بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِِ

Al Islam

The Official Website of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
Muslims who believe in the Messiah,
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani(as)Muslims who believe in the Messiah, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani (as), Love for All, Hatred for None.



(Revealed before Hijrah)

Date of Revelation

A large majority of scholarly opinion regards this Surah as of Meccan origin, but according to Muqatil vv. 198 and 225 belong to the Medinite period. Ibn ‘Abbas and Qatadah, however, are of the opinion that vv. 225-228 alone were revealed at Mecca. But this discrimination between certain verses as being of Meccan origin and certain others as having been revealed at Medina is only arbitrary. Generally, the commentators base this haphazard distinction on the subject matter of the verses in question which, according to them, deal with the conditions and circumstances in Mecca or Medina at the time when the relevant verse or verses were revealed or some particular incident which occurred in Mecca or Medina at that time. But thus to assign a particular verse or verses to the Meccan or Medinite period without giving sound and solid arguments or some incontestable historical evidence in support of such an assumption is at best hypothetical. Muqatil, for instance, holds v. 198 as having been revealed at Medina simply because it speaks of the "learned men of the Children of Israel" with whom the Muslims came in contact at Medina. If this fact alone were to be accepted as the criterion for determining as to whether a particular verse was revealed at Mecca or Medina, then both Surah Maryam and Surah Ta Ha, which were definitely revealed at Mecca, will have to be regarded as belonging to the Medinite period because they deal with Christianity and the Israelite Prophets, and the Muslims came in contact with Jews and Christians at Medina. This method of determining the period of the revelation of the Quranic verses or Surahsis not safe and is calculated to lead to wrong conclusions. The only safe guide in this respect is authentic historical evidence, the rest is mere conjecture and surmise.

From this Surah a departure has been made in the subject matter of the Quran. From Surah Yunus, the Quran had directed its address principally to the Jews and the Christians. With the present chapter, the Muslims take the place of these two peoples and the form, nature and scope of the address have been changed, therefore, from this Surah a change has also taken place in the مقطعات (abbreviated letters) placed at the head of the Surahs. The present Surah has been named الشعراء (poets) in order to drive home to Muslims the supreme lesson that success comes to a people only when their profession and practice go together and that empty talk like that of the poets leads nowhere.

Connection with the Preceding Surah

The preceding Surah had ended on the note that it would be a great mistake to suppose that God would allow the time-honoured system that had come into being through the great religions of the world to be destroyed. On the contrary, God had created man to demonstrate in his person His great attributes and in order that he should respond to the Divine Call. If man does not fulfil the great and sublime object of his creation, then there is no need or justification for him to exist and no need for God to feel any hesitancy in destroying him. In the Surah under comment we are told that in his love and solicitude for humanity, the Holy Prophet feels grieved at this apprehended possibility and wishes and desires that man may be saved. This desire of the Holy Prophet no doubt proceeds from his great love for mankind. The destruction of man, however, does not apparently seem to be quite in harmony with the Divine design. The Divine design is that having been endowed with knowledge of and insight into the Heavenly plan, man should be vouchsafed the opportunity to discover, with his own will and endeavour, the ways of the nearness of God and then should try to attain such nearness. But if he refuses to do so, he should suffer the consequences of his refusal. The Surah then proceeds to tell us that if man had not been endowed with the discretion and ability to make a choice, he would have become a mere machine and an automaton and would not have been considered as a being made in the image of God. So man must act and conduct himself in harmony with the Divine scheme without which he cannot attain true and real salvation.

Subject Matter

The Surah particularly deals with the Divine attributes, Latif (Benignant), Sami‘ (Hearing), Malik (King) and Rahim (Merciful), and gives sound and solid arguments and reasons to prove that God is Holy, He hears the prayers of His creatures, He is Merciful and He is the King and Ruler of the whole universe. It proceeds to say that the Quran gives its own arguments and proofs and needs no extraneous help or support to substantiate and establish the truth of its claims and teachings. It is further stated that the Holy Prophet’s grief at the refusal of disbelievers to accept the Divine Message will be of no avail to them because it is entirely their own choice whether to accept or reject the truth, and God will not compel them to accept it. As disbelievers have deliberately preferred disbelief to belief therefore they have become far removed from the realities of life and only mock and jeer at truth.

