Introduction of Al-Furqan
(Revealed before Hijrah)
The preponderance of scholarly opinion regards this Surah of Meccan origin. According to Ibn ‘Abbas and Qatadah, however, vv. 69-71 belong to the Medinite period. ‘Umar, as reported by Bukhari, Muslim, and Baihaqi, on one occasion heard Hisham bin Hakim recite this Surah in Prayer. Hisham had recited it in a manner which ‘Umar thought was different from that in which he had heard the Holy Prophet recite it. He was exasperated and had almost assaulted Hisham, but restrained himself with great effort. Hisham had hardly finished his Prayer when ‘Umar caught hold of him and asked him from whom he had learnt to recite the Surah in the way he had done. Hisham replied that he had learnt it from the Holy Prophet himself. Upon this ‘Umar took him to the Prophet and related the whole incident. The Prophet asked Hisham to recite the Surah again and when he did so exactly in the manner to which ‘Umar had taken strong exception, the Holy Prophet said, "It is precisely in this form that the Surah has been revealed." Then the Holy Prophet asked ‘Umar to recite the portion concerning which there was difference of opinion between the two and when ‘Umar did so, the Prophet told him that he was also right, and added that the Quran had been revealed in seven different readings or dialects and told him to recite it in the manner in which he found it easy to do so (Qadir).
This incident shows that variations in the readings of the Quran in which some prejudiced western orientalists and Christian missionaries pretend to have found a basis for casting doubts upon the purity of the Quranic text were merely differences in the pronunciation and dialects of the various Arab tribes and such differences of enunciation abounded in the Arabic language. Arabia, in the Holy Prophet’s time, was surrounded on all sides by powerful nations which were superior to and different from the Arabs in culture and civilization. On one side of Arabia was situated Abyssinia, on the other Iran and its third side was adjacent to the Jews and the Arameans while on the fourth side India was its immediate neighbour. It was impossible that the language of a people surrounded on all sides by such powerful and highly cultured nations should have remained unaffected. Under their impact differences of dialect and pronunciation naturally arose among different Arab tribes. Some of them could easily pronounce certain letters while others could not do so. One tribe pronounced a certain letter in one way, the other in another. Some Arab tribes, for instance, could pronounce the letter "ر" with ease while others could not, and had to substitute "ل" or some other letter for it. Now it would have greatly helped all these various tribes to recite the Quran if they were allowed the use of both these letters. This is exactly what the Holy Prophet did, because in the other case it would have been very difficult for some Arab tribes to learn the Quran. In view of differences in dialect and pronunciation, the Holy Prophet, in the beginning, allowed the use of substitute letters which enabled the various Arab tribes to read and learn the Quran with ease and in this way he succeeded in solving a difficult problem. As it was a new and uncommon experiment and adoption of such a method had not occurred to anyone before, therefore, people in the beginning found it hard to adapt themselves to it and every tribe was led to think that the Quran had been revealed in that tribe’s own particular dialect. So if they found that a certain tribe pronounced some Quranic words differently or used letters not familiar to them they thought it was guilty of tampering with the text of the Quran. The Holy Prophet, therefore, had repeatedly to explain this fact in the beginning of his ministry. But when gradually Muslims came to understand the implications of this method, they realized that it was not only not a defect and did not in any way interfere with the meaning of the Quran but rather in certain cases actually enlarged and expanded it and made the reading of the Quran equally easy for every tribe. This is why the Holy Prophet in the early years of his ministry allowed Muslims to read the Quran in the manner in which they found it easy to do so. This permission shows that variation in reading was concerned with only the letters and not with the meaning or sense of the Quran.
Those who assign vv. 69-71 to the Medinite period base their assumption on the fact that because these verses contain commandments forbidding murder, adultery, etc., and because detailed ordinances of the Shari‘ah were revealed only at Medina, therefore, these commandments must have been revealed at Medina. But this assumption possesses no weight or substance. In fact, commandments forbidding adultery and murder were revealed at Mecca, and the fact that Muslims had begun scrupulously to avoid these deadly sins and to lead very pure and righteous lives while at Mecca lends great weight to the view that these commandments must have been revealed there. So the assumption that because these verses forbid adultery, murder and other kindred vices, therefore, they were revealed at Medina possesses no foundation in fact.
