تَبٰرَکَ الَّذِیۡ نَزَّلَ الۡفُرۡقَانَ عَلٰی عَبۡدِہٖ لِیَکُوۡنَ لِلۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ نَذِیۡرَا ۙ﴿۲﴾
تَبَارَكَ ٱلَّذِي نَزَّلَ ٱلۡفُرۡقَانَ عَلَىٰ عَبۡدِهِۦ لِيَكُونَ لِلۡعَٰلَمِينَ نَذِيرًا
2062. The word Tabaraka means, highly exalted; far removed from every defect, impurity, imperfection, and everything derogatory; possessing abundant good (6:156 & 21:51). The Qur’an possesses all the qualities and attributes implicit in this word. It is not only completely free from every defect and imperfection but possesses all the conceivably excellent qualities that the last Divine Law for the whole of mankind should possess, and it possesses them in full measure. (close)
2063. Furqan means something which differentiates between what is true and what is false; an argument, a proof or evidence, because an argument or a proof serves to discriminate between right and wrong. It also signifies morning or dawn, because dawn distinguishes the day from the night. The Qur’an is Furqan par excellence. Among the multifarious and multitudinous beauties and excellences that distinguish it from other revealed Books and which establish its superiority over them all, two stand out most markedly, viz. (i) it makes no statement or claim in support of which it does not give sound and solid proofs and arguments, and (ii) it makes the truth so distinguishable from falsehood as day is from night. (close)
The word تبارک means, highly exalted, far removed from every defect, impurity, imperfection, or from everything derogatory, and possessing abundant good (6:156 & 24:36). This attribute has been very appropriately used in connection with the revelation of the Quran as it possesses all the qualities and attributes implicit in this word. The Quran is not only completely free from every defect and imperfection but possesses all the conceivable excellent qualities that the last Divine Law for the whole of mankind must possess and it possesses these qualities in an abundant measure.
The word فرقان (Discrimination) is applied to something which differentiates between what is true and what is false. It also means an argument, a proof, or evidence, because an argument or a proof also serves to discriminate between right and wrong. The word also means, morning or dawn, because dawn distinguishes the day from night. It also means, aid or support, because a person who receives help and support from another person becomes marked from him against whom help is sought to be given. See also 2:54. The Quran has been called "The Discrimination" in the verse under comment because it possesses all the various qualities and attributes which flow from the root فرق from which the word فرقان has been derived. Among the multifarious and multitudinous beauties and excellences that distinguish the Quran from other revealed books and which establish its superiority over them all, two stand out most marked, viz. it makes no statement or claim in support of which it does not bring forward sound and solid proofs and arguments, and it makes truth so distinguishable from falsehood as day is from night. The Quran has been called فرقان in the verse under comment while, in the preceding chapter, Divine revelation had been compared to نور (light) because the functions of both فرقان and نور are the same. Both mark out truth from falsehood. The Quran is both نور (Light) and فرقان (Discrimination) because it possesses this quality in an abundant measure and among all Divinely revealed Scriptures it stands unique in making this claim and such a claim is also quite natural on its part as it is humanity’s sole guide till the end of time.
In understanding the subject of لیکون, it may be either God or the Holy Prophet or the Quran, and thus the expression لیکون للعالمین نذیرا may mean that God or the Holy Prophet or the Quran may be a Warner to all the worlds. (close)
ۣالَّذِیۡ لَہٗ مُلۡکُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ لَمۡ یَتَّخِذۡ وَلَدًا وَّ لَمۡ یَکُنۡ لَّہٗ شَرِیۡکٌ فِی الۡمُلۡکِ وَ خَلَقَ کُلَّ شَیۡءٍ فَقَدَّرَہٗ تَقۡدِیۡرًا ﴿۳﴾
ٱلَّذِي لَهُۥ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَمۡ يَتَّخِذۡ وَلَدٗا وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُۥ شَرِيكٞ فِي ٱلۡمُلۡكِ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيۡءٖ فَقَدَّرَهُۥ تَقۡدِيرٗا
b. 2:117; 10:69; 17:112; 18:5; 19:89; 21:27; 39:5; 43:82. (close)
2064. The clause, 'and has determined its proper measure,' signifies that there is a limit to the powers and functions or development of everything which it cannot defy or go beyond. These limitations point to one law that operates in the whole universe and hence to one Designer, Creator and Controller—a Creator Whose powers are limitless but Who has imposed limits on all things. (close)
a. 2:117; 10:69; 17:112; 18:5; 19:89; 21:27; 39:5; 43:82. (close)
The most fundamental and pivotal teaching of the Quran, around which all its other teachings revolve, is the belief in the Oneness of God and it is for the dissemination and establishment of this belief on earth that it has primarily been revealed. The present and the next few verses mention the following six indispensable attributes which the Divine Being Who alone should command our adoration and unconditional and unreserved surrender and submission must possesses: (i) He should be the sole and undisputed Master of what is in the heavens and the earth; (ii) He should need no son to succeed Him or help Him in the control and governance of the universe; (iii) There should be no one to dispute with Him the possession or control of this kingdom; (iv) He should have created everything and have endowed it with proper qualities and attributes and should have ordained proper measure for its continued existence and develop-ment; (v) unlike false deities He should have the power to do good or harm; and (vi) He should possess complete control over life and death. God, the Almighty, possesses all these qualities in full measure; and as He is the Creator of heavens and earth and the undisputed Master of everything that is in and between them, His word must be, and in fact is, in perfect harmony with the laws of nature and therefore its rejection or acceptance constitutes not only the denial or acceptance of a revealed Law but amounts also to flouting or submitting to the laws of nature.
