فَاِنِ انۡتَہَوۡا فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۹۳﴾
فَإِنِ ٱنتَهَوۡاْ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
c. 8:40. (close)
a. 8:40. (close)
The verse speaks of the great clemency of Islamic teaching. Even after the disbelievers have inflicted diverse torments on Muslims, turning them out of their homes and making their lives miserable and creating chaos and disorder in the land, they are to be forgiven and treated mercifully if they desist from fighting. Nay, God even promises them His forgiveness and mercy if they so desist. (close)
وَ قٰتِلُوۡہُمۡ حَتّٰی لَا تَکُوۡنَ فِتۡنَۃٌ وَّ یَکُوۡنَ الدِّیۡنُ لِلّٰہِ ؕ فَاِنِ انۡتَہَوۡا فَلَا عُدۡوَانَ اِلَّا عَلَی الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹۴﴾
وَقَٰتِلُوهُمۡ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتۡنَةٞ وَيَكُونَ ٱلدِّينُ لِلَّهِۖ فَإِنِ ٱنتَهَوۡاْ فَلَا عُدۡوَٰنَ إِلَّا عَلَى ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
d. 8:40. (close)
222. This verse also shows that Muslims are allowed to fight in self-defence only when war is inflicted upon them by the other party and to continue it till complete freedom of religion is established. The Holy Prophet could not have entered into a number of treaties of peace with disbelievers if the Divine commandment had been to continue fighting until all disbelievers had embraced Islam. For a detailed note on Jihad see 1956 - 1960. (close)
223. ‘Udwan means, (1) hostility; (2) wrongful conduct; (3) punishment for wrongful conduct; and (4) approach to a person by way of justification or excuse against him (Mufradat & Lane).
These four verses (191-194) embody the following rules about war: (a) War is to be resorted to only for the sake of God and not for any selfish motive, nor for aggrandisement or the advancement of national or other interests. (b) Muslims can go to war only against those who attack them first. (c) Even after the enemy has initiated the attack, they are enjoined to keep warfare within limits and not to extend it beyond the immediate objective. (d) They are to fight against only the regular army and not to attack or molest non-combatants. (e) During the course of fighting immunity is to be afforded to all religious rites and ceremonies. (f) To attack religious places or to do any kind of harm to them is absolutely forbidden, so that no fighting is allowed even in their neighbourhood. (g) If the enemy uses a place of worship as a base for attack, only then Muslims may return the attack in or near it. (h) Fighting is to continue only so long as interference with religious freedom lasts. See also 8:40; 9:4-6; 22:40, 41; etc. (close)
a. 8:40; See 2:191. (close)
200. Important Words:
الدین (religion) has a number of meanings including (1) religion; (2) rule and government (Aqrab). See also 1:4.
عدوان (hostility) is derived from عدا. They say عداه meaning, he passed beyond it. The expression عدا علیه means, he acted wrongfully towards him or he exceeded the proper limit against him. The words عاداه mean, he treated him with enmity and hostility. Thus عدوان means: (1) hostility; (2) wrongful conduct; (3) punishment for wrongful conduct and; (4) approach or way to a person by way of justification or excuse against him (Munjid, Mufradat & Lane).
This verse is often quoted by the opponents of Islam in support of their allegation that the Quran inculcates the carrying-on of war against unbelievers until all traces of false religions are wiped out and the whole world embraces Islam. But such a view is clearly wrong. The word which throws light on the true significance of this verse is فتنة (persecution) which, as has been explained in the preceding verse, means religious persecution. This verse therefore enjoins Muslims to fight only till persecution for religion is over. It is on record that during the war between Hadrat ‘Ali and Mu‘awiyah, ‘Abdullah, son of ‘Umar, was once asked why he did not take part in the war when the Quran enjoined the Muslims to fight to put an end to فتنة. He replied: "We did indeed act upon this injunction of the Quran when in the time of the Holy Prophet the number of Muslims was small and a man was subjected to فتنة i.e. persecution for his religious beliefs, being either put to death outright or tortured, until at last Islam spread and the "فتنه was over" (Bukhari, ch. on Tafsir). These words of ‘Abdullah, son of ‘Umar, leave no doubt that the word فتنة in this verse means persecution for religious beliefs and nothing else. Muslims are enjoined to fight until there is no فتنة i.e. no persecution for religious beliefs.
The words that follow, i.e. and religion is professed for Allah, would, therefore, mean that Muslims should fight till profession of a faith is not influenced by the fear of men, but that whatever religion a man follows, he should follow it only for the sake of God, and not out of the fear of men. The above interpretation is also borne out by the fact that the Holy Prophet entered into a number of treaties of peace with disbelievers, which could have no justification if the divinecommandment had been to continue fighting until all embraced Islam. The object of the jihad or holy war which the Holy Prophet was bidden to undertake is clearly stated in 22:40-42, which were the first verses that gave Muslims the permission to take up arms against disbelievers and the idea has been further clarified in 2:191, 193 above. Among the numerous other verses which throw light on this subject the reader is referred to 2:195, 218, 257; 3:135; 4:91, 92; 5:3, 9, 33; 8:39, 62, 63; 9:6, 8, 10, 13; 22:39,41; 41:35; 42:49; 50:46; 60:9, 10.
