قَالَ رَبِّیۡۤ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۸۹﴾
قَالَ رَبِّيٓ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ
2131. To the insolent challenge of his people to bring down punishment upon them, (Kisaf meaning, Divine punishment), Shu‘aib replied that his knowledge being imperfect it was not for him to decide if and when the punishment should and would overtake them and that it was God, their Lord and Creator, Who being fully acquainted with the nature of their deeds, knew whether or not they had rendered themselves deserving of the punishment they demanded. (close)
Prophets of God are great lovers of mankind. Their hearts are full of the milk of human kindness. The people of Shu‘aib challenged him to bring down Divine punishment on them if indeed he was a true Messenger of God. To this insolent challenge Shu‘aib replied that his knowledge being imperfect it was not for him to decide if and when the punishment should and would overtake them and that it was God, their Lord and Creator, Who being fully acquainted with the nature of their deeds knew whether or not they had rendered themselves deserving of the punishment they demanded. In fact, God has reserved to Himself the right when and whom to punish and whom to spare. If it had been left to the Prophets to decide who was deserving of punishment, many prospective believers would have died as disbelievers. (close)
فَکَذَّبُوۡہُ فَاَخَذَہُمۡ عَذَابُ یَوۡمِ الظُّلَّۃِ ؕ اِنَّہٗ کَانَ عَذَابَ یَوۡمٍ عَظِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۹۰﴾
فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَأَخَذَهُمۡ عَذَابُ يَوۡمِ ٱلظُّلَّةِۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ عَذَابَ يَوۡمٍ عَظِيمٍ
a. 7:92; 11:95; 29:38. (close)
اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً ؕ وَ مَا کَانَ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹۱﴾
إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَةٗۖ وَمَا كَانَ أَكۡثَرُهُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
وَ اِنَّ رَبَّکَ لَہُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الرَّحِیۡمُ ﴿۱۹۲﴾٪
وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ
The verse signifies that God is Mighty, i.e. He has the power to give victory to the poor and resourceless believers, and He is Merciful, i.e. He shows mercy to a sinner when he sincerely turns to Him for forgiveness. In this verse the Meccans have been warned that the cause of the Holy Prophet was sure to triumph and that they will get a severe punishment like that of the rejecters of the Prophets of yore but if they repented, God will forgive them and show mercy to them. (close)
وَ اِنَّہٗ لَتَنۡزِیۡلُ رَبِّ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹۳﴾ؕ
وَإِنَّهُۥ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
a. 20:5; 56:81. (close)
2132. The verse purports to say that the revelation of the Qur’an is no new phenomenon. Like the Messages of the Prophets mentioned above the Quranic Message has also been revealed by God, but with this difference that whereas the former Prophets were sent to their respective peoples, the Qur’an has been revealed for all the nations of the world, because it is a revelation from the Lord of all the worlds. (close)
a. 20:5; 56:81. (close)
The verse continues the theme of the preceding verses. It purports to say that the revelation of the Quran is no new phenomenon. As the messages of the Prophets mentioned above were revealed by God, so has this last message for all mankind also been revealed by Him, but with this difference that whereas the former Prophets were sent to their respective peoples, the Quran has been sent for all the nations of the world, because "it is a revelation from the Lord of all the worlds." (close)
نَزَلَ بِہِ الرُّوۡحُ الۡاَمِیۡنُ ﴿۱۹۴﴾ۙ
نَزَلَ بِهِ ٱلرُّوحُ ٱلۡأَمِينُ
b. 2:98; 16:103. (close)
2133. In this verse the angel who brought the Quranic revelation has been called Ruhul-Amin, i.e. the Spirit faithful to the trust. Elsewhere, he is called Ruhul-Qudus (16:103), i.e. the Spirit of holiness. The latter epithet has been used to point to the eternal and complete freedom from every error or blemish in the Qur’an and the use of the former epithet (Ruhul-Amin) implies that it shall continue to enjoy Divine protection against all attempts to tamper with its text. This epithet has been used exclusively with regard to the revelation of the Qur’an because the promise of everlasting Divine protection was held out to no other Divine Scripture; and their texts, in course of time, came to be interfered and tampered with. Strangely enough, the Holy Prophet himself was known as Al-Amin (the Trusty) at Mecca. What a great Divine tribute to, and evidence of the trustworthiness of the Qur’an that its revelation was brought by an Amin to an Amin! (close)
b. 2:98; 16:103. (close)
In this verse the angel who brought the revelation from God to the Holy Prophet has been called الروح الامین i.e. the Spirit faithful to the trust. Elsewhere he is called روح القدس (16:103), i.e. the Spirit of Holiness. Both are the attributive names of the Archangel Gabriel who was the medium through whom Divine revelation came to the Holy Prophet. The epithet روح القدس has been used to point to the eternal and complete freedom from every error or blemish in the Quran and the use of the epithet الروح الامین implies that it shall continue to enjoy Divine protection against all attempts to tamper with its text. This latter epithet has been used exclusively with regard to the revelation of the Quran because the promise of everlasting Divine protection was held out to no other Divine Scripture and their texts, in course of time came to be interfered and tampered with. Strangely enough, the Holy Prophet himself was known as الامین (the trustworthy) at Mecca. What a great Divine tribute to, and evidence of, the trustworthiness of the Quran that its revelation was brought by an Amin to an Amin! (close)