The word ولد is used for both male and female and for singular and plural forms. Thus it means, son or daughter, a child or children. The words, "Who has created everything," signify that God is the Creator of both the matter and the soul. Matter and soul are not uncreated or co-existent with God as is mistakenly held by those who believe in the theory of the transmigration of souls. The clause, "and has given it its proper proportion," means that everything does its allotted task regularly, punctually and without fail and that there is a limit to the powers and functions or development of everything which it cannot defy or go beyond. These limitations point to one law that operates in the whole universe and hence to one Designer, Creator and Controller—a Creator Whose powers are limitless and Who has imposed these limits on all other things. (close)
وَ اتَّخَذُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖۤ اٰلِہَۃً لَّا یَخۡلُقُوۡنَ شَیۡئًا وَّ ہُمۡ یُخۡلَقُوۡنَ وَ لَا یَمۡلِکُوۡنَ لِاَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ضَرًّا وَّ لَا نَفۡعًا وَّ لَا یَمۡلِکُوۡنَ مَوۡتًا وَّ لَا حَیٰوۃً وَّ لَا نُشُوۡرًا ﴿۴﴾
وَٱتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِهِۦٓ ءَالِهَةٗ لَّا يَخۡلُقُونَ شَيۡـٔٗا وَهُمۡ يُخۡلَقُونَ وَلَا يَمۡلِكُونَ لِأَنفُسِهِمۡ ضَرّٗا وَلَا نَفۡعٗا وَلَا يَمۡلِكُونَ مَوۡتٗا وَلَا حَيَوٰةٗ وَلَا نُشُورٗا
a. 17:57; 18:16; 21:25. (close)
b. 7:192; 16:21. (close)
2065. Everything has to pass through three stages of development: (a) The stage of lifelessness; (b) of potential life, when a thing is endowed with the attributes and powers of growth; and (c) of actual life. God, the Creator of all life, possesses complete and undisputed control over all these stages. (close)
a. 17:57; 18:16; 21:25. (close)
b. 7:192; 16:21. (close)
Everything has to pass through three stages of development. The verse under comment mentions all these stages. The first stage is characterized by the absence of life. It is described as موت or the stage of lifelessness. The second stage is described as حیاة or حیاة بالقوة i.e. potential life, when a thing is endowed with the attribute and power of growth; and the third stage is reached when its powers come into actual play. This stage is known as حیاة بالفعل or نشور i.e. actual life. God, the Creator of all life possesses complete and undisputed control over all these stages. (close)
وَ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اِنۡ ہٰذَاۤ اِلَّاۤ اِفۡکُ ۣافۡتَرٰٮہُ وَ اَعَانَہٗ عَلَیۡہِ قَوۡمٌ اٰخَرُوۡنَ ۚۛ فَقَدۡ جَآءُوۡ ظُلۡمًا وَّ زُوۡرًا ۚ﴿ۛ۵﴾
وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ إِنۡ هَٰذَآ إِلَّآ إِفۡكٌ ٱفۡتَرَىٰهُ وَأَعَانَهُۥ عَلَيۡهِ قَوۡمٌ ءَاخَرُونَۖ فَقَدۡ جَآءُو ظُلۡمٗا وَزُورٗا
c. 16:104. (close)
2066. This and the next verse refer to two charges of disbelievers against the Holy Prophet and answer them. The answer to the first charge that the Holy Prophet has forged a lie is that it was unjust on their part to prefer such a charge. The Holy Prophet had lived among them a lifetime before and they themselves had borne unanimous testimony to his integrity and truthfulness. How could they now charge him with forgery? The answer to the second charge is that whosoever the Holy Prophet’s so-called helpers were, they must have held some beliefs and doctrines, but the Qur’an refutes and demolishes all false beliefs and abrogates and improves upon others. How could any people be supposed to help him to produce a Book which had laid the axe at the root of those very beliefs and doctrines which they held so dear? (close)
c. 16:104. (close)
The verse constitutes a delightful commentary on the miraculous character of the Quran. The words, "other people have helped him with it," constitute an unequivocal admission on the part of disbelievers that no single person, not even the Holy Prophet could have produced such a marvellous Book and that a large party of men must have assisted him in preparing it.