The concluding clause i.e. but if they desist, then remember that no hostility is allowed except against the aggressors, further confirms the interpretation of the verse as given above. If the Quran enjoined the waging of war till Islam obtained universal acceptance, then there would be no sense whatever in the injunction that if disbelievers desisted from fighting and no longer remained aggressors, Muslims should also stop hostilities; for, as the verse puts it, fighting is not permissible "except against the aggressors". (close)
اَلشَّہۡرُ الۡحَرَامُ بِالشَّہۡرِ الۡحَرَامِ وَ الۡحُرُمٰتُ قِصَاصٌ ؕ فَمَنِ اعۡتَدٰی عَلَیۡکُمۡ فَاعۡتَدُوۡا عَلَیۡہِ بِمِثۡلِ مَا اعۡتَدٰی عَلَیۡکُمۡ ۪ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ مَعَ الۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹۵﴾
ٱلشَّهۡرُ ٱلۡحَرَامُ بِٱلشَّهۡرِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ وَٱلۡحُرُمَٰتُ قِصَاصٞۚ فَمَنِ ٱعۡتَدَىٰ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فَٱعۡتَدُواْ عَلَيۡهِ بِمِثۡلِ مَا ٱعۡتَدَىٰ عَلَيۡكُمۡۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ
a. See 2:179. (close)
224. The Sacred Months are Dhul-Qa‘dah; Dhul-Hijjah; Al-Muharram and Rajab. In these months all fighting is disallowed. The commandment is intended to safeguard the sanctity of the Ka‘bah and the Sacred Months. (close)
225. See 33. (close)
201. Important Words:
الشھرالحرام (Sacred Month). From the earliest pre-Islamic times, four out of the twelve lunar months have been regarded as sacred (9:36) in which fighting, etc., was held to be unlawful and people travelled in perfect peace and security. They were (1) Dhul-Qa‘dah, (2) Dhul-Hijjah, (3) Al-Muharram, and (4) Rajab, the first named three months occurring consecutively and the last separately. As حج (Pilgrimage) was performed in Dhul-Hijjah, the three consecutive months served as a safe period for travelling for the purposes of Pilgrimage, both for the inward and the outward journey. The month of Rajab was generally meant for عمرة (the Lesser Pilgrimage). The system was pre-Islamic not in the sense that it had its origin in pagan Arabia but in the sense that it came in vogue along with the institution of Pilgrimage established by Abraham under the commandment of God (22:27, 28). As Islam retained the institution of حج it naturally upheld the sanctity of the Sacred Months as well. Even warring tribes desisted from fighting at the approach of a Sacred Month when all bloodshed vanished from the land (Bukhari, Qastalani, Zurqani & Taj).
The words فاعتدوا علیه (punish him for his transgression) literally mean, "transgress against him", but as one who retaliates against the transgression of a party does not really transgress but simply punishes the transgression of the aggressor, the words have been rightly translated as punish him for his transgression. This is quite in accordance with the Arabic idiom; for, as shown under 2:16, the Arabs generally repeat the very word used for expressing the wrongdoing of a party to signify the punishment thereof.
The verse embodies an important principle. If, in fighting, the sanctity of a Sacred Month is violated by some tribe hostile to Islam, Muslims are not to sit hand-bound and allow the aggressors to victimize them. They should retaliate; for in such retaliation lies the very safeguarding of the sanctity of a sacred thing; otherwise, the enemy would be unduly encouraged and would be all the more emboldened to commit such sacrileges.
But as fighting in a Sacred Month is a dangerous thing (2:218) and as the punishment of an act of transgression is also likely to exceed proper limits and a slight error of judgement on the part of Muslims might make them sinful in the sight of God, the latter part of the verse suitably warns them to fear God and always remain within proper bounds; for, Allah is with those who fear Him. (close)
وَ اَنۡفِقُوۡا فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ لَا تُلۡقُوۡا بِاَیۡدِیۡکُمۡ اِلَی التَّہۡلُکَۃِ ۚۖۛ وَ اَحۡسِنُوۡا ۚۛ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُحِبُّ الۡمُحۡسِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹۶﴾
وَأَنفِقُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا تُلۡقُواْ بِأَيۡدِيكُمۡ إِلَى ٱلتَّهۡلُكَةِ وَأَحۡسِنُوٓاْۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ
a. 2:255; 14:32; 47:39; 57:11; 63:11. (close)
226. As for the successful prosecution of war money is required, the believers are exhorted to spend freely in the cause of Allah as any hesitancy to do so would result in national ruin. (close)
a. 2:255; 14:32; 47:39; 57:11; 63:11. (close)
As the successful prosecution of war required money, the Faithful are here exhorted to spend in the cause of Allah so that the war which they have been bidden to wage in the defence of their faith may be conducted with efficiency.
The clause, and cast not yourselves into ruin with your own hands, does not mean, as supposed by some ignorant people, that Muslims should spare themselves and do nothing that may endanger their lives. On the contrary, it means that if Muslims will not spend money freely to carry on the war properly, they will be casting themselves into ruins with their own hands; for in that case the enemy will continue to persecute them and will one day wipe them out of existence. This interpretation is borne out by the sayings of some of the Companions themselves (Dawud, Tirmidhi & Jarir).