Certain western writers regard this Surah to have been revealed at Mecca very early in the Holy Prophet’s ministry. They attribute this inference to the absence of any reference to persecution of Muslims on the part of the Quraish which, they say, began some years later. This assumption is also too flimsy to merit serious consideration. This is like saying that because some Medinite Surahs are almost devoid of any mention of disbelievers, therefore, no fighting had taken place between Muslims and disbelievers in the Medinite period.
The preceding Surah, An-Nur, had ended on a note about the very great importance and usefulness of the Islamic Organization. That Surah had also stated that certain Muslims were unacquainted with its great potentialities and were afraid of the organization of disbelievers, which was rotten to the core. The present Surah gives the reasons why the fear of the weak-minded people is but an illusion and a figment of their own diseased imagination and does not exist in reality. The argument proceeds thus: The Quran claims to have been sent as a warning for the whole world and as its teaching is in perfect harmony with the laws of nature, those who defy it would not only be guilty of defying a revealed teaching, but would also be contravening nature itself. So neither the followers of any religious system nor the inhabitants of any country could successfully withstand Muslims who believed the Quran to be the revealed Word of God and acted upon its teaching, because it is not possible to defy the laws of nature. When such is the case, those of weak faith among Muslims who fear the organization of disbelief are afraid of an imaginary thing and their fear is unreal.
The Surah opens with the categorical statement that the Message of the Quran is meant for the whole of mankind. It proceeds to say that the Almighty God Who has revealed the Quran is the sole and undisputed Master of the heavens and the earth. He is One and has no peer. He is the sole Creator of every atom of the universe. His Word, therefore, is and must be in perfect harmony with the laws of nature, hence its acceptance or rejection does not merely mean the acceptance or rejection of a revealed Law but amounts to submission to or violation of the laws of nature itself.
The Surah further says that whereas disbelievers find it difficult to deny the excellence and superiority of the teaching of the Quran, they take refuge behind the subterfuge that it is not the work of a single individual but is the result of the combined effort of many persons. They further allege that its teaching has been plagiarized from old scriptures. But these pleas of disbelievers possess no substance because, the Surah says, if the Quran had been the work of collective human effort, it could not have possessed a teaching which is beyond the power of man to produce. And if it had been merely a copy of the ancient scriptures, those scriptures should also have possessed the excellences and beauties possessed by it, but that is not the case.
Next, another foolish plea of disbelievers is mentioned, viz. that the Holy Prophet is a mere mortal who eats and drinks and goes about as an ordinary man. "Why has not God," they say, "sent an angel with him to bear witness to the truth of his mission? Or why has he not been given treasures of wealth or gardens, or why at all should they follow a liar and an impostor?" Thus the disbelievers drift from one plea to another, but the Quran stigmatizes all this as confused and incoherent talk and condemns and reprimands the enemies of truth for not sticking to one point or line of argument, and proceeds to tell impatient disbelievers that God will certainly give the Holy Prophet and his followers better things than what they demand of him—much better gardens than those of their conception. But they should not get impatient and should wait for the time when all these things will come to pass. The Surah further says that when that time would actually arrive, they would be severely disappointed, but their disappointment would in no way benefit them; on the contrary, it would prove a source of growing and enduring mortification for them.
The Surah then further elaborates and answers some of the worn out and hackneyed objections of disbelievers. One such objection, as mentioned above, is that the Holy Prophet is a mere mortal and is subject to the demands of the flesh. In answer to this objection the Surah asks the disbelievers whether the former Prophets were not humans and whether they were not subject to human needs and wants. If such is the case, then is not their objection foolish and flimsy? Another objection is, "why do not angels descend upon us and why does not God speak to us?" In answer to this objection disbelievers are told that angels will certainly descend, but only to punish them for their evil deeds. The day of punishment will be the Day of Decision and the Prophet will bear witness against them.
Next, the Surah refers to some more objections of disbelievers and after answering them, passes on to warn them that they will meet with no better fate than the one with which the opponents of the Prophets of yore had met. Further on, the Holy Prophet is consoled and comforted that if he is held up to scorn and ridicule, it is only natural that it should have been so, because the enemies of truth had always rejected truth. His enemies were no exception; their hearts too had become devoid of all noble feelings.
