فَوَیۡلٌ لِّلَّذِیۡنَ یَکۡتُبُوۡنَ الۡکِتٰبَ بِاَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ ٭ ثُمَّ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ ہٰذَا مِنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ لِیَشۡتَرُوۡا بِہٖ ثَمَنًا قَلِیۡلًا ؕ فَوَیۡلٌ لَّہُمۡ مِّمَّا کَتَبَتۡ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ وَ وَیۡلٌ لَّہُمۡ مِّمَّا یَکۡسِبُوۡنَ ﴿۸۰﴾
فَوَيۡلٞ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكۡتُبُونَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ بِأَيۡدِيهِمۡ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَٰذَا مِنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ لِيَشۡتَرُواْ بِهِۦ ثَمَنٗا قَلِيلٗاۖ فَوَيۡلٞ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتۡ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَوَيۡلٞ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكۡسِبُونَ
a. 2:175; 3:200. (close)
114. There were Jews who composed books or parts thereof and then gave them out as the Word of God. This malpractice was common among the Jews. In addition, therefore, to the canonical Books of the Bible, there are a number of books which are supposed by the Jews to have been revealed, so that it has now become impossible to distinguish the revealed Books from those not revealed. (close)
a. 2:175; 3:200; 13:27. (close)
86. Important Words:
ویل (woe) means: (1) the coming or befalling of some calamity, misfortune or sorrow; (2) punishment; (3) perdition. The expression ویل له or ویله or ویل لك or ویلك etc. is used as a warning for some coming sorrow or misfortune (Aqrab & Lane).
There were Jews who composed books or parts thereof and then gave them out as the word of God. This malpractice was common among the Jews and other peoples. Therefore, in addition to the canonical Books of the Bible, there are a number of books which are supposed to be revealed, so that it has now become impossible to distinguish the revealed Books from those not revealed. Another mal-practice of the Jews was that they distorted the meaning of the Divine Word. They themselves wrote a whole book or part thereof and declared it to be based on Biblical evidence; while, as a matter of fact, it was opposed to this evidence. Those responsible for this were responsible not only for their own misdeeds, namely, fabricating and distorting the Word of God, but also for the misdeeds of their followers who were led by their example to commit one or all of the following acts (1) tampering with the Word of God (2:76); (2) preferring worldliness to religion (2:77); and (3) following their own vain desires and false notions (2:79). Hence, while speaking of them, the Quran uses the word ویل (woe) in order to warn them and remind them of the seriousness of their offence.
Some Christian writers have argued that the verse under comment proves that the Jewish and Christian scriptures were intact at the time of the Holy Prophet. This inference is absolutely unjustified. For tampering with the text does not necessarily mean tampering with a genuine text. One who tampers with a version of a false book which he believes to be true is as liable to blame as the one who tampers with a genuine scripture. Hence, the warning to the People of the Book against tampering with the Bible cannot be cited as proof of the existence of the true Bible at the time of the Holy Prophet.
The words, paltry price, do not mean that the taking of a good price would be lawful. The words have been used to point out that whatever price they may take would be paltry in view of the great loss they would be suffering thereby. Elsewhere, the Quran says: the benefit of this world is little (4:78).