The clause, and do good, surely Allah loves those who do good, may have four meanings: (1) Either it means, do not spend money yourselves only but give it to your proper brethren also so that they too may be able to take part in the war. (2) Or it means, do not be unjust or cruel to your enemies in your eagerness to bring the war to a speedy end, for Allah loves those who are good to others. Elsewhere the Quran says: Let not the enmity of a people incite you to be unjust. Be just (to all) for that is nearer righteousness, (3) Or it means, think well of your Lord, i.e. do not think that if you spend your money under God’s commandment, He will suffer you to come to ruin thereby. Or (4) it means, perform your duties well and fulfill your obligations faithfully and efficiently. The latter two meanings are supported by the saying of the Companions of the Holy Prophet also (Jarir). (close)
وَ اَتِمُّوا الۡحَجَّ وَ الۡعُمۡرَۃَ لِلّٰہِ ؕ فَاِنۡ اُحۡصِرۡتُمۡ فَمَا اسۡتَیۡسَرَ مِنَ الۡہَدۡیِ ۚ وَ لَا تَحۡلِقُوۡا رُءُوۡسَکُمۡ حَتّٰی یَبۡلُغَ الۡہَدۡیُ مَحِلَّہٗ ؕ فَمَنۡ کَانَ مِنۡکُمۡ مَّرِیۡضًا اَوۡ بِہٖۤ اَذًی مِّنۡ رَّاۡسِہٖ فَفِدۡیَۃٌ مِّنۡ صِیَامٍ اَوۡ صَدَقَۃٍ اَوۡ نُسُکٍ ۚ فَاِذَاۤ اَمِنۡتُمۡ ٝ فَمَنۡ تَمَتَّعَ بِالۡعُمۡرَۃِ اِلَی الۡحَجِّ فَمَا اسۡتَیۡسَرَ مِنَ الۡہَدۡیِ ۚ فَمَنۡ لَّمۡ یَجِدۡ فَصِیَامُ ثَلٰثَۃِ اَیَّامٍ فِی الۡحَجِّ وَ سَبۡعَۃٍ اِذَا رَجَعۡتُمۡ ؕ تِلۡکَ عَشَرَۃٌ کَامِلَۃٌ ؕ ذٰلِکَ لِمَنۡ لَّمۡ یَکُنۡ اَہۡلُہٗ حَاضِرِی الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَرَامِ ؕ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اعۡلَمُوۡۤا اَنَّ اللّٰہَ شَدِیۡدُ الۡعِقَابِ ﴿۱۹۷﴾٪
وَأَتِمُّواْ ٱلۡحَجَّ وَٱلۡعُمۡرَةَ لِلَّهِۚ فَإِنۡ أُحۡصِرۡتُمۡ فَمَا ٱسۡتَيۡسَرَ مِنَ ٱلۡهَدۡيِۖ وَلَا تَحۡلِقُواْ رُءُوسَكُمۡ حَتَّىٰ يَبۡلُغَ ٱلۡهَدۡيُ مَحِلَّهُۥۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوۡ بِهِۦٓ أَذٗى مِّن رَّأۡسِهِۦ فَفِدۡيَةٞ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوۡ صَدَقَةٍ أَوۡ نُسُكٖۚ فَإِذَآ أَمِنتُمۡ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِٱلۡعُمۡرَةِ إِلَى ٱلۡحَجِّ فَمَا ٱسۡتَيۡسَرَ مِنَ ٱلۡهَدۡيِۚ فَمَن لَّمۡ يَجِدۡ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَٰثَةِ أَيَّامٖ فِي ٱلۡحَجِّ وَسَبۡعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعۡتُمۡۗ تِلۡكَ عَشَرَةٞ كَامِلَةٞۗ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن لَّمۡ يَكُنۡ أَهۡلُهُۥ حَاضِرِي ٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ
227. With this verse begins the subject of Hajj (Pilgrimage). Jihad and Hajj seem to be correlated and both constitute a form of sacrifice which a true and sincere believer has to undergo in the way of Allah, a subject which began with 2:178. The Pilgrimage is the last stage in the spiritual development of man, the other stages such as Prayer, Fasting and Jihad having already been discussed. (close)
228. The ‘Umrah or the Lesser Pilgrimage consists in entering into a stage of Ihram in the way mentioned above, circuiting the Ka‘bah seven times, running between Safa and Marwah and offering a sacrifice which, however, is not obligatory. The ‘Umrah may be performed at any time of the year, whereas the Hajj or the Greater Pilgrimage is performed only during the month of Dhul-Hijjah. (close)
b. 48:26. (close)
229. The words, if you are kept back, refer to a state of affairs when a would-be pilgrim is prevented by disease, or a state of war, or by some other cause, from visiting the Ka‘bah to perform the Hajj or the ‘Umrah. (close)
230. The ‘Umrah and the Hajj may be combined in two ways: (a) The pilgrim who intends to perform the ‘Umrah alone should enter into the state of Ihram and perform its rites and finish it. Then on the eighth day of Dhul- Hijjah he should again enter into the state of Ihram and perform the prescribed rites of Hajj. This form of combining the ‘Umrah and the Hajj is technically called Tamattu‘ which literally means, "availing oneself of a thing." (b) The pilgrim may perform the ‘Umrah and the Hajj simultaneously. He should, in this case, enter into the state of Ihram with that intention and should remain in that state till the end of the Pilgrimage. This combination of Hajj and ‘Umrah is called Qiran which literally means, "the putting together of two things." In both Tamattu‘ and Qiran it is obligatory to offer the sacrifice. In the verse under comment the word Tamattu‘ is not used in the technical sense and covers Qiran also. (close)
231. Fasting is mentioned in the clause, should fast three days during the Pilgrimage, is distinct and separate from the fasting mentioned above. The first-mentioned fasting is meant for those who cannot shave their heads while this fasting is meant for those who are unable to offer sacrifice in case of Tamattu‘. The three days spoken of are preferably the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah. The remaining seven fasts may be observed after one has returned home. (close)
232. The words mean that the permission to combine Hajj and ‘Umrah is meant not for the residents of Mecca but for those who come from outside. By some, however, the words "the Sacred Mosque" have been extended to include the whole of Haram, i.e. the sacred territory in and around Mecca. (close)
a. 48:26. (close)
From this verse begin commandments relating to حج or the Pilgrimage. The Pilgrimage is performed in the following manner: The would-be pilgrim enters into a state of احرام (Ihram) on reaching the میقات i.e. certain prescribed places slightly varying in distance in different directions, but in all cases outside حرم (the Sacred Territory). In the state of احرامthe pilgrim is forbidden sexual intercourse, the use of scent or perfumed oil, the wearing of sewn garments, hunting and the like. The male pilgrim discards ordinary clothes, putting on white unsewn sheets and keeping the head uncovered. The female pilgrim may put on ordinary but simple clothes and should ordinarily keep her face uncovered. The pilgrim (male or female) is required to repeat the following words as often as possible: Labbaik, Allahumma labbaik, Labbaik. La sharika laka labbaik. Innal-hamda wanni‘mata laka wal mulka la sharika laka…” i.e. "My Lord! I am at Thy service. There is no equal or partner with Thee. So I am at Thy service alone. All praise belongs to Thee and all blessings are from Thee and all authority rests in Thee. I say again, there is no equal or partner with Thee. So I am at Thy service alone."
