فَلَا تُطِعِ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ وَ جَاہِدۡہُمۡ بِہٖ جِہَادًا کَبِیۡرًا ﴿۵۳﴾
فَلَا تُطِعِ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ وَجَٰهِدۡهُم بِهِۦ جِهَادٗا كَبِيرٗا
2084. The great and real Jihad, according to this verse, is to preach the Message of the Qur’an. Thus to strive for the propagation of Islam and the dissemination and diffusion of its teachings is the Jihad which the Muslims are enjoined always to carry on with unabated zeal. It is this Jihad to which the Holy Prophet referred when, on returning from an expedition, he is reported to have said: "We have returned from the smaller Jihad to the greater Jihad" (Raddul-Mukhtar). See also 1957 and 1958. (close)
This verse throws a flood of light on the Islamic conception of jihad which unfortunately has been much misunderstood, alike by the adversaries and the so-called followers of Islam. The great and real jihad, according to this verse, is to preach the Message of the Quran. Thus to strive for the propagation of Islam and the dissemination and diffusion of its teachings is the jihad which the Muslims are enjoined always to carry on with unabated zeal. The jihad with the sword which the Holy Prophet and early Muslims had to wage under their own peculiar circumstances was a passing phase. Those who sought to destroy Islam by the sword themselves perished by the sword. Unless a people wage war against Muslims in order to exterminate Islam, no fight in which Muslims are engaged is called jihad, but to fight in defence of one’s hearth and home is also a very sacred duty and those who are killed in such a fight also die the death of martyrs, according to a saying of the Holy Prophet, viz. من قتل دون ماله و عرضه فھو شھید i.e. he who is killed while defending his property and honour is a martyr (Bukhari Kitabu1-Mazalim wal-Ghasb).
It is worthy of note that this Surah was revealed at Mecca when only a few persons of no high social standing had accepted Islam and even those few individuals were being severely persecuted and the fate of the new Faith itself was hanging in the balance. It was then out of the question even remotely to refer to jihad with the sword. In fact, jihad with the sword was only a side issue of the Prophet’s activities. The Holy Prophet’s real jihad consisted in unceasing fight against the forces of darkness and he waged this jihad with unabated zeal and undiminished vigour as long as he lived and this jihad will continue to be relentlessly waged by his true followers till the end of time, not with the sword but with the Quran. It is to this jihad that the verse under comment refers and it is this jihad to which the Holy Prophet referred when on returning from an expedition he is reported to have said رجعنا من الجھاد الاصغر الی الجھاد الاکبر i.e. we have returned from the smaller jihad to the greater jihad (Raddul-Muhtar). See also 22:40. (close)
وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ مَرَجَ الۡبَحۡرَیۡنِ ہٰذَا عَذۡبٌ فُرَاتٌ وَّ ہٰذَا مِلۡحٌ اُجَاجٌ ۚ وَ جَعَلَ بَیۡنَہُمَا بَرۡزَخًا وَّ حِجۡرًا مَّحۡجُوۡرًا ﴿۵۴﴾
۞وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِي مَرَجَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَيۡنِ هَٰذَا عَذۡبٞ فُرَاتٞ وَهَٰذَا مِلۡحٌ أُجَاجٞ وَجَعَلَ بَيۡنَهُمَا بَرۡزَخٗا وَحِجۡرٗا مَّحۡجُورٗا
a. 35:13; 55:20, 21. (close)
2085. Taking 'two waters' in the verse to represent the true religion and the false, the verse signifies that both Islam, the true religion, and other corrupted Faiths will continue to exist side by side, the former yielding sweet fruit and slaking the thirst of the spiritual wayfarers and the latter barren and bitter, incapable of producing any good result. The 'two waters' may also signify the water of the sea and that of the river. The former is saltish and bitter to taste while the latter is drinkable and sweet. When the sweet water of the river flows into the sea and becomes mixed with its saltish water, it also becomes bitter. As long as these two waters keep themselves separate, they have different tastes. Similarly, when the teaching of a true religion becomes mixed up with the teachings of false religions, it loses its sweetness and usefulness. But God has so ordained that in spite of its close proximity to false religions, Islam will never lose its sweet taste as God has taken upon Himself to protect and guard it (15:10). There lies an unbridgeable barrier between the two which keeps them apart. (close)
a. 35:13; 55:20, 21. (close)
2685. Important Words:
مرج (caused to flow) means, he mixed two things together. مرج الشیء بالشیء means, he mixed one thing with another. مرج الدابةmeans, he sent a beast to pasture wherever it would. They say مرج لسانه فی اعراض الناس i.e. he let go his tongue in abusing people and backbiting them. مرج البحرین means, He (God) has mixed the two seas; He has let them flow freely (Lane & Aqrab).