Then, a brief reference is made to the law of the rise and fall of nations and disbelievers are warned that the time of their decadence and downfall and that of the rise, progress and prosperity of Muslims has already arrived. They may not reconcile themselves to the fact that a Prophet could have been raised among them. But a Prophet must belong to some country, and the disbelievers are asked as to which country the Holy Prophet should have belonged so as to be acceptable to all peoples. Or do they mean that every people should have had a separate Prophet? This would have given rise to innumerable differences and disagreements. The disbelievers are told that these are all foolish objections and the Holy Prophet is enjoined to pay no heed to them and to continue to preach his message.
After this, the Surah proceeds to invite the attention of disbelievers to the phenomenon that God had made two waters, one bitter and the other sweet, both flowing side by side. They continue their parallel course and do not mix with each other. Similarly, the Quranic teaching and the teachings of other religions will continue to exist side by side so that by comparing them to one another people might distinguish the true from the false and the sweet from the bitter. Then the Surah asks believers the very pertinent question, viz. why can’t they understand this simple thing that just as all physical life springs from water, similarly all spiritual life is dependent for its existence on the life-giving water of Divine revelation? And adds that disbelievers are given to and persist in idolatrous practices. The duty of the Holy Prophet is, therefore, confined to preaching to them and admonishing them. But they will never believe in the One True God and will not worship Him to Whose Unity the whole creation bears undeniable testimony. They should understand and realize that just as the solar system gives life and light, similarly the light of virtue follows the darkness of vice.
The Surah then proceeds to mention a few peculiar signs and marks of those righteous servants of God who, by acting upon the teaching of the Quran, attain the highest pinnacles of spiritual eminence. It says that the righteous servants of God seek and strive to establish peace and harmony in the world. They worship their Lord and pray to Him and return good for evil and spend their hard-earned money in good and righteous causes. They do not associate false gods with Allah, neither do they commit murder nor fornication. They do not tell lies, they shun all vain and purposeless pursuits, and when God is mentioned their hearts become filled with reverential awe. They pray that their wives and children should prove the joy of their eyes. They seek to become the leaders of the righteous and God-fearing men and do not hanker after worldly leadership. These are the blessed people who will enjoy eternal life.
The Surah closes with a pointed reference to the great truth that God has created man to serve a very sublime and noble object and whosoever fails to fulfil this object will forfeit God’s mercy and grace.
یہ سورت مکی دور کے آخر میں نازل ہوئی اور بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی اٹھہتر آیات ہیں۔