In the last clause the Quran repeats the words, Woe to them, twice, saying: Woe, then, to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they earn. This is to point out that by so doing the Israelites are committing two offences: (1) writing down a thing falsely and (2) doing it with the intention of earning some worldly benefit. As the offence is double, the punishment also will be double. (close)
وَ قَالُوۡا لَنۡ تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ اِلَّاۤ اَیَّامًا مَّعۡدُوۡدَۃً ؕ قُلۡ اَتَّخَذۡتُمۡ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ عَہۡدًا فَلَنۡ یُّخۡلِفَ اللّٰہُ عَہۡدَہٗۤ اَمۡ تَقُوۡلُوۡنَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۸۱﴾
وَقَالُواْ لَن تَمَسَّنَا ٱلنَّارُ إِلَّآ أَيَّامٗا مَّعۡدُودَةٗۚ قُلۡ أَتَّخَذۡتُمۡ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ عَهۡدٗا فَلَن يُخۡلِفَ ٱللَّهُ عَهۡدَهُۥٓۖ أَمۡ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ
b. 3:25. (close)
115. After recounting some malpractices of the Jews, the Qur’an proceeds to explain the root cause of their arrogance and hard-heartedness. These evil practices of the Jews, the Qur’an points out, are due to their wrong notion that they were immune from punishment (Jew. Enc. under 'Gehenna'), or, if they will at all be punished, the punishment will be very slight and of very short duration. At the time of the Holy Prophet, a section of the Jews thought that their punishment would not last more than forty days. Others reduced it to seven days (Jarir, under 2:81). "It is a received opinion among the Jews at present that no person (from among the Jews), be he ever so wicked, or of whatever sect, shall remain in Hell above eleven months or at most a year, except Dathan and Abiram and atheists (from among the Jews) who will be tormented there to all eternity" (Sale). (close)
c. 54:44. (close)
a. 3:25; 5:19. (close)
b. 54:44. (close)
87. Important Words:
النار (the Fire) means fire both as a source of light and of heat, the latter aspect being more dominant. Another word derived from the same root is نور meaning light, which is used without reference to the element of heat. The word النار (the Fire) has come to be used about "Hell", the punishment of which will consist of fire (Aqrab). It is significant that whereas the blessings of Heaven have been metaphorically spoken of as "streams of water", the punishment of Hell has been called "fire".
After recounting some malpractices of the Jews, the Quran proceeds to explain the root cause of their arrogance and hard-heartedness. These evil practices of the Jews, the Quran points out, are due to the wrong notion that they were immune from punishment (Jew. Enc. under Gehenna), or if they will at all be punished, the punishment will be very slight. It is recorded that at the time of the Holy Prophet, a section of the Jews thought that the punishment of the Jews would not last more than forty days (Jarir, under 2:81). Others regarded even this as too long, and reduced it to seven days (Jarir, ibid). As for modern Jews, Sale says: "It is a received opinion among the Jews at present, that no person (from among the Jews), be he ever so wicked, or of whatever sect, shall remain in Hell above eleven months or at most a year, except Dathan and Abiram and atheists (from among the Jews) who will be tormented there to all eternity" (Wherry, i. 318).
The concluding portion of the verse, i.e. have you taken a promise from Allah…? has been added to point out that the matter of salvation does not rest on the wish of a person or people but only on the grace and mercy of Allah Who has prescribed a law for it. This law the Quran proceeds to explain in the following two verses. (close)
بَلٰی مَنۡ کَسَبَ سَیِّئَۃً وَّ اَحَاطَتۡ بِہٖ خَطِیۡٓــَٔتُہٗ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ اَصۡحٰبُ النَّارِ ۚ ہُمۡ فِیۡہَا خٰلِدُوۡنَ ﴿۸۲﴾
بَلَىٰۚ مَن كَسَبَ سَيِّئَةٗ وَأَحَٰطَتۡ بِهِۦ خَطِيٓـَٔتُهُۥ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ أَصۡحَٰبُ ٱلنَّارِۖ هُمۡ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ
88. Important Words:
سیئة (evil) is derived from ساء meaning, it or he was or became evil or bad. So سیئة means, anything that is evil or bad. The Arabs say قول سیء i.e. an evil word or an evil opinion (Aqrab).
خطیئة (sins) is derived from خطأ meaning, he committed a mistake or an offence or a sin. The word خطیئة, though translated here as plural, is really singular, meaning, a sinful act or an offence, whether intentional or otherwise (Aqrab, Mufradat & Lane).
