وَ اِلٰی مَدۡیَنَ اَخَاہُمۡ شُعَیۡبًا ۙ فَقَالَ یٰقَوۡمِ اعۡبُدُوا اللّٰہَ وَ ارۡجُوا الۡیَوۡمَ الۡاٰخِرَ وَ لَا تَعۡثَوۡا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مُفۡسِدِیۡنَ ﴿۳۷﴾
وَإِلَىٰ مَدۡيَنَ أَخَاهُمۡ شُعَيۡبٗا فَقَالَ يَٰقَوۡمِ ٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱرۡجُواْ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ ٱلۡأٓخِرَ وَلَا تَعۡثَوۡاْ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مُفۡسِدِينَ
b. 7:86; 11:85. (close)
c. 7:86; 11:85. (close)
فَکَذَّبُوۡہُ فَاَخَذَتۡہُمُ الرَّجۡفَۃُ فَاَصۡبَحُوۡا فِیۡ دَارِہِمۡ جٰثِمِیۡنَ ﴿۫۳۸﴾
فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَأَخَذَتۡهُمُ ٱلرَّجۡفَةُ فَأَصۡبَحُواْ فِي دَارِهِمۡ جَٰثِمِينَ
c. 7:92; 11:95; 26:190. (close)
d. 7:92; 11:95; 26:190. (close)
For the different kinds of Divine punishment which overtook the enemies of the Prophets who have been mentioned in this Surah, see a collective note on v. 41 below. (close)
وَ عَادًا وَّ ثَمُوۡدَا۠ وَ قَدۡ تَّبَیَّنَ لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ مَّسٰکِنِہِمۡ ۟ وَ زَیَّنَ لَہُمُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اَعۡمَالَہُمۡ فَصَدَّہُمۡ عَنِ السَّبِیۡلِ وَ کَانُوۡا مُسۡتَبۡصِرِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۳۹﴾
وَعَادٗا وَثَمُودَاْ وَقَد تَّبَيَّنَ لَكُم مِّن مَّسَٰكِنِهِمۡۖ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ أَعۡمَٰلَهُمۡ فَصَدَّهُمۡ عَنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَكَانُواْ مُسۡتَبۡصِرِينَ
d. 9:70. (close)
2252. The Quranic expression means: (1) They clearly saw that the course they had adopted was wrong. (2) They deliberately adopted a course knowing full well what the end would be. (close)
e. 9:70. (close)
2965. Important Words:
مستبصرین is derived from بصر which means, he saw; he perceived; he knew; he understood; he recognised. استبصر الامر means, the affair became clear or manifest (Aqrab). See also 28:44.
In view of the different meanings of the root word بصر the expression کانوا مستبصرین would mean: (1) the wickedness of the course ‘Ad and Thamud had adopted, had become quite clear to them; or (2) they clearly saw that the course they had adopted was wrong or (3) they deliberately adopted a course knowing full well what the end would be. (close)
وَ قَارُوۡنَ وَ فِرۡعَوۡنَ وَ ہَامٰنَ ۟ وَ لَقَدۡ جَآءَہُمۡ مُّوۡسٰی بِالۡبَیِّنٰتِ فَاسۡتَکۡبَرُوۡا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ وَ مَا کَانُوۡا سٰبِقِیۡنَ ﴿ۚۖ۴۰﴾
وَقَٰرُونَ وَفِرۡعَوۡنَ وَهَٰمَٰنَۖ وَلَقَدۡ جَآءَهُم مُّوسَىٰ بِٱلۡبَيِّنَٰتِ فَٱسۡتَكۡبَرُواْ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَمَا كَانُواْ سَٰبِقِينَ
e. 28:37. (close)
a. 28:37. (close)
فَکُلًّا اَخَذۡنَا بِذَنۡۢبِہٖ ۚ فَمِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ اَرۡسَلۡنَا عَلَیۡہِ حَاصِبًا ۚ وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ اَخَذَتۡہُ الصَّیۡحَۃُ ۚ وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ خَسَفۡنَا بِہِ الۡاَرۡضَ ۚ وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ اَغۡرَقۡنَا ۚ وَ مَا کَانَ اللّٰہُ لِیَظۡلِمَہُمۡ وَ لٰکِنۡ کَانُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ یَظۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۴۱﴾
فَكُلًّا أَخَذۡنَا بِذَنۢبِهِۦۖ فَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا عَلَيۡهِ حَاصِبٗا وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ أَخَذَتۡهُ ٱلصَّيۡحَةُ وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ خَسَفۡنَا بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ أَغۡرَقۡنَاۚ وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيَظۡلِمَهُمۡ وَلَٰكِن كَانُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ يَظۡلِمُونَ
a. 28:82. (close)
2253. The Qur’an has used different words and expressions for the punishment which overtook the opponents of the various Prophets in their respective times. The punishment that came upon ‘Ad is described as furious wind (41:17; 54:20 & 69:7); that which overtook Thamud as earthquake (7:79), blast (11:68:54:32), thunderbolt (41:18) and violent blast (69:6); that which destroyed the people of Lot as stones of clay (11:83; 15:75), storm of stones (54:35); and that which overtook Midian, the people of Shu‘aib, as earthquake (7:92; 29:38), blast (11:95), and punishment of the day of overshadowing doom (26:190). Last of all the heavenly punishment which seized Pharaoh and his mighty hosts and courtiers, Haman and Korah and destroyed them root and branch, has been described by the expressions: We…drowned Pharaoh’s people (2:51; 7:137 & 17:104), and We caused the earth to swallow him up (28:82). (close)