اس سورت کے آغاز میں یہ ذکر ہے کہ اللہ تعالیٰ نے حضرت محمد رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کو وہ فرقان یعنی عظیم کسوٹی عطا فرمائی ہے جو سچے اور جھوٹے کے درمیان بہت نمایاں فرق دکھاتی ہے۔ یہ وہی کسوٹی ہے جس کا بار بار سورۃ النّور میں ذکر گزرچکا ہے۔ اب اس سورت میں اس کی مزید مثالیں پیش کی جائیں گی۔ ایک تو یہ کہ آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم صرف اپنے ارد گرد موجود لوگوں ہی میں نمایاں فرق کرنے کی صلاحیت نہیں رکھتے تھے بلکہ تمام جہانوں کے سچوں اور جھوٹوں کو پرکھنے کے لئے بھی آپ کو ایک عظیم فرقان، قرآن کی صورت میں عطا ہوئی ہے۔ دشمن آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم پر آپؐ کے حیرت انگیز معجزات کے جواب میں سچی رسالت کی یہ من گھڑت کسوٹی پیش کرتے تھے کہ اس رسول کو کیا ہوگیا ہے کہ کھانا کھاتا ہے اور بازاروں میں بھی پھرتا ہے۔ اس کے ساتھ کوئی فرشتہ کیوں نہ اتارا گیا تاکہ اس کے ساتھ مل کر وہ بھی ڈراتا۔ اسی طرح انہوں نے ایک یہ پیمانہ بنا رکھا تھا کہ رسول پر آسمان سے کوئی ظاہری خزانہ اُترنا چاہئے تھا۔ حالانکہ رسول پر اس کی تعلیم کا لامتناہی خزانہ اُترا کرتا ہے نہ کہ کوئی ظاہری خزانہ۔ اسی طرح ان کے نزدیک رسول کے پاس عظیم الشان باغات ہونے چاہئیں جن میں سے وہ بغیر کسی محنت کے جتنا چاہے کھاتا پھرے۔ اللہ تعالیٰ اس کا جواب یہ دیتا ہے کہ ہم نے جو تیرے لئے جنت کے باغات مقدر کر رکھے ہیں ان کا یہ جاہل تصور بھی نہیں کرسکتے اور ان باغات میں وہ روحانی محل بھی ہوں گے جو تیرے ہی لئے بنائے گئے ہیں۔ اسی طرح کفار کے دعویٰ کے ردّ میں یہ بھی فرمایا گیا کہ اس سے پہلے جتنے بھی رسول گزرے ہیں ان میں کوئی ایک بھی دکھاؤ جو انسانوں کی طرح گلیوں میں چلتے پھرتے نہ ہوں۔ اگر نہیں دکھا سکتے تو یہ کلیۃً رسالت ہی کا انکار ہے کہ گویا خدا کسی کو رسول بنا ہی نہیں سکتا۔ اور جہاں تک ان کفار پر نزولِ ملائکہ کا تعلق ہے تو اُن دشمنوں پر ضرور فرشتے نازل ہوں گے مگر ان کی ہلاکت کا پیغام لے کر اور ایسے عذاب کی خبر دیتے ہوئے جس سے پھر کوئی نجات نہیں۔
ایک یہ اعتراض بھی اٹھایا گیا کہ قرآنِ کریم اکٹھا کیوں نازل نہیں کیا گیا؟ حقیقت یہ ہے کہ قرآن کریم اکٹھا نہ نازل کئے جانے میں بہت سی حکمتیں پوشیدہ ہیں۔ ایک تو یہ ہے کہ اُس زمانہ کے گرد و پیش کا تقاضا یہ تھا کہ جوں جوں اُن کی بیماریاں ظاہر ہوتی چلی جائیں اُن کے مطابق قرآنِ کریم کی ایسی آیات کا نزول ہو جو اُس مضمون سے تعلق رکھتی ہوں۔ دوسرے ہر گھڑی نئے نشانوں کے ذریعہ رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کے دل کو گہری استقامت عطا ہو اور ایک نہیں بلکہ لامتناہی نشانات تمام عرصۂ نزولِ قرآن کے دوران آپ دیکھتے چلے جائیں۔ پھر یہ بھی کہ تئیس سالہ عرصہ میں پھیلا ہوا قرآن کریم اگر رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم نے خود بنایا ہوتا تو اس میں آیات کی ایسی ترتیل اور ترتیب نہ ہوتی۔ جو لکھنا پڑھنا بھی نہ جانتا ہو اس کی تئیس سال کے زمانہ پر کیسے نظر پڑ سکتی ہے۔ اور پھر حضرت مسیح موعود علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام نے اس حکمت کی طرف بھی توجہ دلائی ہے کہ اس پورے تئیس سال کے عرصہ میں آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کو انتہائی خطرناک حالات کا سامنا رہا۔ بڑے بڑے ہولناک حالات میں صحابہ سے آگے بڑھ کر عین خطرات کے درمیان دشمن سے نبرد آزما رہے۔ زہر کے ذریعہ بھی آپؐ کو ہلاک کرنے کی کوشش کی گئی۔ لیکن جب تک پوری شریعت مکمل نہ ہوئی اللہ تعالیٰ نے آپ کو نہ اٹھایا۔ پس قرآنِ کریم کا رفتہ رفتہ نازل ہونا ایک انتہائی عظیم الشان معجزہ ہے۔ اسی طرح عبادالرحمٰن کی علامات بیان فرماتے ہوئے سورت کے آخر پر یہ ذکر فرمایا ہے کہ جس طرح آسمان پر بارہ برج ہیں اسی طرح تیرے بعد بارہ مجددین تیرے دین کے دفاع کے لئے پیدا ہوں گے۔ اور پھر تیرے نور سے کامل روشنی پانے والا چودھویں کا چاند بھی آئے گا۔ اسی رکوع میں عبادالرحمٰن کی صفات میں سے ان کی میانہ روی، ان کا عجز، ان کا قیام و سجود میں زندگی بسر کرنا مذکور ہے جس کے نتیجہ میں ہی ان کو تمام فضیلتیں عطا ہوتی ہیں۔ اور اس سورت کی آخری آیت یہ بتاتی ہے کہ وہ کیوں سجود و قیام میں دعائیں کرتے ہوئے زندگی بسر کرتے ہیں، اس لئے کہ دعا کے بغیر اللہ تعالیٰ سے زندگی پانے کا کوئی وسیلہ نہیں اور جو اس کو جھٹلادیں اور اللہ سے قطع تعلق کرلیں ان کو ان گنت قسم کی ہولناک بیماریاں لاحق ہو جائیں گی جو اُن کا پیچھا نہیں چھوڑیں گی۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. 1:1. (close)
a. See1:1. (close)
See 1:1. (close)