فرات (sweet) is derived from فرت (faruta). They say فرت الماء i.e. the water was or became sweet or very sweet. فرات applied to water means sweet, very sweet or of the sweetest kind that which subdues thirst by its excessive sweetness (Lane & Aqrab).
أجاج (bitter) is derived from أج . They say أجت النار i.e. the fire burned or burned brightly or fiercely. أج الماء means, the water was or became saltish or bitter. أجاج means, anything burning to the mouth whether saltish bitter or hot. ماء أجاج means, water that burns by its saltishness; or salt water or very bitter water like the water of the sea, or water of which no use is made for drinking or for watering seed-product or other purposes; or very hot water (Lane, Aqrab & Mufradat). See also 21:97.
برزخ (partition) is a thing that intervenes between any two things; a bar; an obstruction; or a thing that separates two things i.e. a partition (Lane). See also 23:101.
Taking "two waters" in the verse to represent the true religion and the false one, the verse signifies that both Islam, the true religion, and other corrupted faiths will continue to exist side by side, the former yielding sweet fruit and slaking the thirst of the spiritual wayfarers and the latter barren and bitter, incapable of producing any good results.
The "two waters" may also signify the water of the sea and that of the river. The former is saltish and bitter to taste while the latter is drinkable and sweet. When the sweet water of the river flows into the sea and becomes mixed with its saltish water, it also becomes bitter. As long as these two waters keep themselves separate, they have different tastes. Similarly, when the teaching of a true religion becomes mixed up with the teachings of false religions, it loses its sweetness and usefulness. But God has so ordained that in spite of its close proximity to false religions Islam will never lose its sweet taste as God has taken upon Himself to protect and guard it (15:10). There is an unbridgeable barrier between the two which keeps them apart. Or the word بحر meaning both river and sea, the verse may signify that under the system instituted by God rivers are fed by rain and snow and their water is always fresh, and though they fall into the sea, sea water is always saltish and bitter. This is in effect an illustration of Divine guidance, which when it is constantly reinforced by fresh revelation remains fresh, sweet and life-giving, but when it becomes stale, it loses all value. (close)
وَ ہُوَ الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ مِنَ الۡمَآءِ بَشَرًا فَجَعَلَہٗ نَسَبًا وَّ صِہۡرًا ؕ وَ کَانَ رَبُّکَ قَدِیۡرًا ﴿۵۵﴾
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِي خَلَقَ مِنَ ٱلۡمَآءِ بَشَرٗا فَجَعَلَهُۥ نَسَبٗا وَصِهۡرٗاۗ وَكَانَ رَبُّكَ قَدِيرٗا
b. 32:9. (close)
a. 24:46; 32:9. (close)
2686. Important Words:
نسباً (kindred by descent). They say نسبه i.e. he mentioned his (i.e. another person’s) relationship (lineage or genealogy); he traced up his (i.e. another person’s) lineage to his greatest ancestor; he asked him to tell him his lineage or genealogy. نسبه الی فلان means, he referred or attributed his lineage or origin to such a one. نسب means, origin, genealogy, pedigree, parentage with respect to father and mother or with respect to father only (Lane).