At Mecca the first thing the pilgrim does, preferably after having a bath, is to perform seven circuits round the Ka’bah then he briskly walks or runs between the Safa and the Marwah (see 2:159) seven times. On the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah (the month of Pilgrimage) he goes in the morning from Mecca to Mina, which is about three miles from Mecca, where he halts to perform, at their appointed time, the five daily Prayers, beginning from the midday Prayer. Next morning (i.e. the 9th) he starts from Mina and passing through, or by, Mash‘arul-Haram, which is about six miles from Mecca, he goes on to the great plain at ‘Arafat, three miles further ahead, where, before he actually enters ‘Arafat, he says the midday and the afternoon Prayers together; and when all the pilgrims have entered ‘Arafat, the Imam delivers a sermon, while the pilgrims do nothing but silently pray and stand still. Thereafter the pilgrim returns after sunset to Muzdalifah or Mash‘ar where he says the evening and the night Prayers together and spends most of his time in prayer and meditation. Next day (i.e. the 10th) after offering his morning Prayer at Mash‘arul-Haram he starts back early for Mina, where he casts pebbles (seven in number) at the three appointed pillars beginning with the Jamratul-‘Aqabah, repeating this each day that he stays at Mina. The same day, i.e. the 10th, the pilgrim offers his sacrifice (goat, sheep, ram, cow, camel, etc.), gets his head shaved, takes a bath and puts on his ordinary clothes. Thereafter he proceeds to Mecca and again performs the circuit of the Ka‘bah seven times and then returns to Mina if he should so desire. The stay at Mina may last from part of a day to three or four days known as ایام معدودات (i.e. the numbered days) with which the Hajj is completed. All this time the pilgrim should repeat, as many times as possible, the above mentioned prayer.
عمرة or the Lesser Pilgrimage consists in entering into a state of احرام (Ihram) in the way described above, circuiting the Ka‘bah seven times, running between the Safa and the Marwah and offering a sacrifice which, however, is not obligatory. ‘Umrah may be performed at any time of the year, whereas the Hajj or the Greater Pilgrimage is performed only during the month of Dhul-Hijjah. For the literal meanings of the words Hajj and ‘Umrah see note on 2:159.
The words, If you are kept back, refer to a state of affairs when a would-be pilgrim is prevented by disease, or a state of war, or some other cause, from visiting the Ka‘bah to perform the Hajj or the ‘Umrah. In this case the pilgrim may refrain from proceeding further and should sacrifice whatever offering is easily available, i.e. a goat, a sheep, a cow, or a camel, etc. But he should not shave his head until the offering reaches its destination, the idea being to remain in the state of Ihram until the offering reaches Mina which is the place meant for it. If, however, the offering cannot be sent to Mecca, it may be sacrificed by the pilgrim at the place where he is detained and the meat either consumed by the pilgrim himself or distributed among friends, relatives, neighbours, etc. It will be noted that the offering of a sacrifice is obligatory only when a would-be pilgrim is prevented from completing his Hajj or ‘Umrah. In ordinary circumstances when a person performs a Hajj or an ‘Umrah separately, it is only supererogatory, becoming obligatory only when the Hajj and the ‘Umrah are combined.
The clause, should make an expiation either by fasting or almsgiving or a sacrifice, relates to such people as cannot shave their heads owing to some ailment. The alternatives mentioned are meant to suit different grades of people. Fasting is meant for the poor; feeding the needy for the pilgrims of the middle class; and the offering of a sacrifice for the rich. The Quran does not fix the number of days for which one is to fast, or the number of the poor whom one is to feed or the kind of animal which one is to sacrifice. The Holy Prophet is reported to have once prescribed fasting for three days (i.e. three one-day fasts), and the feeding of six poor men and the offering of a goat as a sacrifice (Bukhari).
The words, when you are safe, mean, when the war is over, or when other obstacles are removed. In such case it is open to a person to proceed to Mecca with the intention of performing ‘Umrah and then stay on to perform Hajj in the ensuing month of Dhul-Hijjah. This is what is referred to in the words: who would avail himself of ‘Umrah together with the Hajj.
‘Umrah and Hajj may be combined in two ways: One way is for the would-be pilgrim to make up his mind to perform the ‘Umrah only and enter into the state of Ihram with that intention, and then perform its rites and finish it. After that on the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah one should again enter into the state of Ihram and then perform the prescribed rites of Hajj. This form of combining the ‘Umrah and the Hajj is technically called Tamattu‘ which literally means, "availing oneself of a thing".
The second way is that a man should make up his mind to perform the ‘Umrah and Hajj simultaneously. He should, in this case, enter into the state of Ihram with that intention and should remain in that state till the end of the Pilgrimage. This combination of Hajj and ‘Umrah is called قران (Qiran) which literally means, "the putting together of two things". In both Tamattu‘ and Qiran it is obligatory to offer the sacrifice, while in the case of Hajj alone or in the case of ‘Umrah alone, the offering of the sacrifice is not obligatory. In the verse under comment the word تمتع is not used in the technical sense and covers قران also.
The fasting mentioned in the clause, should fast three days during the Pilgrimage, is distinct and separate from the fasting mentioned above. The first-mentioned fasting was meant for those who cannot shave their heads, while this fasting is meant for those who are unable to offer a sacrifice in case of Tamattu‘. The three days spoken of are preferably the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah. The remaining seven fasts may be observed after one has returned home.
The clause, this is for him whose family does not reside near the Sacred Mosque, means that the permission to combine Hajj with ‘Umrah is meant not for the residents of Mecca but for those who come from outside. By some, however, the words "the Sacred Mosque" have been extended to include the whole of حرم i.e. the Sacred Territory in and around Mecca.