This and the following verse prescribe the law of punishment and reward, or, in other words, of Hell and Heaven. The Quran here begins with the law pertaining to punishment, because in the preceding verse the Jews claimed immunity from punishment. The Jews based their claim on the fact that they were a chosen people of God, being descended from Prophets. The Quran strongly repudiates this idea, saying, that Hell and Heaven have not been earmarked for any race. The entry of man into Hell or Heaven depends on what beliefs he holds and what actions he performs in this world. If a man holds wrong beliefs and per- forms sinful deeds, he will go to Hell, irrespective of the fact whether he is a Jew or a Christian or anybody else.
In the verse under comment, the word سیئة (evil) read with the context signifies rejection of the Holy Prophet by the Jews, thus referring to the condition as to wrong belief, and the word خطیئة (sin) signifies their general misdeeds, thus referring to the condition as to sinful actions. It must, however, be noted that, as occasional stumbling is generally pardonable with the Merciful God, provided the belief is good and provided further that there is an honest effort on one’s part to live righteously, the words, he is encompassed by his sins, have been used to point to the fact that only such misdeeds can drive one to Hell as are so large in number as to virtually encompass a man, just as an invading army encompasses a besieged force, leaving it no way out.
Coming as it does after a narration of the wrong beliefs and sinful deeds of the Israelites, the verse warns the Jews that with such a black record they should be ashamed to claim immunity from the punishment of Hellfire. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ اُولٰٓئِکَ اَصۡحٰبُ الۡجَنَّۃِ ۚ ہُمۡ فِیۡہَا خٰلِدُوۡنَ ﴿٪۸۳﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ أَصۡحَٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِۖ هُمۡ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ
89. Important Words:
خالدون (shall abide) signifies a long time but not necessarily time without end. See note on 2:26.
This verse sententiously sets forth the Divine law relating to salvation or the entry into Heaven.
Almost all the religions of the world hold salvation as a monopoly for their adherents and condemn others to everlasting Hell. Islam has raised its powerful voice against such notions, declaring them to be false and baseless. It does not lend the least support to the idea that salvation will come as a free gift to a certain class of men in whose case punishment, if resorted to at all, will only be a nominal one. According to Islam salvation can be attained only by combining true faith with good actions. The condition as to true faith serves as a warning to those people who reject certain Prophets of God andstill hope to attain salvation because they belong to a specified class and are descended from certain holy persons. And the condition of good actions serves as a warning to those who are negligent in deeds, thinking that mere enrolment in the category of believers will bring salvation. Islam would have none of them.
The word خالدون (shall abide) signifies a long, long time but not necessarily eternity. As will be noted, the word has been used in verses 82 and 83 both with regard to the inmates of Hell and of Heaven. This should not give rise to the misunderstanding either that both the punishment of Hell and the reward of Heaven are eternal or that both will come to an end after a long time. The Quran makes it clear elsewhere that though both the punishment of Hell and the reward of Heaven are meant to last long, it is only the reward of Heaven which is everlasting (11:107-109). (close)
وَ اِذۡ اَخَذۡنَا مِیۡثَاقَ بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ لَا تَعۡبُدُوۡنَ اِلَّا اللّٰہَ ۟ وَ بِالۡوَالِدَیۡنِ اِحۡسَانًا وَّ ذِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ الۡیَتٰمٰی وَ الۡمَسٰکِیۡنِ وَ قُوۡلُوۡا لِلنَّاسِ حُسۡنًا وَّ اَقِیۡمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتُوا الزَّکٰوۃَ ؕ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّیۡتُمۡ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا مِّنۡکُمۡ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَ ﴿۸۴﴾
وَإِذۡ أَخَذۡنَا مِيثَٰقَ بَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ لَا تَعۡبُدُونَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ وَبِٱلۡوَٰلِدَيۡنِ إِحۡسَانٗا وَذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَٱلۡيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلۡمَسَٰكِينِ وَقُولُواْ لِلنَّاسِ حُسۡنٗا وَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُواْ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيۡتُمۡ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا مِّنكُمۡ وَأَنتُم مُّعۡرِضُونَ
a. 4:155; 5:13. (close)
b. 2:44, 111; 4:78; 6:73; 22:79; 24:57; 30:32. (close)
116. The verse does not refer to any particular covenant but to a general covenant enjoining the Jews to give up the vices which were rife among them at that time and to lead a virtuous life (Exod. 20:3-6, 12; Lev. 19:17-18; Prov. 3:27-28, 30; Deut. 6:13 & 14:29). In this verse, as everywhere else in the Qur’an, the sequence of words follows the natural order of importance of the works mentioned. (close)
b. 2:44; 4:78; 6:73; 22:79; 24:57; 30:32. (close)
90. Important Words:
میثاق (a covenant). See 2:64.