صھر (kindred by marriage) is derived from صھر (sahara). They say صھر الشیء i.e. he brought or drew the thing to him. صھر القوم او بالقوم او صھر فیھم اوالیھم means, he took to himself a wife from among the people. أصھر الیھم or أصھر بھم means, he connected himself with them; and became or made himself, an object of inviolable respect, by a covenant of mutual protection or by relationship or by marriage. صھر means, relationship; nearness with respect to kindred; a kinsman or kinswoman of a man’s wife; and of a woman’s husband or the father or brother or other kinsman of a woman’s husband and the father or brother or other kinsman of a man’s wife; the sacred tie of relationship by marriage (Lane & Aqrab). (close)
وَ یَعۡبُدُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ مَا لَا یَنۡفَعُہُمۡ وَ لَا یَضُرُّہُمۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ الۡکَافِرُ عَلٰی رَبِّہٖ ظَہِیۡرًا ﴿۵۶﴾
وَيَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنفَعُهُمۡ وَلَا يَضُرُّهُمۡۗ وَكَانَ ٱلۡكَافِرُ عَلَىٰ رَبِّهِۦ ظَهِيرٗا
c. 6:72; 10:107; 21:67; 22:13. (close)
a. 6:72; 10:107; 21:67; 22:13. (close)
The particle علی meaning "against" the expression کان الکافر علی ربه ظھیرا would signify that the disbeliever helps and aids those who fight and combat the cause of God—the true religion. (close)
وَ مَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنٰکَ اِلَّا مُبَشِّرًا وَّ نَذِیۡرًا ﴿۵۷﴾
وَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَٰكَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرٗا وَنَذِيرٗا
d. 2:120; 5:20; 11:3; 35:25. (close)
b. 2:120; 5:20; 11:3; 35:25. (close)
قُلۡ مَاۤ اَسۡـَٔلُکُمۡ عَلَیۡہِ مِنۡ اَجۡرٍ اِلَّا مَنۡ شَآءَ اَنۡ یَّتَّخِذَ اِلٰی رَبِّہٖ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۵۸﴾
قُلۡ مَآ أَسۡـَٔلُكُمۡ عَلَيۡهِ مِنۡ أَجۡرٍ إِلَّا مَن شَآءَ أَن يَتَّخِذَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِۦ سَبِيلٗا
a. 38:87; 42:24. (close)
2086. According to this verse Islam clearly forbids the use of force for the propagation of its teaching. (close)
c. 38:87; 42:24. (close)
2688. Important Words:
إلا (save) is used to signify the sense of exception (إستثناء) and in Arabic إستثناء (exception) is of two kinds: (i) إستثناء متصل i.e. an exception in which the thing excepted belongs to the same class or species to which the things from which as exception is sought to be made belong; (ii) إستثناء منقطع i.e. an exception in which the excepted thing belongs to a different class or species. إلا in the present verse is of the latter category and the meaning is, he who will take a way to his Lord, let him do so.
The verse provides yet another unassailable evidence that the Quran gives complete and full freedom of conscience and choice of religious belief and practice. (close)
وَ تَوَکَّلۡ عَلَی الۡحَیِّ الَّذِیۡ لَا یَمُوۡتُ وَ سَبِّحۡ بِحَمۡدِہٖ ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِہٖ بِذُنُوۡبِ عِبَادِہٖ خَبِیۡرَا ﴿ۚۛۙ۵۹﴾
وَتَوَكَّلۡ عَلَى ٱلۡحَيِّ ٱلَّذِي لَا يَمُوتُ وَسَبِّحۡ بِحَمۡدِهِۦۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِهِۦ بِذُنُوبِ عِبَادِهِۦ خَبِيرًا
b. 26:218; 27:80; 33:49. (close)
a. 26:218; 27:80; 33:49. (close)
ۣالَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ وَ مَا بَیۡنَہُمَا فِیۡ سِتَّۃِ اَیَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسۡتَوٰی عَلَی الۡعَرۡشِ ۚۛ اَلرَّحۡمٰنُ فَسۡـَٔلۡ بِہٖ خَبِیۡرًا ﴿۶۰﴾
ٱلَّذِي خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَا فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٖ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِۖ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنُ فَسۡـَٔلۡ بِهِۦ خَبِيرٗا
c. 7:55; 11:8; 32:5; 57:5. (close)
2087. (1) God; (2) The Holy Prophet. (close)
b. 7:55; 11:8; 32:5; 57:5. (close)
For a detailed discussion about عرش see 10:4 & 20:6 and about ستة ایام see 10:4.
