rebellious," signify that Khilafat is a great Divine blessing. Without it there can be no solidarity, cohesion and unity among Muslims and therefore they can make no real progress without it. If Muslims do not show proper appreciation of Khilafat by giving unstinted support and obedience to their Khalifahs they will forfeit this great Divine boon and in addition will draw the displeasure of God upon themselves. (close)
وَ اَقِیۡمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتُوا الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ اَطِیۡعُوا الرَّسُوۡلَ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُرۡحَمُوۡنَ ﴿۵۷﴾
وَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُواْ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُرۡحَمُونَ
a. 22:78. (close)
The verse describes the three essential conditions on the fulfilment of which depends the fulfilment of the Divine promise about the establishment of Khilafat. (close)
لَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا مُعۡجِزِیۡنَ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ۚ وَ مَاۡوٰٮہُمُ النَّارُ ؕ وَ لَبِئۡسَ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿٪۵۸﴾
لَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مُعۡجِزِينَ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ وَمَأۡوَىٰهُمُ ٱلنَّارُۖ وَلَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ
The verse purports to say that the kingdom and dominion of the world will be bestowed upon the followers of Islam and they will become the leaders and teachers of mankind. It is God’s plan and His decree and no one can frustrate Divine decree. All efforts on the part of the enemies of truth to alter this inviolable Divine decree will end in failure. As long as Khilafat will endure among Muslims as an active force Muslims will march from success to success. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لِیَسۡتَاۡذِنۡکُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُکُمۡ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ لَمۡ یَبۡلُغُوا الۡحُلُمَ مِنۡکُمۡ ثَلٰثَ مَرّٰتٍ ؕ مِنۡ قَبۡلِ صَلٰوۃِ الۡفَجۡرِ وَ حِیۡنَ تَضَعُوۡنَ ثِیَابَکُمۡ مِّنَ الظَّہِیۡرَۃِ وَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ صَلٰوۃِ الۡعِشَآءِ ۟ؕ ثَلٰثُ عَوۡرٰتٍ لَّکُمۡ ؕ لَیۡسَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ لَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ جُنَاحٌۢ بَعۡدَہُنَّ ؕ طَوّٰفُوۡنَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ بَعۡضُکُمۡ عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمُ الۡاٰیٰتِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۵۹﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لِيَسۡتَـٔۡذِنكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَٰنُكُمۡ وَٱلَّذِينَ لَمۡ يَبۡلُغُواْ ٱلۡحُلُمَ مِنكُمۡ ثَلَٰثَ مَرَّـٰتٖۚ مِّن قَبۡلِ صَلَوٰةِ ٱلۡفَجۡرِ وَحِينَ تَضَعُونَ ثِيَابَكُم مِّنَ ٱلظَّهِيرَةِ وَمِنۢ بَعۡدِ صَلَوٰةِ ٱلۡعِشَآءِۚ ثَلَٰثُ عَوۡرَٰتٖ لَّكُمۡۚ لَيۡسَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَلَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ جُنَاحُۢ بَعۡدَهُنَّۚ طَوَّـٰفُونَ عَلَيۡكُم بَعۡضُكُمۡ عَلَىٰ بَعۡضٖۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمُ ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٞ
2058. The subject of "Pardah," as stated under v. 32 above, has been referred to at four different places in the Qur’an. Whereas 24:32 deals with "Pardah" primarily within the four walls of the house, v. 33:60 discusses "Pardah" outside the house and on thoroughfares, while vv. 33:33, 34 speak of a restricted kind of "Pardah," particularly enjoined on the Holy Prophet’s wives and by implication on all Muslim women, and by inference point to the fact that the principal centre of a woman’s activities is her home. The present verse, however, refers to another kind of "Pardah," viz. that domestic servants and minor children too should not enter the private apartments of their masters or parents at three particular hours mentioned here without getting prior permission. Zahirah means, vehement heat of the midday, the period from a little before to a little after midday in summer (Lane). (close)
2633. Important Words:
مراة (times) is the plural of مرة which is infinitive noun from مر which means, he or it passed. مر الدھر means, the time passed. مرة means, a time; one time; one action; a single action or act; turn; also an occasion. فعلته مرة means, I did it once (Lane & Aqrab).
The subject of "purdah," as stated under v. 32 above has been referred to at four different places in the Quran. Whereas 24:32 deals with "purdah" primarily within four walls of the house, v. 33:60 discusses "purdah" outside the house and on thoroughfares while vv. 33:33-34 speak of a restricted kind of "purdah", particularly enjoined on the Holy Prophet’s wives and by implication on all Muslim women, and by inference point to the fact that the principal centre of a woman’s activities is her home. The present verse, however, refers to another kind of "purdah," viz. that domestic servants and minor children too should not enter the private apartments of their masters or parents at three particular hours mentioned here without getting prior permission. (close)
وَ اِذَا بَلَغَ الۡاَطۡفَالُ مِنۡکُمُ الۡحُلُمَ فَلۡیَسۡتَاۡذِنُوۡا کَمَا اسۡتَاۡذَنَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۰﴾
وَإِذَا بَلَغَ ٱلۡأَطۡفَٰلُ مِنكُمُ ٱلۡحُلُمَ فَلۡيَسۡتَـٔۡذِنُواْ كَمَا ٱسۡتَـٔۡذَنَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡ ءَايَٰتِهِۦۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٞ
The words من قبلھم may mean, (i) those persons who have been mentioned in v. 28 above; or (ii) those who have attained puberty before them. (close)
وَ الۡقَوَاعِدُ مِنَ النِّسَآءِ الّٰتِیۡ لَا یَرۡجُوۡنَ نِکَاحًا فَلَیۡسَ عَلَیۡہِنَّ جُنَاحٌ اَنۡ یَّضَعۡنَ ثِیَابَہُنَّ غَیۡرَ مُتَبَرِّجٰتٍۭ بِزِیۡنَۃٍ ؕ وَ اَنۡ یَّسۡتَعۡفِفۡنَ خَیۡرٌ لَّہُنَّ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۶۱﴾
وَٱلۡقَوَٰعِدُ مِنَ ٱلنِّسَآءِ ٱلَّـٰتِي لَا يَرۡجُونَ نِكَاحٗا فَلَيۡسَ عَلَيۡهِنَّ جُنَاحٌ أَن يَضَعۡنَ ثِيَابَهُنَّ غَيۡرَ مُتَبَرِّجَٰتِۭ بِزِينَةٖۖ وَأَن يَسۡتَعۡفِفۡنَ خَيۡرٞ لَّهُنَّۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٞ
2058A. Qawa‘id is the plural of Qa‘id which signifies a woman who has ceased to bear children and to have the menstrual discharge or who has no husband, or an old woman, much advanced in years (Lane). (close)
2635. Important Words:
قواعد (elderly women) is the plural of قاعد and قاعدة, and قاعد is active participle from قعد which means, he sat. They say قعدت عن الولد او الحیض i.e. she ceased to bear children or to have the menstrual discharge. قعدت الامرأة means, the woman lost her husband. قاعد means, a woman who has ceased to bear children or to have the menstrual discharge or to have a husband; an old woman, advanced in years. امرأة قاعد is like امرأة حامل i.e. a pregnant woman (Mufradat, Aqrab & Lane).
The verse shows that even old women are not allowed to display their finery or ornaments and the beauty of their person and form or countenance to strangers. In the expression ان یضعن ثیابھن the particle ان is مصدریة and the meaning, is their laying aside their clothing. (close)