The final clause, fear Allah and know that Allah is severe in punishing, has a twofold meaning: (1) That Muslims should not think that these are mere minor details of certain outward rites and may therefore not be strictly observed; for all these things which the All-Knowing God has prescribed for the Faithful are necessary in His sight and are meant for their own good. So, whoever neglects these details not only incurs the displeasure of God, but also hinders his own spiritual progress. (2) That the performance of Hajj should not fill the heart with pride (which unfortunately is very often the case nowadays), for this would defeat the very object of Pilgrimage which is the attainment of تقوی or fear of God. In such case, the so-called pilgrim will not find himself nearer God but rather would see His punishment descending on him.
In connection with this verse, it should also be noted that besides giving a general meaning as stated above, it also refers to a specific incident in Islamic history, i.e. the Truce of Hudaibiyyah. The verse was revealed before that truce and hinted that a time was coming when Muslims would start towards Mecca with the intention of performing Pilgrimage, but they would be "kept back" from doing so by disbelievers. Later, however, God would grant them victory over the disbelievers and they would be "safe" to perform the Pilgrimage in peace. What a true picture of the apparent set-back at Hudaibiyyah and the subsequent Fall of Mecca at the hands of the Holy Prophet! (close)
اَلۡحَجُّ اَشۡہُرٌ مَّعۡلُوۡمٰتٌ ۚ فَمَنۡ فَرَضَ فِیۡہِنَّ الۡحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَ لَا فُسُوۡقَ ۙ وَ لَا جِدَالَ فِی الۡحَجِّ ؕ وَ مَا تَفۡعَلُوۡا مِنۡ خَیۡرٍ یَّعۡلَمۡہُ اللّٰہُ ؕؔ وَ تَزَوَّدُوۡا فَاِنَّ خَیۡرَ الزَّادِ التَّقۡوٰی ۫ وَ اتَّقُوۡنِ یٰۤاُولِی الۡاَلۡبَابِ ﴿۱۹۸﴾
ٱلۡحَجُّ أَشۡهُرٞ مَّعۡلُومَٰتٞۚ فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ ٱلۡحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي ٱلۡحَجِّۗ وَمَا تَفۡعَلُواْ مِنۡ خَيۡرٖ يَعۡلَمۡهُ ٱللَّهُۗ وَتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيۡرَ ٱلزَّادِ ٱلتَّقۡوَىٰۖ وَٱتَّقُونِ يَـٰٓأُوْلِي ٱلۡأَلۡبَٰبِ
a. 2:190; 9:36. (close)
b. 3:98; 22:28. (close)
233. Rafath includes all foul, immodest and lewd talk as well as acts relating to sex. Fusuq signifies transgression against the laws of God and disobedience of lawful authority, whether spiritual or temporal. And Jidal means, disputes and quarrels with co-travellers, companions and neighbours. (close)
b. 3:98; 22:28. (close)
204. Important Words:
رفث (foul talk) means, foul, immodest or lewd talk or speech in relation to women. It also signifies acts leading to and including coition (Mufradat & Lane). See also 2:188.
فسوق (transgression) is the same as فسق for which see note on 2:27.
جدال (quarrelling) is derived from جدل. They say جدل الحبل i.e. he twisted the rope. جدل الرجل means, his dispute or quarrel became intensified. جادله means, he disputed or quarrelled with him. Thus جدال means, dispute or quarrel, or the use of strong and hot words (Aqrab).
تزودوا (furnish yourselves) and الزاد (provision) are both derived from زاد with واو as the central root letter. They say زادالرجلi.e. the man prepared a provision for himself for a journey, etc. تزود means, he took for himself a provision. تزودمن الامیرکتابا الی عامله means, he took from the caliph a letter of introduction to his governor so that the latter might afford him his assistance as and when required. الزاد means, any provision, etc. taken when proceeding on a journey (Aqrab). The word is used of extra store meant for future use (Mufradat).
The clause the months of the Hajj are well known is intended to hint that, in the matter of the time of Pilgrimage, the Quran gives no new commandment. The established custom is the right one, being rightly retained by the Arabs from the days of Abraham and Ishmael. The three lunar months during which one may formally undertake the Pilgrimage and enter into the state of Ihram are Shawwal, Dhul-Qa‘dah and the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah (Bukhari).
The clause, there is to be no foul talk, nor any transgression nor any quarrelling during the Pilgrimage, does not mean that such acts are permissible at other times but that these are necessary conditions for the completion of Pilgrimage, which would be like a soulless body if one indulged in such things while undertaking it. Another purpose underlying these injunctions is that a person should abstain from them particularly during the period of Pilgrimage so that it might become easy for him to shun these things at other times as well. The three vices selected are typical of what should be scrupulously avoided in a religious gathering like that at the Pilgrimage. رفث (rafath) stands for all foul, immodest and lewd talk as well as acts relating to sex. فسوق (fusuq) stands for transgression against the laws of God and disobedience of lawful authority, whether spiritual or temporal. And جدال (jidal) stands for disputes and quarrels with co-travellers, companions and neighbours.