b. 16:34; 30:10. (close)
b. 28:82. (close)
c. 16:34; 30:10. (close)
Whereas separate mention has been made in the few preceding verses of the peoples of the five great Prophets of God (Hud, Salih, Lot, Shu‘aib and Moses), the manner in which they treated their Prophets and of the Divine punishment that overtook them on account of their wicked behaviour, the present verse deals collectively with the different forms of punishment. The Quran has used different words and expressions to describe the punishment which overtook the opponents of the various Prophets in their respective times. The punishment that came upon ‘Ad, is described as ریحا صرصراi.e. furious wind (41:17; 54:20 & 69:7) and الریح العقیم i.e. destructive wind (51:42); that which overtook Thamud, as رجفة i.e. earthquake (7:79), صیحة i.e. blast (11:68; 54:32), صاعقة i.e. thunderbolt (41:18) and طاغیة i.e. violent blast (69:5); that which destroyed the people of Lot as حجارة من سجیل i.e. stones of clay (11:83; 15:75), صیحة and حاصبا i.e. storm of stones (54:35); and that which overtook Midian, the people of Shu‘aib as رجفة i.e. earthquake (7:92; 29:38), صیحة i.e. blast (11:95), and عذاب یوم الظلة i.e. punishment of the day of overshadowing doom (26:190). Last of all the heavenly punishment which seized Pharaoh and his mighty hosts and his courtiers, Haman and Korah and destroyed them root and branch has been described by the expressions أغرقنا i.e. We drowned them (2:51; 7:137 & 17:104) and خسفنا به i.e. We made the earth swallow him up (28:82).
A careful study of these words shows that some of them, particularly حاصب ، صیحة ، صاعقة ، رجفة and طاغیة are interchangeable and possess almost analogous significance and meaning. See also 11:68. (close)
مَثَلُ الَّذِیۡنَ اتَّخَذُوۡا مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ اَوۡلِیَآءَ کَمَثَلِ الۡعَنۡکَبُوۡتِ ۖۚ اِتَّخَذَتۡ بَیۡتًا ؕ وَ اِنَّ اَوۡہَنَ الۡبُیُوۡتِ لَبَیۡتُ الۡعَنۡکَبُوۡتِ ۘ لَوۡ کَانُوۡا یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۴۲﴾
مَثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡلِيَآءَ كَمَثَلِ ٱلۡعَنكَبُوتِ ٱتَّخَذَتۡ بَيۡتٗاۖ وَإِنَّ أَوۡهَنَ ٱلۡبُيُوتِ لَبَيۡتُ ٱلۡعَنكَبُوتِۚ لَوۡ كَانُواْ يَعۡلَمُونَ
2254. The subject of the Unity of God with which the Surah primarily deals is brought to a close in this verse with a beautiful metaphor which drives home to polytheists the folly, futility and falsity of idolatrous beliefs and practices. They are as frail as the web of a spider and cannot stand intelligent criticism. (close)
In the previous several verses arguments have been given in refutation of Shirk and brief references have been made to the lives and missions of some of the greatest preachers of Divine Unity to show that those who rejected them ultimately came to grief. This subject of the Unity of God is brought to a close in this verse with a beautiful metaphor which drives home the folly, futility and falsity of idolatrous beliefs and practices of polytheists. They are as frail, says the verse, as the web of a spider and cannot stand intelligent criticism. (close)
اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا یَدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖ مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ ؕ وَ ہُوَ الۡعَزِیۡزُ الۡحَکِیۡمُ ﴿۴۳﴾
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعۡلَمُ مَا يَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦ مِن شَيۡءٖۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ
The words, verily Allah knows…, contain a warning that God is not unaware of the blasphemous practices of idol worshippers and that He will punish them for having enthroned false gods in their hearts. (close)
وَ تِلۡکَ الۡاَمۡثَالُ نَضۡرِبُہَا لِلنَّاسِ ۚ وَ مَا یَعۡقِلُہَاۤ اِلَّا الۡعٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۴۴﴾
وَتِلۡكَ ٱلۡأَمۡثَٰلُ نَضۡرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِۖ وَمَا يَعۡقِلُهَآ إِلَّا ٱلۡعَٰلِمُونَ
a. 13:18; 14:26. (close)
a. 6:74; 16:4; 39:6. (close)
خَلَقَ اللّٰہُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضَ بِالۡحَقِّ ؕ اِنَّ فِیۡ ذٰلِکَ لَاٰیَۃً لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿٪۴۵﴾
خَلَقَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ بِٱلۡحَقِّۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَأٓيَةٗ لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
b. 6:74; 16:4; 39:6. (close)
2255. The expression Bil-haqqi signifies that there is clear evidence of an intelligent design and purpose in the creation of the heavens and the earth and that a profound and consummate plan works in all the celestial and terrestrial bodies. (close)