عَلٰی قَلۡبِکَ لِتَکُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُنۡذِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹۵﴾
عَلَىٰ قَلۡبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُنذِرِينَ
2134. The words 'on thy heart' have been added to indicate that the Quranic revelations were not merely inspired ideas which the Holy Prophet expressed in his own words but were the actual words of God Himself which descended upon the Prophet’s heart through the medium of Gabriel. (close)
The words 'on thy heart' have been added to indicate that the Quranic revelations were not merely inspired ideas which the Holy Prophet expressed in his own words but were the actual words of God Himself which descended upon the Prophet’s heart through the medium of Gabriel. The verse also implies reference to a famous prophecy of Moses (Deut. 18:18) in which it is stated that God would put His words in the mouth of the Prophet whom He would raise from among the brethren of the Israelites. Of all revealed scriptures, the Quran stands unique in this respect that from beginning to end it is the spoken Word of God (کلام اللّٰه).
The allusion in the words "on thy heart" may also be to the purity of the Holy Prophet’s heart and his perfect aptitude for receiving Divine revelation to which a beautiful reference has also been made in 24:36.
It may be noted in passing that Divine revelation descends, besides the heart, on the tongue and the ears. In 75:17 we have the words, "move not thy tongue with this revelation that thou mayest hasten to preserve it," which shows that revelation descends on the tongue also. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "Sometimes the angel takes the form of a man and talks to me and I remember what he says" (Bukhari). This hadith shows that revelation descends on the ears also. But the revelation which descends upon the tongue or the ear descends at the same time on the heart as well. (close)
بِلِسَانٍ عَرَبِیٍّ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۱۹۶﴾ؕ
بِلِسَانٍ عَرَبِيّٖ مُّبِينٖ
c. 16:104; 41:45; 46:13. (close)
a. 16:104; 41:45; 46:13. (close)
The word عرب from which عربی is a relative noun conveys the sense of fulness, abundance and clearness and the Arabic language is so called because its roots are innumerable full of meaning and because also it is most expressive, eloquent and comprehensive. It possesses suitable words and phrases for the full expression of all sorts of ideas and shades of meaning and being complete in respect of its roots it can discuss any topic with a precision and thoroughness unmatched in any other language. It was therefore natural and quite in the fitness of things that the Arabic language should have been selected as the vehicle for the revelation of the last and most perfect Divine Message for all mankind.
The word مبین also points to the Quran being complete in itself. It needs the help of no external evidence to demonstrate the truth of its claims but contains adequate internal proofs to establish and substantiate them. The word also contains a beautiful hint to the effect that all that is essential for the attainment of nearness to God and relates to the laws of the Shari‘ah, to ethics and matters of belief, in short to all that is necessary to make a perfect code of laws has been made quite clear and manifest in the Quran. (close)
وَ اِنَّہٗ لَفِیۡ زُبُرِ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹۷﴾
وَإِنَّهُۥ لَفِي زُبُرِ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ
2135. The advent of the Holy Prophet and the revelation of the Qur’an both have been foretold in the previous Divine Scriptures. Prophecies to this effect are to be found in the religious Scriptures of almost every Faith but the Bible, being the best known and most widely read of all revealed Books before the Qur’an and also being its forerunner and in its pristine purity being its counterpart as a Book of Divine laws, contains the largest number of such prophecies. See Deut. 18:18 & 33:2; Isaiah 21:13-17; Song of Solomon 1:5, 6; Habakkuk 3:3-5; Matt. 21:42-45 & John 16:12-14. (close)
The advent of the Holy Prophet and the revelation of the Quran both have been foretold in the previous Divine Scriptures. Prophecies to this effect are to be found in the religious scriptures of almost every faith but the Bible, being the best known and most widely read of all revealed Books before the Quran and also being its forerunner and in its pristine purity being its counterpart as a Book of Divine laws, contains the largest number of such prophecies. Here are some of those prophecies:
(1) I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren; like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him (Deut. 18:18-19).
(2) And he said, the Lord came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran and he came with ten thousands of saints; from his right hand went a fiery law for them (Deut. 33:2).
The reference in the above prophecy is to the conquest of Mecca when the Holy Prophet marched into that town at the head of an army of exactly ten thousand Companions, holding the Quran in his right hand.