The Surah then goes on to say that as for the fulfilment of human needs and requirements, God has created pairs in all things in the physical world. It stands to reason that in the spiritual realm also He should have created their counterparts. This arrangement shows that God is Almighty and Merciful.

Next, it gives in detail the story of Moses: How he was entrusted with his great mission and was commanded to go with his brother, Aaron, to Pharaoh to preach to him the Divine Message and to ask him to let him take the Israelites out of Egypt, and how Pharaoh taunted him for being ungrateful as he had been brought up in his house, and how Moses turned the tables upon him by telling him that instead of taunting him with ingratitude, he (Pharaoh) should have felt ashamed of himself for having unjustly held his (Moses’) people in bondage. It is further stated that having been utterly confounded by Moses’ rejoinder, Pharaoh sought to change the subject and began to ask questions about the existence of God. But when Moses gave devastating answers to these questions, Pharaoh threatened him with imprisonment. And when Moses showed him the sign of the rod and of the white hand, no course was left open to him but to accuse him (Moses) of being a sorcerer and an adventurer who sought political leadership. In order to defeat Moses, as he thought, with his own weapons, Pharaoh summoned magicians from all over the land, but they were completely confounded and discomfited and came to believe in Moses there and then.

The Surah then sheds further light on the activities of Moses, who in pursuance of Divine command succeeded in taking the Israelites out of Egypt, and we are told that having been severely mortified and enraged at the escape of the Israelites, Pharaoh followed them in hot pursuit with his mighty hosts, but the Israelites safely went ashore while Pharaoh and his hosts were drowned in the sea. Then to illustrate that truth always triumphs in the long run and opposition to it comes to grief, the Surah gives instances of Prophets Abraham, Noah, Hud, Salih, Lot and Shu‘aib. Abraham demonstrated to his people the folly and futility of idol worship and invited them to the worship of Almighty God Who hears the prayers of His votaries and Who controls the universe, and makes provision for the physical needs of man and also provides spiritual guidance for him. He gives life and brings about death and in Him all hopes are centred. To this most sympathetic and solicitous harangue of Abraham, his people, after the manner of the opponents of former Prophets, returned the arrogant reply that on no account would they give up the religion of their forefathers. They rejected the Divine Message and were punished, because it is the invariable law of God that the arrogant and the wicked disbelievers are punished for their rejection of truth.

Abraham’s account is followed by that of Noah. Noah’s people also rejected him on the ground that he sought to remove all social distinctions. He told them that true criterion to judge who was really high and noble and who was low and ignoble was good conduct and righteous deeds and not power, wealth and social status. His people, instead of listening to his message, threatened him with violence and incurred the wrath of God. Noah was followed by Hud and Salih. Both these Divine Prophets also tried hard to make their people realize that it was not material pomp and power but good morals and spiritual strength upon which really depended the life and strength of a people. But their people also turned a deaf ear to their preachings and opposed them and persecuted them and declared with boastful arrogance that they would not give their allegiance to men of no consequence. The inevitable result of their opposition was that Divine punishment descended upon them. The people of Lot and Shu‘aib fared no better. The former indulged in unnatural moral vice and the latter were dishonest in their commercial dealings. They, too, refused to listen to their Prophets and ignored Divine warnings, and consequently were seized with Divine punishment.

Towards its end the Surah reverts to the subject with which it had commenced, viz. that the Quran is the revealed Word of God. It further says that in order to prove the truth of its claims and teachings the Quran gives solid and sound arguments and adds that the Prophets of yore have testified to its truth and have made prophecies about it, and the learned men of Israel also are convinced in their heart of hearts of its truth because it fulfils prophecies which are contained in their scriptures. Moreover, the Quran has been revealed in the tongue of its immediate addressees, the Arabs. If it had been revealed in a foreign tongue, they would not have understood it. But now that it has been revealed in their own tongue they cannot refuse to accept it on the pretext of its not having been revealed in their own tongue. It, however, seems clear that like the opponents of truth in the past they would not accept it, and by their persistent rejection would incur God’s displeasure. They should realize that if the Holy Prophet is a true Messenger of God, they would not escape Divine punishment.