تَبٰرَکَ الَّذِیۡ نَزَّلَ الۡفُرۡقَانَ عَلٰی عَبۡدِہٖ لِیَکُوۡنَ لِلۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ نَذِیۡرَا ۙ﴿۲﴾
تَبَارَكَ ٱلَّذِي نَزَّلَ ٱلۡفُرۡقَانَ عَلَىٰ عَبۡدِهِۦ لِيَكُونَ لِلۡعَٰلَمِينَ نَذِيرًا
2062. The word Tabaraka means, highly exalted; far removed from every defect, impurity, imperfection, and everything derogatory; possessing abundant good (6:156 & 21:51). The Qur’an possesses all the qualities and attributes implicit in this word. It is not only completely free from every defect and imperfection but possesses all the conceivably excellent qualities that the last Divine Law for the whole of mankind should possess, and it possesses them in full measure. (close)
2063. Furqan means something which differentiates between what is true and what is false; an argument, a proof or evidence, because an argument or a proof serves to discriminate between right and wrong. It also signifies morning or dawn, because dawn distinguishes the day from the night. The Qur’an is Furqan par excellence. Among the multifarious and multitudinous beauties and excellences that distinguish it from other revealed Books and which establish its superiority over them all, two stand out most markedly, viz. (i) it makes no statement or claim in support of which it does not give sound and solid proofs and arguments, and (ii) it makes the truth so distinguishable from falsehood as day is from night. (close)
The word تبارک means, highly exalted, far removed from every defect, impurity, imperfection, or from everything derogatory, and possessing abundant good (6:156 & 24:36). This attribute has been very appropriately used in connection with the revelation of the Quran as it possesses all the qualities and attributes implicit in this word. The Quran is not only completely free from every defect and imperfection but possesses all the conceivable excellent qualities that the last Divine Law for the whole of mankind must possess and it possesses these qualities in an abundant measure.
The word فرقان (Discrimination) is applied to something which differentiates between what is true and what is false. It also means an argument, a proof, or evidence, because an argument or a proof also serves to discriminate between right and wrong. The word also means, morning or dawn, because dawn distinguishes the day from night. It also means, aid or support, because a person who receives help and support from another person becomes marked from him against whom help is sought to be given. See also 2:54. The Quran has been called "The Discrimination" in the verse under comment because it possesses all the various qualities and attributes which flow from the root فرق from which the word فرقان has been derived. Among the multifarious and multitudinous beauties and excellences that distinguish the Quran from other revealed books and which establish its superiority over them all, two stand out most marked, viz. it makes no statement or claim in support of which it does not bring forward sound and solid proofs and arguments, and it makes truth so distinguishable from falsehood as day is from night. The Quran has been called فرقان in the verse under comment while, in the preceding chapter, Divine revelation had been compared to نور (light) because the functions of both فرقان and نور are the same. Both mark out truth from falsehood. The Quran is both نور (Light) and فرقان (Discrimination) because it possesses this quality in an abundant measure and among all Divinely revealed Scriptures it stands unique in making this claim and such a claim is also quite natural on its part as it is humanity’s sole guide till the end of time.