The expression بالـحق (in accordance with the requirements of wisdom) signifies that there is clear evidence of an intelligent design and purpose in the creation of the heavens and the earth and that a profound and consummate plan exists in all the celestial and terrestrial bodies. This design and purpose constitutes an invincible testimony to the existence of an All-Knowing and All-Powerful Designer, Creator and Controller of the universe. (close)
اُتۡلُ مَاۤ اُوۡحِیَ اِلَیۡکَ مِنَ الۡکِتٰبِ وَ اَقِمِ الصَّلٰوۃَ ؕ اِنَّ الصَّلٰوۃَ تَنۡہٰی عَنِ الۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَ الۡمُنۡکَرِ ؕ وَ لَذِکۡرُ اللّٰہِ اَکۡبَرُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ مَا تَصۡنَعُوۡنَ ﴿۴۶﴾
ٱتۡلُ مَآ أُوحِيَ إِلَيۡكَ مِنَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَۖ إِنَّ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ تَنۡهَىٰ عَنِ ٱلۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَٱلۡمُنكَرِۗ وَلَذِكۡرُ ٱللَّهِ أَكۡبَرُۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ مَا تَصۡنَعُونَ
c. 18:28. (close)
2256. Utlu means, proclaim; preach; read, recite, rehearse, follow (Lane). (close)
2256A. Three things have been mentioned in this verse, viz. preaching and reading of the Qur’an, observance of Prayer and the remembrance of Allah. The purpose of all three is to deliver man from the bondage of sin and to help him to rise morally and spiritually. A living faith in a Supreme Being is the basic principle of all revealed religions because it is this faith that can serve as a potent and effective check on man’s evil propensities and actions. This is why the Qur’an reverts again and again to the subject of God’s existence and speaks of His great power, glory and love and lays the greatest emphasis on Divine remembrance in the form of the Islamic Prayer, which, if performed with all its necessary' conditions, purity of mind and actions is the inevitable result. (close)
b. 18:28. (close)
2970. Important Words:
اتل (recite) is imperative from تلا. They say تلا الکتاب i.e. he read, rehearsed, recited the book; he followed it and did according to it. ھو یتلو فلانا means, he follows such a one in action; he imitates him. تلوت الابل means, I drove the camels together from their several quarters. اتل means, proclaim; preach, read, recite, rehearse; follow (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:114.
ذکر (remembrance) is infinitive noun from ذکر (dhakara) which means, he remembered; he kept in mind. ذکر (dhikrun) means, remembrance; speaking of or mentioning; honour; eminence; good name; praise, etc. (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:153, 201; 6:69 & 15:7.
Three things have been mentioned in this verse, viz. preaching and reading of the Quran, observance of Prayer and the remembrance of Allah. The purpose of all three is to deliver man from the bondage of sin and to help him to rise morally and spiritually which is the supreme object of all Divine Books. A living faith in a Supreme Being to Whom man has to render an account of all his actions after his death in a new life is the basic principle of all revealed religions and their great aim is to create and inculcate such faith because it is this faith that can serve as a potent and effective check on man’s evil propensities and actions. This is why the Quran reverts again and again to the subject of God’s existence and speaks of His great power, glory and love and lays the greatest emphasis on Divine remembrance of which the Islamic Prayer constitutes the most complete form; and of which—if performed with all its necessary conditions—purity of mind and actions is the inevitable result. Observance of Prayer, however, demands the fulfilment of the following five conditions:
1. One should be regular in saying Prayers.
2. Prayers should be said punctually at their appointed hours and in accordance with the prescribed rules.
3. One should be humble in spirit and should not allow one’s thoughts to wander away while saying Prayer.
4. Prayers should be said in congregation.
5. One should exhort others also to be regular and punctual in saying Prayers.
ذکر الله may mean, (1) man’s glorification of God, or (2) God’s remembrance of man, i.e. His raising him to a place of honour and eminence and spreading his good reputation. The verse purports to say that if you remember God and glorify Him, He will bestow honour and renown upon you and will make you eminent and respected in the world. See also 23:10. (close)