The disbelievers are then invited to ponder over the teachings of the Quran and to see if such a noble and sublime teaching could have been the work of Satan or if the Holy Prophet could have produced it himself. The teachings of the Quran bear a close resemblance to those of the old scriptures, and satanic people evidently can have no access to the Source of these teachings. Satans descend only upon liars and sinners and upon those who forge lies and coin and copy falsehood. The poets derive inspiration from these votaries of falsehood and are in turn followed by men of low morals and of no fixed principles. The poets and their followers take delight in tall, meaningless talk, but do not act upon what they profess and preach. As against them the righteous servants of God preach truth and serve and suffer for their noble ideals and therefore triumph and prevail in the long run.

The Surah closes with enjoining the Holy Prophet to continue to preach the Unity and Oneness of God, first of all to his own people and then to educate and train believers for the promotion and furtherance of the great cause of Islam. He is further enjoined not to have anything to do with disbelievers and to trust in the Almighty and Merciful God under Whose protection and fostering care he passes his days, Who keeps a constant watch over him and Who will very soon end the state of dispersion of Muslims and will bring them together in a place where they will live in peace and prosperity and will worship none but the One True God in perfect safety and security.

26. الشعراء

یہ مکی سورت ہے اور بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی دو سو اٹھائیس آیات ہیں۔

 اس سورت کا آغاز ایک دفعہ پھر بعض مقطعات سے کیا گیا ہے اور اس میں لفظ ’’س‘‘ بطور حرف مقطعہ پہلی بار نازل فرمایا گیا ہے۔ اس کے مختلف معانی ہوسکتے ہیں اور ہیں لیکن بعض اہل علم ان مقطعات کی تشریح اس طرح کرتے ہیں کہ ’’ط‘‘ سے مراد طیب اور ’’س‘‘ سے مراد سمیع اور ’’م‘‘ سے مراد علیم ہے۔ 

گزشتہ سورت کے آخر میں بتایا گیا تھا کہ جب انسان دعا کا انکار کرکے اللہ تعالیٰ سے اپنا تعلق قطع کرلیتا ہے تو اسے اس کے نتیجہ میں ہر قسم کی روحانی بیماریاں چمٹ جاتی ہیں۔ اس سورت میں اسی کی مثال کے طور پر ان قوموں کا ذکر ہے جن سے دعا کے انکار کے نتیجہ میں اللہ تعالیٰ نے یہی سلوک فرمایا۔ ان سب منکر قوموں کے ذکر کے بعد اَلْعَزِیْزُ الرَّحِیْم کی جو تکرار آئی ہے وہ بتاتی ہے کہ پھر اللہ تعالیٰ نے اُن کو رحیم ہونے کے سبب سے دوبارہ موقع عطا فرمایا کہ شاید وہ رجوع کریں مگر پَے بہ پَے ایسا ہوتا رہنے کے باوجود انجام کار وہ حق کو ٹھکراتے رہے اور پھر  اللہ تعالیٰ نئی رحمت کے ذریعہ ان پر نازل ہوتا رہا۔ 

یہاں ’’اَلْعَزِیْز‘‘ کی تکرار بتا رہی ہے کہ اللہ کے دشمنوں نے تو انبیاء کو ذلیل اور رسوا کرنے کی کوشش کی مگر اُن کے ربّ ِعزیز نے ان کو دائمی عزت عطا فرمائی۔ 

اس کے بعد آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کو ارشاد فرمایا گیا ہے کہ اپنے قریبی رشتہ داروں کو اُن کے بدانجام سے ڈرا اور جو روحانی رشتہ دار تجھے عطا فرمائے گئے ہیں ان پر اپنی رحمت کے پَر جھکادے۔ اگر کفر کرنے والے اپنے کفر پر مُصِر رہیں تو اعلان کردے کہ مَیں تمہارے کفر سے بیزار ہوں اور میرا توکل تو محض اللہ ہی پر ہے جو بہت غالب اور حکمت والا اور بار بار رحم فرمانے والا ہے اور دعاؤں کو بہت سننے والا اور بہت جاننے والا ہے۔ 