The clause, And furnish yourselves with necessary provisions, does not only refer to the preparation which one makes for an ordinary journey which is necessary in its own way, but also to the preparation which one has to make for a spiritual journey. In this sense the clause would signify "provide yourselves with piety and righteousness;" and in order to emphasize the latter kind of provision, the Quran fittingly adds, and surely the best provision is righteousness. But ordinary provision is also necessary; for, if a man does not take necessary provisions with him, he will be certainly put to great inconvenience and hardship on the way and will have to beg of others for help and both these things are detrimental to the noble object underlying Pilgrimage. (close)
لَیۡسَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ جُنَاحٌ اَنۡ تَبۡتَغُوۡا فَضۡلًا مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ ؕ فَاِذَاۤ اَفَضۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ عَرَفٰتٍ فَاذۡکُرُوا اللّٰہَ عِنۡدَ الۡمَشۡعَرِ الۡحَرَامِ ۪ وَ اذۡکُرُوۡہُ کَمَا ہَدٰٮکُمۡ ۚ وَ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ قَبۡلِہٖ لَمِنَ الضَّآلِّیۡنَ ﴿۱۹۹﴾
لَيۡسَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبۡتَغُواْ فَضۡلٗا مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡۚ فَإِذَآ أَفَضۡتُم مِّنۡ عَرَفَٰتٖ فَٱذۡكُرُواْ ٱللَّهَ عِندَ ٱلۡمَشۡعَرِ ٱلۡحَرَامِۖ وَٱذۡكُرُوهُ كَمَا هَدَىٰكُمۡ وَإِن كُنتُم مِّن قَبۡلِهِۦ لَمِنَ ٱلضَّآلِّينَ
c. 62:11. (close)
234. As the object of Pilgrimage is that the greatest possible number of Muslims should take part in it, therefore, the Qur’an permits pilgrims to engage in commerce and trade. Those, who cannot take hard cash with them, may carry merchandise and thereby earn money to meet the expenses of the journey. (close)
235. ‘Arafat is a plain or valley near Mecca where pilgrims halt in the latter part of the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah. It is nine miles from Mecca, and the halt technically known as Wuquf forms an important rite of the Pilgrimage. ‘Arafat is a compound word meaning, the sacred place or means of perception or knowledge. (close)
236. Mash‘arul-Haram is a small hill in Muzdalifah, which lies between Mecca and ‘Arafat. Here the Holy Prophet said the evening and the night Prayers and remained engaged in prayer all night before the rising of the sun. The place is specially meant for meditation and prayer in Pilgrimage. It is about six miles from Mecca. (close)
a. 2:153, 204; 8:46; 62:11. (close)
a. 62:11. (close)
b. 2:153, 204; 8:46; 62:11. (close)
205. Important Words:
فضل (bounty). See 2:65.
افضتم (you pour forth) is derived from افاض which is again derived from فاض. They say فاض السیل i.e. the flood-water was great in quantity and overflowed the banks. فاضت عینه means, his eye was full of tears, which began to flow down fast. افاض is both transitive and intransitive. They say افاض الماء i.e. he poured out water. افاض القوم من المکان means, the people, who were great in number, poured forth from the house and dispersed. فیاض is one whose charity flows like water (Aqrab).
عرفات (‘Arafat) is the name given to a plain or valley near Mecca where pilgrims halt in the latter portion of the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah. It is about a mile and a half in circuit with sloping sides rising nearly two hundred feet above the level of the adjacent plain. It is nine miles from Mecca, and the halt technically known as وقوف at this place forms the principal factor of Hajj or Pilgrimage. The word is derived from عرف meaning, he knew or recognized.
مشعرالحرام (Mash‘arul-Haram) is the name given to a small hillock in Muzdalifah, which lies between Mecca and ‘Arafat. Here the Holy Prophet said the evening and the night Prayers and offered special prayers to God before the rising of the sun. It is thus a place specially meant for meditation and prayer in Pilgrimage. It is about six miles from Mecca. The name is a compound of مشعر (from شعر) meaning, the place or means of perception or knowledge, and الحرام (from حرم) meaning, sacred.
As the object of Pilgrimage is that the greatest possible number of Muslims should take part in it, therefore, the Quran permits pilgrims to engage in commerce and trade. Those who cannot take hard cash with them may carry merchandise, and thereby earn money to meet the expenses of the journey. This is what is hinted in the clause, it is no sin for you that you seek the bounty of your Lord. Similar permission is granted to those who gather for the Friday Prayers (62:11).
But trade should not interfere with the acts of worship and devotion prescribed in Pilgrimage. Says God, but when you pour forth from ‘Arafat, remember Him as He has guided you. The Holy Prophet used to pass his time in prayer and meditation at Mash‘arul-Haram and the Faithful are warned that trade or any other worldly occupation should not make them forget the real object of Pilgrimage. The word افضتم (pour forth, lit. overflow) also has a metaphorical meaning, i.e. when you return from ‘Arafat, you should not return empty-handed but should return like a vessel full to overflowing with spiritual knowledge and blessings.
The reader will note that عرفات (‘Arafat) and مشعرالحرام (Mash‘arul-Haram) are both attributive names which have now come to be used as proper ones. They are used to draw the attention of the pilgrim to the fact that Hajj should be a source of knowledge and spiritual realization to him and not a mere outward rite, a mere shell, with no inner soul. The word ‘Arafat also hints that it should be a means of mutual introduction and recognition for Muslims coming from different parts of the world. (close)
ثُمَّ اَفِیۡضُوۡا مِنۡ حَیۡثُ اَفَاضَ النَّاسُ وَ اسۡتَغۡفِرُوا اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۰۰﴾
ثُمَّ أَفِيضُواْ مِنۡ حَيۡثُ أَفَاضَ ٱلنَّاسُ وَٱسۡتَغۡفِرُواْ ٱللَّهَۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
237. If thumma is taken to mean "and," and "the return" spoken of in this verse is taken to refer to the return from ‘Arafat, then an-Nas would mean "other people;" but if it is taken to mean "then" and "the return" spoken of here is taken to refer to the return from Mash‘arul-Haram, then an-Nas would signify "all people" and both these meanings are supported by rules of the Arabic language. (close)
238. Before the advent of Islam the Quraish and the Banu Kinanah known as Hums did not accompany other pilgrims to ‘Arafat, but stopped short at Mash‘arul-Haram, waiting to join other people returning from ‘Arafat. In this and the preceding verse, they are bidden not to stop short at Mash‘arul-Haram but to go up to ‘Arafat and do as other people do. After returning from ‘Arafat to Mash‘arul-Haram, pilgrims should proceed to Mina where sacrifices are offered and the state of Ihram comes to an end. (close)
206. Important Words:
استغفروا (ask forgiveness) is derived from غفر for which see 2:59. استغفر would thus mean, he asked God for مغفرة in all its senses, i.e. covering up of sins, forgiveness, protection against stumbling, protection against punishment of sins, etc. استغفار is not confined to verbal asking for forgiveness only, but extends to, and includes, practical change for the better on the part of him who asks for forgiveness. He should ask for pardon both by word and deed (Mufradat).