The expression فاسأل به خبیرا may mean; (1) "enquire then about it from One Who knows, i.e. God." or (2) "enquire then from Him Who knows it" or (3) "enquire concerning Him, i.e. God, from one who knows i.e. the Holy Prophet."
In view of these meanings the expression فاسأل به خبیرا would signify: (1) That if by reflecting on the great and vast universe that lies spread before your eyes and the wonderful and absolutely flawless order and arrangement that pervades and permeates it, you are not convinced of the existence of a Designer and Creator Who must have created a parallel spiritual universe and must have made adequate provision for man’s spiritual needs in it, as He has made proper provision for his physical needs in the physical universe, then by prayer and supplication invoke His help that He, the Gracious God (الرحمن) may guide you to the right path and may disclose to you the truth of the Holy Prophet. (2) That because nobody has full knowledge about the creation of the heavens and the earth and about the nature and significance of "God’s settling himself on the Throne," therefore seek His assistance for true understanding of this baffling enigma. (3) That as God’s grace (رحمانیة) has found its fullest expression in the Holy Prophet, therefore, in order fully to understand its nature make a deep study of his life. (close)
وَ اِذَا قِیۡلَ لَہُمُ اسۡجُدُوۡا لِلرَّحۡمٰنِ قَالُوۡا وَ مَا الرَّحۡمٰنُ ٭ اَنَسۡجُدُ لِمَا تَاۡمُرُنَا وَ زَادَہُمۡ نُفُوۡرًا ﴿٪ٛ۶۱﴾
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ ٱسۡجُدُواْۤ لِلرَّحۡمَٰنِ قَالُواْ وَمَا ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنُ أَنَسۡجُدُ لِمَا تَأۡمُرُنَا وَزَادَهُمۡ نُفُورٗا۩
تَبٰرَکَ الَّذِیۡ جَعَلَ فِی السَّمَآءِ بُرُوۡجًا وَّ جَعَلَ فِیۡہَا سِرٰجًا وَّ قَمَرًا مُّنِیۡرًا ﴿۶۲﴾
تَبَارَكَ ٱلَّذِي جَعَلَ فِي ٱلسَّمَآءِ بُرُوجٗا وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا سِرَٰجٗا وَقَمَرٗا مُّنِيرٗا
d. 15:17; 85:2. (close)
2087A. By alluding to the creation of the heavens, and the sun, the moon and the stars that embellish and beautify them, the verse draws attention to the spiritual heaven which has its own sun, moon and stars—the Holy Prophet, the Promised Messiah and the Companions of the Holy Prophet about whom he is reported to have said: 'My Companions are like so many stars, whomsoever of them you will follow, you will get right guidance' (Razin). (close)
a. 15:17; 85:2. (close)
2690. Important Words:
بروجاً (mansions) is the plural of برج (burj) which is derived from the verb برج (baraja) which means, it was or became apparent, manifest or conspicuous; or it was or became high or elevated. برج (burj) means, a tower; a sign of the Zodiac. بروج means, mansions (i.e. the courses or stages) of the moon or the stars, or constellations or asterisms (Lane). See also 15:17.
The verse constitutes an answer to the query of disbelievers mentioned in the preceding verse, viz. "And Who is the Gracious God?" It means to say that the Gracious God is "He Who has made mansions in the heavens and has placed therein a Lamp and a Moon giving light." As the Divine attribute "Gracious" is intimately connected with the creation of the universe and the revelation of the Quran and as the present verse points to the creation of the physical firmament and by implication to the spiritual firmament, it forms an appropriate answer to the impudent query of the disbelievers.
By alluding to the creation of the heavens, the sun, the moon and the stars that embellish and beautify them, the verse draws attention to the spiritual heaven which has its own sun, moon and stars. The Holy Prophet is the Sun of the spiritual firmament, the Promised Messiah is the Moon and the Holy Prophet’s Companions and the learned and righteous savants among his followers are the stars of this spiritual firmament. The Promised Messiah borrowed his spiritual light from the Holy Prophet. About his Companions the Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "My Companions are like stars, whomsoever of them you will follow, you will get right guidance" (Razin). (close)