اس کے بعد ایک ایسی دلیل دی گئی ہے جس سے قطعی طور پر ثابت ہوتا ہے کہ انبیاء پر بہرحال شیطان نہیں اتر سکتے کیونکہ نہ وہ ’’اَفَّاک‘‘ ہوتے ہیں اور نہ ’’اَثِیم‘‘ ۔ یعنی وہ نہ تو جھوٹ بولنے والے ہوتے ہیں اور نہ گنہگار ہوتے ہیں اور ان کے سچے ہونے پر اُن کے گرد و پیش رہنے والے سب گواہ ہیں۔

 آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم پر نازل ہونے والے کلام کی عظمت میں ایک یہ بات بھی داخل ہے کہ یہ عظیم الشان شعریت سے پُر ہے اور قرآن کریم کی شعری فصاحت و بلاغت سے متاثر ہوکر بہت سے شعراء نے شعر کہنے ہی چھوڑ دیئے تھے۔ لیکن اس کے نتیجہ میں یہ گمان کرنا کہ نعوذ باللہ من ذٰلک، رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم خود ایک اعلیٰ درجہ کے شاعر تھے اس لئے غلط ہے کہ شاعر تو ہر وادی میں بھٹکتا پھرتا ہے مگر قرآن تو ایسی کتاب نہیں جو بے سبب ہر وادی میں بھٹکتی پھرے۔ 

اس کے ساتھ ہی ان شعر کہنے والے مسلمانوں کی بطور استثناء بریت فرمادی کہ جو ایمان لائے، نیک عمل بجالائے اور اللہ تعالیٰ کا ذکر کثرت سے کرتے ہیں اور جب اُن پر ظلم کیا گیا تو اس کا بدلہ لیتے ہیں۔ یہاں اُن مسلمان شعراء کی طرف اشارہ ہے جنہوں نے اُس وقت اپنے شعروں کے ذریعہ بدلہ لیا جب کفار کے بدگو شعراء نے آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم پر حملہ کیا۔

In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.
اللہ کے نام کے ساتھ جو بے انتہا رحم کرنے والا، بِن مانگے دینے والا (اور) بار بار رحم کرنے والا ہے۔

Ta Sin Mim.
طَیِّب سَمِیع عَلِیم : پاک ، بہت سننے والا، بہت جاننے والا۔

These are verses of the clear Book.
یہ ایک روشن کر دینے والی کتاب کی آیات ہیں۔

Haply thou wilt grieve thyself to death because they believe not.
کیا تو اپنی جان کو اس لئے ہلاک کر دے گا کہ وہ مومن نہیں ہوتے۔

If We please, We can send down to them a Sign from the heaven, so that their necks will bow down before it.
اگر ہم چاہیں تو ان پر آسمان سے ایک ایسا نشان اُتاریں جس کے سامنے ان کی گردنیں جھک جائیں۔

And there comes not to them a new Reminder from the Gracious God, but they turn away from it.
اور ان کے پاس رحمان کی طرف سے کوئی تازہ نصیحت نہیں آتی مگر وہ اس سے اِعراض کرنے والے ہوتے ہیں۔

They have, indeed, treated it as a lie, but soon there will come to them the tidings of that at which they mocked.
پس یقیناً انہوں نے (ہر تازہ نشان کو) جھٹلا دیا ہے۔ سو ضرور انہیں ان (باتوں کے پورا ہونے) کی خبریں ملیں گی جن کا وہ مذاق اڑایا کرتے تھے۔

Have they not looked at the earth, how many of every noble species have We caused to grow therein?
کیا انہوں نے زمین کو نہیں دیکھا کہ ہم نے اس میں کتنے ہی (نباتات کے) اعلیٰ درجے کے جوڑے اُگائے ہیں۔

In that there is a Sign indeed; but most of these would not believe.
یقیناً اس میں ایک بہت بڑا نشان ہے جبکہ اکثر اُن میں سے ایمان لانے والے نہیں۔

And verily, thy Lord — He is the Mighty, the Merciful.
اور یقیناً تیرا ربّ ہی ہے جو کامل غلبہ والا (اور) بار بار رحم کرنے والا ہے۔