The word ثم (then) in the clause, then pour forth from where the people pour forth, has given rise to a divergence of opinion among commentators. If it means "then", it must needs be taken to indicate sequence or order and the clause would thus signify: "after you have returned to مشعرالحرام from عرفات (as mentioned in the preceding verse), you should return (from مشعرالحرام to منی) from where the people return". But this is obviously superfluous, as nobody has ever differed about proceeding to and returning from مشعرالحرام with the people. A difference existed only with regard to proceeding to and returning from عرفات; for, whereas the Quraish and the Kinanah, known as Hums, stopped short at Mash‘arul-Haram, a place within حرم (the Sacred Territory) and did not go up to ‘Arafat which is outside حرم, other pilgrims went right up to ‘Arafat. Consequently if the commandment with regard to "pouring forth with the people" was at all needed, it was needed with regard to ‘Arafat and not with regard to Mash‘arul-Haram but in the verse under comment the Quran appears to mention it in connection with the latter. This difficulty has led some to interpret the word ثم not as "then" but simply as "and" which the idiom of the Arabic language justifies (Lane). These commentators have translated the words ثم افیضوا not as "then pour forth" but simply as "and pour forth". In this case the "pouring forth" spoken of may relate to ‘Arafat and not to Mash‘arul-Haram as the clause under comment appears to indicate. This is certainly not an incorrect interpretation so far as the rules of the Arabic language go; but another interpretation is also possible in which the primary meaning of ثم (then) is retained. This may be explained as follows. The preceding verse speaks of "pouring forth" or returning from ‘Arafat, thereby making it plain that going up to ‘Arafat is necessary. This completes the commandment with regard to the stay at and return from ‘Arafat. The verse under comment takes us further, speaking of the return from Mash‘arul-Haram and not from ‘Arafat, and thus the primary significance of ثم i.e. "then" is retained, for the obvious reason that the return from Mash‘arul-Haram comes after the return from ‘Arafat. As to the words, pour forth from where the people pour forth, it may be noted that in this case they would be taken to have been used merely to indicate that whereas the return from ‘Arafat is confined to those who adhere to the right custom and go right up to ‘Arafat, the return from Mash‘arul-Haram is general, including also the proud Hums who stopped short at Mash‘arul-Haram and did not go further. This is further corroborated by the fact that whereas the Quran uses the word افضتم (you pour forth) with regard to the return from ‘Arafat, it uses the words افیضوامن حیث افاض الناس i.e. "pour forth from where the people (i.e. all people) pour forth" with regard to the return from Mash‘arul-Haram which was at that time more general and extended to all. Thus the meaning of the word الناس would also change with the change in the meaning of the word ثم. If ثم is taken to mean "and", and "the return" spoken of in this verse is taken to refer to the return from ‘Arafat, then الناس would mean "other people"; but if ثم is taken to mean "then" and "the return" spoken of here is taken to refer to the return from Mash‘arul-Haram, then الناس would signify "all people" and both these meanings are justified by the rules of the Arabic language.
In short, before the advent of Islam the Quraish and the Banu Kinanah known as Hums did not accompany other pilgrims to ‘Arafat, but stopped short at Mash‘arul-Haram, waiting to join other people returning from ‘Arafat. In this and the preceding verse, they are bidden not to stop short at Mash‘arul-Haram but to go up to ‘Arafat and do as other people do. After returning from ‘Arafat to Mash‘arul-Haram, pilgrims should proceed to Mina where sacrifices are offered and the state of Ihram comes to an end. The clause, and seek forgiveness from Allah, hints that as Hajj consists of certain rites, there is the possibility of some persons not understanding the meaning and spirit of these rites. Moreover, where a number of religious acts are crowded into a short space of time, there is always the possibility of some persons missing and omitting certain things or of forgetting the prescribed order thereof. The pilgrims are, therefore, exhorted to have recourse to Istighfar, i.e. seeking God’s forgiveness as well as His protection against error and its consequences.
The word استغفار literally means "to pray for the covering up of sins and protection," which signifies forgiveness for past sins and protection against future ones. Thus, when a pilgrim offers Istighfar, he seeks not only forgiveness for what is past or protection against stumbling with regard to the observance of the rites of Pilgrimage but also protection against future stumblings.
It should also be remembered that Istighfar is not needed by ordinary people only, but holy servants of God also resort to it. The former offer Istighfar to seek protection against future sins as well as from the consequences of past errors; while the latter seek protection against human shortcomings and limitations that may hinder their progress and work. Holy men too, are human, and though they may be free from sins, they are always eager to seek divine help and assistance against human weaknesses and frailties. Nay, as they have to set an example to others and their responsibilities are also far heavier than those of other people, they resort to Istighfar more often than ordinary men. (close)
فَاِذَا قَضَیۡتُمۡ مَّنَاسِکَکُمۡ فَاذۡکُرُوا اللّٰہَ کَذِکۡرِکُمۡ اٰبَآءَکُمۡ اَوۡ اَشَدَّ ذِکۡرًا ؕ فَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنۡ یَّقُوۡلُ رَبَّنَاۤ اٰتِنَا فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَ مَا لَہٗ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ مِنۡ خَلَاقٍ ﴿۲۰۱﴾
فَإِذَا قَضَيۡتُم مَّنَٰسِكَكُمۡ فَٱذۡكُرُواْ ٱللَّهَ كَذِكۡرِكُمۡ ءَابَآءَكُمۡ أَوۡ أَشَدَّ ذِكۡرٗاۗ فَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِنَا فِي ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَمَا لَهُۥ فِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ مِنۡ خَلَٰقٖ
b. 2:129. (close)
c. See 2:153. (close)
d. 4:135; 42:21. (close)
a. 2:129. (close)
b. See 2:153. (close)
c. 4:135; 42:21. (close)
207. Important Words:
فاذکروا (celebrate praises of) is derived from ذکر which means, (1) he talked of him by way of praising him; (2) he remembered him in his heart (Aqrab & Mufradat). See also 2:41, 153.