In understanding the subject of لیکون, it may be either God or the Holy Prophet or the Quran, and thus the expression لیکون للعالمین نذیرا may mean that God or the Holy Prophet or the Quran may be a Warner to all the worlds. (close)
ۣالَّذِیۡ لَہٗ مُلۡکُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَمۡ یَتَّخِذۡ وَلَدًا وَّ لَمۡ یَکُنۡ لَّہٗ شَرِیۡکٌ فِی الۡمُلۡکِ وَ خَلَقَ کُلَّ شَیۡءٍ فَقَدَّرَہٗ تَقۡدِیۡرًا ﴿۳﴾
ٱلَّذِي لَهُۥ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَمۡ يَتَّخِذۡ وَلَدٗا وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُۥ شَرِيكٞ فِي ٱلۡمُلۡكِ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيۡءٖ فَقَدَّرَهُۥ تَقۡدِيرٗا
b. 2:117; 10:69; 17:112; 18:5; 19:89; 21:27; 39:5; 43:82. (close)
2064. The clause, 'and has determined its proper measure,' signifies that there is a limit to the powers and functions or development of everything which it cannot defy or go beyond. These limitations point to one law that operates in the whole universe and hence to one Designer, Creator and Controller—a Creator Whose powers are limitless but Who has imposed limits on all things. (close)
a. 2:117; 10:69; 17:112; 18:5; 19:89; 21:27; 39:5; 43:82. (close)
The most fundamental and pivotal teaching of the Quran, around which all its other teachings revolve, is the belief in the Oneness of God and it is for the dissemination and establishment of this belief on earth that it has primarily been revealed. The present and the next few verses mention the following six indispensable attributes which the Divine Being Who alone should command our adoration and unconditional and unreserved surrender and submission must possesses: (i) He should be the sole and undisputed Master of what is in the heavens and the earth; (ii) He should need no son to succeed Him or help Him in the control and governance of the universe; (iii) There should be no one to dispute with Him the possession or control of this kingdom; (iv) He should have created everything and have endowed it with proper qualities and attributes and should have ordained proper measure for its continued existence and develop-ment; (v) unlike false deities He should have the power to do good or harm; and (vi) He should possess complete control over life and death. God, the Almighty, possesses all these qualities in full measure; and as He is the Creator of heavens and earth and the undisputed Master of everything that is in and between them, His word must be, and in fact is, in perfect harmony with the laws of nature and therefore its rejection or acceptance constitutes not only the denial or acceptance of a revealed Law but amounts also to flouting or submitting to the laws of nature.
The word ولد is used for both male and female and for singular and plural forms. Thus it means, son or daughter, a child or children. The words, "Who has created everything," signify that God is the Creator of both the matter and the soul. Matter and soul are not uncreated or co-existent with God as is mistakenly held by those who believe in the theory of the transmigration of souls. The clause, "and has given it its proper proportion," means that everything does its allotted task regularly, punctually and without fail and that there is a limit to the powers and functions or development of everything which it cannot defy or go beyond. These limitations point to one law that operates in the whole universe and hence to one Designer, Creator and Controller—a Creator Whose powers are limitless and Who has imposed these limits on all other things. (close)
وَ اتَّخَذُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖۤ اٰلِہَۃً لَّا یَخۡلُقُوۡنَ شَیۡئًا وَّ ہُمۡ یُخۡلَقُوۡنَ وَ لَا یَمۡلِکُوۡنَ لِاَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ضَرًّا وَّ لَا نَفۡعًا وَّ لَا یَمۡلِکُوۡنَ مَوۡتًا وَّ لَا حَیٰوۃً وَّ لَا نُشُوۡرًا ﴿۴﴾
وَٱتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِهِۦٓ ءَالِهَةٗ لَّا يَخۡلُقُونَ شَيۡـٔٗا وَهُمۡ يُخۡلَقُونَ وَلَا يَمۡلِكُونَ لِأَنفُسِهِمۡ ضَرّٗا وَلَا نَفۡعٗا وَلَا يَمۡلِكُونَ مَوۡتٗا وَلَا حَيَوٰةٗ وَلَا نُشُورٗا
a. 17:57; 18:16; 21:25. (close)
b. 7:192; 16:21. (close)