The clause, "Indeed they have committed a great injustice and a great falsehood," refers to two charges of disbelievers against the Holy Prophet and answers them.
The first charge is that the Holy Prophet has forged a lie. The answer that the verse gives to this charge is that it was unjust on their part to prefer such a charge against the Holy Prophet. He had lived among them a life-time before and they had unanimously borne testimony to his integrity and truthfulness. How could they now charge him with forgery? It was sheer injustice on their part to do so.
The second charge against him is that other people have helped him in producing the Quran. In answer to this charge the verse says that it is an obvious untruth, since whosoever the Prophet’s so-called helpers were, they must have held some beliefs and doctrines, but the Quran refutes and demolishes all false beliefs and abrogates and improves upon others. How could any people be supposed to help him to produce a Book which had laid the axe at the root of those very beliefs and doctrines which they held so dear? So it is patent falsehood to say that the Holy Prophet had received help from any quarter in the preparation of the Quran. (close)
وَ قَالُوۡۤا اَسَاطِیۡرُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ اکۡتَتَبَہَا فَہِیَ تُمۡلٰی عَلَیۡہِ بُکۡرَۃً وَّ اَصِیۡلًا ﴿۶﴾
وَقَالُوٓاْ أَسَٰطِيرُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ ٱكۡتَتَبَهَا فَهِيَ تُمۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡهِ بُكۡرَةٗ وَأَصِيلٗا
d. 8:32; 16:25; 68:16; 83:14. (close)
a. 8:32; 16:25; 68:16; 83:14. (close)
2644A. Important Words:
اکتتبھا (got them written down) is derived from کتب which means, he wrote. اکتتب کتاباً means, he wrote a book; he asked one to dictate it; he asked for a book or the like to be written for him; he collected it (Lane & Aqrab).
See next verse. (close)
قُلۡ اَنۡزَلَہُ الَّذِیۡ یَعۡلَمُ السِّرَّ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿۷﴾
قُلۡ أَنزَلَهُ ٱلَّذِي يَعۡلَمُ ٱلسِّرَّ فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمٗا
a. 6:4; 11:6; 67:14. (close)
b. 6:4; 11:6; 67:14. (close)
This verse gives another very effective argument to break and demolish the allegations of the Holy Prophet’s detractors. "Do these enemies of truth have the hardihood to say," the verse seems to argue, "that the Quran is but a jumble of old stories and fables which are dictated to him morning and evening? It certainly is not a collection of fables and stories but embodies great truths noble teachings and mighty prophecies which no human brain can devise. The disbelievers will live to see those prophecies being fulfilled, because the Quran has been revealed by the Great God Who knows the secrets of the heavens and the earth and because He being Merciful and Forgiving took pity on corrupt humanity and provided in the Quran the requisite remedies for all its moral and spiritual ills and maladies." See also 16:104.
The verse further by implication holds out a challenge to the disbelievers that if they really think that the Quran is the result of the Holy Prophet’s own effort, aided and helped in its production by a few other individuals, then let the whole world—men and jinn sit together and with their collective and concerted effort produce a book like the Quran, and it declares with all the emphasis at its command that if they ever made such an attempt, they would certainly fail in their object. See also 17:89. (close)
وَ قَالُوۡا مَالِ ہٰذَا الرَّسُوۡلِ یَاۡکُلُ الطَّعَامَ وَ یَمۡشِیۡ فِی الۡاَسۡوَاقِ ؕ لَوۡ لَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡہِ مَلَکٌ فَیَکُوۡنَ مَعَہٗ نَذِیۡرًا ۙ﴿۸﴾
وَقَالُواْ مَالِ هَٰذَا ٱلرَّسُولِ يَأۡكُلُ ٱلطَّعَامَ وَيَمۡشِي فِي ٱلۡأَسۡوَاقِ لَوۡلَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡهِ مَلَكٞ فَيَكُونَ مَعَهُۥ نَذِيرًا
2066A. What is the matter with this Messenger? (close)
b. 11:13; 15:8; 17:93. (close)
a. 11:13; 15:8; 17:93. (close)
This and the next verse contain another objection of disbelievers against the Holy Prophet, which the verses following them proceed to answer. The objection is: "The Holy Prophet is but an ordinary man. He eats and walks in the streets. If he was a Messenger of God, he should have been followed by an entourage of angels who would have borne testimony to his truth and should have warned his rejecters and deniers of the punishment that was in store for them." (close)
اَوۡ یُلۡقٰۤی اِلَیۡہِ کَنۡزٌ اَوۡ تَکُوۡنُ لَہٗ جَنَّۃٌ یَّاۡکُلُ مِنۡہَا ؕ وَ قَالَ الظّٰلِمُوۡنَ اِنۡ تَتَّبِعُوۡنَ اِلَّا رَجُلًا مَّسۡحُوۡرًا ﴿۹﴾
أَوۡ يُلۡقَىٰٓ إِلَيۡهِ كَنزٌ أَوۡ تَكُونُ لَهُۥ جَنَّةٞ يَأۡكُلُ مِنۡهَاۚ وَقَالَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا رَجُلٗا مَّسۡحُورًا