او (or) is a preposition, used to convey a number of meanings, the more important being: (1) or; (2) and; (3) nay; (4) unless; (5) until (Aqrab & Lane).
خلاق (share) means, an abundant share in what is good (Aqrab).
The clause, celebrate the praises of Allah as you celebrated the praises of your fathers, points to a practice of pagan Arabs who used to gather together at a certain place in Mina after the performance of the rites of Pilgrimage and glorify their forefathers by reciting poems in their praise. Muslims are here bidden to glorify God instead, and praise Him as they used to praise their forefathers, and, the words "even more than that" have been added to emphasize that God’s praises should transcend all, for the word او (or) also means, "nay". It is also possible that the word ك (as) in the expression کذکرکم (as you celebrated praises) has been used only to denote general similarity without reference to degree, and the word او (or) has been used in the sense of "and". In this case the verse would mean that though in the general manner of praise your celebration of God’s praises may resemble the praises with which you glorified your fathers, in degree it should excel it, being اشد (stronger, loftier and firmer).
Here is a good example of how the Quran, while retaining some old customs, improved upon and, spiritualised them to serve the ends of Islam.
The clause, when you have performed the acts of worship prescribed for you, celebrate the praises of Allah as you celebrated the praises of your fathers or even more than that, has yet another meaning. As the word ذکر also means 'remembering' and the word اب (father) includes mother as well (12:101), the clause may also signify that the rites of Pilgrimage, if performed in the right spirit, should fill the heart of man with such love for God as to make him always remember Him just as a child remembers his parents. This is why the Quran begins the word اذکروا with the conjunction ف meaning "so" or "then", hinting that the result of the performance of the rites of Pilgrimage should be that a pilgrim should ever after remember his Creator with the fondness displayed by a child for his parents. But this is only the first stage. With holier men God’s love should be even greater, as the verse hints in the words, or even more than that. Says the Holy Prophet, "The sign of true faith is that a believer’s love for God and His Apostle should be greater than his love for any other being or thing" (Bukhari).
The concluding clause, i.e. of men there are some who say, 'Our Lord, grant us (good things) in this world, and such a one shall have no share in the Hereafter, points to the fact that if the pilgrim confines himself to the celebration of the praises of his fathers and forgets his Creator, he would be like a person who spends all his efforts in the pursuit of this world, even his prayers being confined to search after worldly things. Such a person shall evidently have no claim to the good things of the Hereafter. It is also significant that in this clause the Quran does not use the word حسنة (good things) with the words فی الدنیا (in this world) thereby hinting that such men generally make no distinction between the good things of this world and the bad things thereof, their sole object being the things of this world, irrespective of whether they are good or bad.
As explained under Important Words, the word خلاق (share) occurring in the clause, such a one shall have no share in the Hereafter, really means, "an abundant share in what is good". So the verse would really mean not that such a person will get only a small share in the Hereafter but that, by remaining engrossed in the things of this world, he will deprive himself of a big share and will get no share at all. As the Quran has to condense vast subjects in a small space, it purposely uses words and constructions that take the smallest space but convey the vastest meaning. (close)
وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ یَّقُوۡلُ رَبَّنَاۤ اٰتِنَا فِی الدُّنۡیَا حَسَنَۃً وَّ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ حَسَنَۃً وَّ قِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ ﴿۲۰۲﴾
وَمِنۡهُم مَّن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِنَا فِي ٱلدُّنۡيَا حَسَنَةٗ وَفِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ حَسَنَةٗ وَقِنَا عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ
a. 42:21. (close)
239. The verse mentions that class of men whose efforts and aspirations are not confined to this world only. They seek the good things of this world and also the good things of the next. Hasanah also means, success (Taj). The prayer is very comprehensive and the Holy Prophet very often made use of it (Muslim). (close)
In this verse God mentions that class of men whose efforts and wishes are not confined to this world only. They (1) seek the good things of this world and (2) seek the good things of the next world, and (3) try to be saved from the Fire which not only signifies the fire of Hell but also everything that is painful and is a source of heart-burning. It may be noted that here, unlike the preceding verse, God uses the word حسنة (good) with the words فی الدنیا (in this world), meaning that even virtuous men may seek the things of this world but they should always be good and not bad.
The prayer mentioned in this verse is indeed very comprehensive and may be used by men of all grades in all their spiritual and temporal requirements, and the Holy Prophet is reported to have used this prayer very often (Muslim, ch. on Dhikr) with a view to teaching his Companions that if and when they choose to seek both the good things of this world and of the next, they should pray like this.
The prayer has another significance also. The good things of this world and the good things of the Hereafter spoken of in this verse may both stand for spiritual blessings, the good things of this world standing for such spiritual blessings as a righteous man gets in this world and the good things of the next world standing for those which he will get in the Hereafter. In fact, the very words used in the verse point to that signification, for the Quranic words فی الدنیاحسنة do not mean "good things of this world" but simply "good in this world". In this case النارor "the Fire" would stand not for Hell, protection against which is, in fact, included in the good things of the next world, but for such trials and hardships as one may come across in this world in the struggle for spiritual advancement or in the effort to benefit others. It was in this sense that the Holy Prophet used this prayer with regard to himself; for personally he never sought even the good things of this world, though he always sought "good in this world". (close)