2065. Everything has to pass through three stages of development: (a) The stage of lifelessness; (b) of potential life, when a thing is endowed with the attributes and powers of growth; and (c) of actual life. God, the Creator of all life, possesses complete and undisputed control over all these stages. (close)
a. 17:57; 18:16; 21:25. (close)
b. 7:192; 16:21. (close)
Everything has to pass through three stages of development. The verse under comment mentions all these stages. The first stage is characterized by the absence of life. It is described as موت or the stage of lifelessness. The second stage is described as حیاة or حیاة بالقوة i.e. potential life, when a thing is endowed with the attribute and power of growth; and the third stage is reached when its powers come into actual play. This stage is known as حیاة بالفعل or نشور i.e. actual life. God, the Creator of all life possesses complete and undisputed control over all these stages. (close)
وَ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اِنۡ ہٰذَاۤ اِلَّاۤ اِفۡکُ ۣافۡتَرٰٮہُ وَ اَعَانَہٗ عَلَیۡہِ قَوۡمٌ اٰخَرُوۡنَ ۚۛ فَقَدۡ جَآءُوۡ ظُلۡمًا وَّ زُوۡرًا ۚ﴿ۛ۵﴾
وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ إِنۡ هَٰذَآ إِلَّآ إِفۡكٌ ٱفۡتَرَىٰهُ وَأَعَانَهُۥ عَلَيۡهِ قَوۡمٌ ءَاخَرُونَۖ فَقَدۡ جَآءُو ظُلۡمٗا وَزُورٗا
c. 16:104. (close)
2066. This and the next verse refer to two charges of disbelievers against the Holy Prophet and answer them. The answer to the first charge that the Holy Prophet has forged a lie is that it was unjust on their part to prefer such a charge. The Holy Prophet had lived among them a lifetime before and they themselves had borne unanimous testimony to his integrity and truthfulness. How could they now charge him with forgery? The answer to the second charge is that whosoever the Holy Prophet’s so-called helpers were, they must have held some beliefs and doctrines, but the Qur’an refutes and demolishes all false beliefs and abrogates and improves upon others. How could any people be supposed to help him to produce a Book which had laid the axe at the root of those very beliefs and doctrines which they held so dear? (close)
c. 16:104. (close)
The verse constitutes a delightful commentary on the miraculous character of the Quran. The words, "other people have helped him with it," constitute an unequivocal admission on the part of disbelievers that no single person, not even the Holy Prophet could have produced such a marvellous Book and that a large party of men must have assisted him in preparing it.
The clause, "Indeed they have committed a great injustice and a great falsehood," refers to two charges of disbelievers against the Holy Prophet and answers them.
The first charge is that the Holy Prophet has forged a lie. The answer that the verse gives to this charge is that it was unjust on their part to prefer such a charge against the Holy Prophet. He had lived among them a life-time before and they had unanimously borne testimony to his integrity and truthfulness. How could they now charge him with forgery? It was sheer injustice on their part to do so.
The second charge against him is that other people have helped him in producing the Quran. In answer to this charge the verse says that it is an obvious untruth, since whosoever the Prophet’s so-called helpers were, they must have held some beliefs and doctrines, but the Quran refutes and demolishes all false beliefs and abrogates and improves upon others. How could any people be supposed to help him to produce a Book which had laid the axe at the root of those very beliefs and doctrines which they held so dear? So it is patent falsehood to say that the Holy Prophet had received help from any quarter in the preparation of the Quran. (close)
وَ قَالُوۡۤا اَسَاطِیۡرُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ اکۡتَتَبَہَا فَہِیَ تُمۡلٰی عَلَیۡہِ بُکۡرَۃً وَّ اَصِیۡلًا ﴿۶﴾
وَقَالُوٓاْ أَسَٰطِيرُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ ٱكۡتَتَبَهَا فَهِيَ تُمۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡهِ بُكۡرَةٗ وَأَصِيلٗا
d. 8:32; 16:25; 68:16; 83:14. (close)
a. 8:32; 16:25; 68:16; 83:14. (close)
2644A. Important Words:
اکتتبھا (got them written down) is derived from کتب which means, he wrote. اکتتب کتاباً means, he wrote a book; he asked one to dictate it; he asked for a book or the like to be written for him; he collected it (Lane & Aqrab).