(3) And many among them shall stumble, and fall, and be broken, and be snared, and be taken. Bind up the testimony, seal the law among my disciples. And I will wait upon the Lord, that hideth his face from the house of Jacob, and I will look for him (Isaiah 8:15-17).
(4) The burden upon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge; O ye travelling companies of Dedanim. The inhabitants of the land of Tema brought water to him that was thirsty, they did meet with their bread him that fled. For they fled from the swords, from the drawn swords, and from the bent bow, and from the grievousness of war. For thus hath the Lord said unto me. Within a year. According to the years of an hireling, and all the glory of Kedar shall fail: And the residue of the number of archers, the mighty men of the children of Kedar, shall be diminished: for the Lord God of Israel hath spoken it (Isaiah 21:13-17).
The reference in the above prophecy is evidently to Arabia and to the Battle of Badr when the sons of Kedar, the Quraish, suffered an ignominious defeat at the hands of Muslims and many of their great fighters and archers were killed.
(5) And thou shalt be called by a new name which the mouth of the Lord shall name (Isaiah 62:2).
The prophecy foretells of a new people bearing a new name which will be given to them by God Himself. There is only one people in the world who have a name given to them by God and they are the Muslims. It is to the fulfilment of this prophecy that the Quranic verse clearly refers, viz. "He named you Muslims before and in this Book" (22:79).
(6) I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon. Look not upon me, because I am swarthy, because the sun hath scorched me. (Song of Solomon 1:5-6.)
How aptly this description applies to the Holy Prophet and the Arabs!
(7) God came from Teman, and the Holy One from mount Paran, Selah. His glory covered the heavens and the earth was full of his praise…He stood, and measured the earth: He beheld and drove asunder the nations; and the everlasting mountains were scattered, the perpetual hills did bow: his ways are everlasting. I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction; and the curtains of the land of Midian did tremble (Habakkuk 3:3-7).
In this prophecy mention has been made not only of the Holy Prophet but also of the country in which he was to make his appearance and of the great success that was to attend his mission and the military exploits of his Successors. The holy one whose praise filled the earth and who appeared from Paran was none else than Muhammad, the praised one. From his right hand went the fiery Law—the Quran. He measured the earth and drove asunder the nations and before his irresistible armies the mighty and long established empires were scattered like chaff before the wind and his Shari‘ah is to last forever.
(8) Jesus saith unto them, did ye never read in the scriptures? The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord’s dong, and it is marvellous in our eyes? Therefore say I unto you, The Kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof. And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder (Matt. 21:42-45).
After Jesus, the spiritual kingdom was forever taken away from the House of Israel and given to another nation—the Ishmaelites who have brought forth the right fruits thereof. The Holy Prophet was the stone which the builders rejected and which became the head of the corner. The application to him of this prophecy cannot be disputed or doubted.
(9) I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot hear them now. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you (John 16:12-14).
This prophecy too applies to the Holy Prophet of Islam. He was the Comforter and the Spirit of truth. He guided mankind to all truth because he brought the most complete and perfect Law. He glorified Jesus and all other Prophets of God (4:158-160). He did not speak of himself, but whatsoever he heard that did he speak. About him the Quran says: "Nor does he speak out of desire, it is naught but revelation that is revealed" (53:4-5). (close)
اَوَ لَمۡ یَکُنۡ لَّہُمۡ اٰیَۃً اَنۡ یَّعۡلَمَہٗ عُلَمٰٓؤُا بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ ﴿۱۹۸﴾ؕ
أَوَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُمۡ ءَايَةً أَن يَعۡلَمَهُۥ عُلَمَـٰٓؤُاْ بَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ
In the immediately preceding verse a brief reference was made to some of the prophecies that are to be found in the Bible about the Holy Prophet. After this brief reference the present verse brings home to the Israelites the fact that when their learned men know that there are prophecies about the Holy Prophet in their religious scriptures, they have no justification for rejecting him. The words "the learned among the Children of Israel" may also refer to the Israelite Prophets who had made these prophecies.
In the present and the preceding five verses the following facts about the Quran have been stated:
(a) The Quran, being a revelation from the Lord of the worlds, is the last Divine Message for all mankind. (b) Having been brought down by الروح الامین (Spirit faithful to the trust), it will continue to enjoy full and complete protection from all interference and interpolation till the end of time. (c) It is from beginning to end God’s own spoken Word. (d) It has been revealed in a most expressive, eloquent and comprehensive language which is eminently fitted to express all sorts of ideas and shades of meaning. (e) Prophecies about the advent of the Holy Prophet and the revelation of the Quran are to be found in ancient religious scriptures, especially in the Bible. (f) The learned men of Israel are fully conversant with these prophecies.
In view of these facts what better proofs are needed to establish the truth of the Quran and the universality and finality of its message. (close)