c. 11:13; 17:94. (close)
d. 17:48. (close)
b. 11:13; 17:94. (close)
c. 17:48. (close)
The objection which was begun in the preceding verse is continued in the verse under comment. "The Prophet," the disbelievers say, "should have possessed treasures of wealth which he should have distributed among his followers. He should also have had other accessories of greatness in the form of gardens and fountains. But he has none of these things. He seems to be a bewitched, or, at best a self-deceived man, a man who lives in a world of his own imagination, in a fool’s paradise." (close)
اُنۡظُرۡ کَیۡفَ ضَرَبُوۡا لَکَ الۡاَمۡثَالَ فَضَلُّوۡا فَلَا یَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡنَ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿٪۱۰﴾
ٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ ضَرَبُواْ لَكَ ٱلۡأَمۡثَٰلَ فَضَلُّواْ فَلَا يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ سَبِيلٗا
e. 17:49. (close)
2067. The disbelievers have a very poor concept of the real values of life. They have set up criteria of their own devising to test the truth of Divine Messengers, with the result that instead of finding the right path they continue to grope in the darkness of doubt and disbelief. (close)
a. 17:49. (close)
With this verse begins the refutation of the disbelievers’ objections mentioned in the preceding verses. The verse purports to say that these people have a very poor concept of the real values of life, and have set up criteria of their own devising, to test the truth of Divine Messengers, with the result that instead of finding the right path they continue to grope in the darkness of doubt and disbelief. (close)
تَبٰرَکَ الَّذِیۡۤ اِنۡ شَآءَ جَعَلَ لَکَ خَیۡرًا مِّنۡ ذٰلِکَ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ ۙ وَ یَجۡعَلۡ لَّکَ قُصُوۡرًا ﴿۱۱﴾
تَبَارَكَ ٱلَّذِيٓ إِن شَآءَ جَعَلَ لَكَ خَيۡرٗا مِّن ذَٰلِكَ جَنَّـٰتٖ تَجۡرِي مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُ وَيَجۡعَل لَّكَ قُصُورَۢا
f. 17:92. (close)
2068. The verse signifies that the disbelievers’ idea of what a Divine Prophet should be like is far removed from reality and betrays their ignorance of the very object and purpose for which Prophets are raised. Prophets are raised, it purports to say, to lead men out of the darkness of doubt and disbelief into the light of certainty and spiritual bliss and not to amass, and roll and revel in, wealth. But although the self-devised criterion of disbelievers, namely, that the Holy Prophet must possess wealth, rank, gardens and palaces, has no weight or substance, yet in order to bring home to them the falsity of their position God will give him and his followers greater wealth and bigger and better gardens and palaces than those of the disbelievers’ demand. And He really gave the Holy Prophet’s followers the palaces and gardens of the Iranian and Byzantine Emperors. (close)
b. 17:92. (close)
The verse continues the theme of its predecessor. The words "exalted is He" signify that the disbelievers’ idea of what a Divine Prophet should be like, is far removed from reality and betrays their ignorance of the very object and purpose for which Prophets are raised. The Prophets are raised to lead men out of the darkness of doubt and disbelief into the light of certainty and spiritual bliss. The disbelievers want to see the Holy Prophet rolling and revelling in wealth. But such an idea is inconsistent with, and casts a reflection on, the Holiness of God.
The verse further signifies that although the self-devised criterion of disbelievers, namely, that to prove the truth of his mission the Holy Prophet must possess wealth, rank, gardens and palaces, has no weight or substance, yet in order to bring home to them the falsity of their position God will give the Holy Prophet and his followers more wealth and bigger and better gardens and palaces than those of the disbelievers’ demand. And was not this demand fully and completely fulfilled? Did not the camel-drivers of Arabia become the owners of the palaces and treasures of the Caesars and the Chosroes and of the fertile plains and gardens of Syria and Iraq? The verse possesses a spiritual significance also. It means to say that worldly gardens wither and dry up for want of water and proper care, and treasures of wealth are used up and come to end, but the treasures of spiritual wealth which will be bestowed upon the Holy Prophet and his followers and the gardens of eternal bliss which will be given into their possession will be everlasting. The Garden of Islam itself will ever remain green. Heavenly Reformers will continue to arise from among Muslims who will make them understand and realise the great object for which man has been created. See next verse. (close)