See next verse. (close)
قُلۡ اَنۡزَلَہُ الَّذِیۡ یَعۡلَمُ السِّرَّ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿۷﴾
قُلۡ أَنزَلَهُ ٱلَّذِي يَعۡلَمُ ٱلسِّرَّ فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمٗا
a. 6:4; 11:6; 67:14. (close)
b. 6:4; 11:6; 67:14. (close)
This verse gives another very effective argument to break and demolish the allegations of the Holy Prophet’s detractors. "Do these enemies of truth have the hardihood to say," the verse seems to argue, "that the Quran is but a jumble of old stories and fables which are dictated to him morning and evening? It certainly is not a collection of fables and stories but embodies great truths noble teachings and mighty prophecies which no human brain can devise. The disbelievers will live to see those prophecies being fulfilled, because the Quran has been revealed by the Great God Who knows the secrets of the heavens and the earth and because He being Merciful and Forgiving took pity on corrupt humanity and provided in the Quran the requisite remedies for all its moral and spiritual ills and maladies." See also 16:104.
The verse further by implication holds out a challenge to the disbelievers that if they really think that the Quran is the result of the Holy Prophet’s own effort, aided and helped in its production by a few other individuals, then let the whole world—men and jinn sit together and with their collective and concerted effort produce a book like the Quran, and it declares with all the emphasis at its command that if they ever made such an attempt, they would certainly fail in their object. See also 17:89. (close)
وَ قَالُوۡا مَالِ ہٰذَا الرَّسُوۡلِ یَاۡکُلُ الطَّعَامَ وَ یَمۡشِیۡ فِی الۡاَسۡوَاقِ ؕ لَوۡ لَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡہِ مَلَکٌ فَیَکُوۡنَ مَعَہٗ نَذِیۡرًا ۙ﴿۸﴾
وَقَالُواْ مَالِ هَٰذَا ٱلرَّسُولِ يَأۡكُلُ ٱلطَّعَامَ وَيَمۡشِي فِي ٱلۡأَسۡوَاقِ لَوۡلَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡهِ مَلَكٞ فَيَكُونَ مَعَهُۥ نَذِيرًا
2066A. What is the matter with this Messenger? (close)
b. 11:13; 15:8; 17:93. (close)
a. 11:13; 15:8; 17:93. (close)
This and the next verse contain another objection of disbelievers against the Holy Prophet, which the verses following them proceed to answer. The objection is: "The Holy Prophet is but an ordinary man. He eats and walks in the streets. If he was a Messenger of God, he should have been followed by an entourage of angels who would have borne testimony to his truth and should have warned his rejecters and deniers of the punishment that was in store for them." (close)
اَوۡ یُلۡقٰۤی اِلَیۡہِ کَنۡزٌ اَوۡ تَکُوۡنُ لَہٗ جَنَّۃٌ یَّاۡکُلُ مِنۡہَا ؕ وَ قَالَ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ اِنۡ تَتَّبِعُوۡنَ اِلَّا رَجُلًا مَّسۡحُوۡرًا ﴿۹﴾
أَوۡ يُلۡقَىٰٓ إِلَيۡهِ كَنزٌ أَوۡ تَكُونُ لَهُۥ جَنَّةٞ يَأۡكُلُ مِنۡهَاۚ وَقَالَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا رَجُلٗا مَّسۡحُورًا
c. 11:13; 17:94. (close)
d. 17:48. (close)
b. 11:13; 17:94. (close)
c. 17:48. (close)
The objection which was begun in the preceding verse is continued in the verse under comment. "The Prophet," the disbelievers say, "should have possessed treasures of wealth which he should have distributed among his followers. He should also have had other accessories of greatness in the form of gardens and fountains. But he has none of these things. He seems to be a bewitched, or, at best a self-deceived man, a man who lives in a world of his own imagination, in a fool’s paradise." (close)
اُنۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ ضَرَبُوۡا لَکَ الۡاَمۡثَالَ فَضَلُّوۡا فَلَا یَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡنَ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿٪۱۰﴾
ٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ ضَرَبُواْ لَكَ ٱلۡأَمۡثَٰلَ فَضَلُّواْ فَلَا يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ سَبِيلٗا
e. 17:49. (close)
2067. The disbelievers have a very poor concept of the real values of life. They have set up criteria of their own devising to test the truth of Divine Messengers, with the result that instead of finding the right path they continue to grope in the darkness of doubt and disbelief. (close)
a. 17:49. (close)
With this verse begins the refutation of the disbelievers’ objections mentioned in the preceding verses. The verse purports to say that these people have a very poor concept of the real values of life, and have set up criteria of their own devising, to test the truth of Divine Messengers, with the result that instead of finding the right path they continue to grope in the darkness of doubt and disbelief. (close)