After setting forth the attitude of the Israelites of the Holy Prophet’s time towards the Prophets of God and their own Scriptures, the Quran draws their attention to the teachings which they had been required to follow but which they ignored.
The verse under comment does not refer to any particular covenant, but to the vices which were rife among the Jews at the time and which were forbidden them in the Bible. Worship of any object other than God is repeatedly forbidden in the Jewish scriptures (Exod. 20:3-6). Again, kindness to parents is also among the injunctions (Exod. 20:12). Similarly, for the kind treatment of kinsmen, clear injunctions have been given (Lev. 19:17, 18; Exod. 21:9, and Prov. 3:27, 28). For care of orphans, an injunction is to be met with in Deut. 14:29. Sympathy for the poor is enjoined in Deut. 15:11. The injunction to deal gently with mankind is found in Prov. 3:30. The commandment to observe Prayer is given in Deut. 6:13. The injunction for alms-giving may be seen in Exod. 23:10, 11.
The Jews openly disregarded these clear injunctions. They set up equals to God, some believing in Ezra as the son of God, others taking the word of their divines as revelation and setting aside the dictates of the Holy Writ. Their treatment of their own kinsmen and others was cruel. Their attitude towards orphans and the indigent was unsympathetic. They were quite devoid of fellow feeling and were lax in worship and alms-giving. It should, however, be noted that God has not condemned the whole Jewish nation, but has made an exception in the case of the righteous few among them.
In this verse, as everywhere else in the Quran, the sequence of words follows the natural order of importance. The worship of the One God is mentioned first. Then mention is made of mankind, who have been divided into two classes: (1) those who deserve good treatment as a right; (2) those to whom kindness is shown as an act of charity. The first class is mentioned first, because in their case there is a sort of obligation, a debt to be paid. Those who are to be treated kindly out of charity are mentioned afterwards, the degree of need in each case determining the sequence. Last of all, acts of obedience to God are mentioned; and out of them the most important ones pertaining to the purification of the soul and the payment of religious taxes are selected; and these are placed after fellow feeling, because fellow feeling is the first step towards the moral elevation of man, who often feels impelled to it from within without reference to any law.
It is noteworthy that the injunctions that are found scattered in the Bible have been placed together in a most beautiful order in the Quran. (close)
وَ اِذۡ اَخَذۡنَا مِیۡثَاقَکُمۡ لَا تَسۡفِکُوۡنَ دِمَآءَکُمۡ وَ لَا تُخۡرِجُوۡنَ اَنۡفُسَکُمۡ مِّنۡ دِیَارِکُمۡ ثُمَّ اَقۡرَرۡتُمۡ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ تَشۡہَدُوۡنَ ﴿۸۵﴾
وَإِذۡ أَخَذۡنَا مِيثَٰقَكُمۡ لَا تَسۡفِكُونَ دِمَآءَكُمۡ وَلَا تُخۡرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَٰرِكُمۡ ثُمَّ أَقۡرَرۡتُمۡ وَأَنتُمۡ تَشۡهَدُونَ
117. The reference may be to the covenant between the Holy Prophet and the Jews of Medina by which both sides undertook to help each other against a common enemy and all disputes were to be referred to the Holy Prophet for decision (Muir’s 'Life of Mahomet' & 'Sirat' by Mirza Bashir Ahmad, M.A.). (close)
91. See under 2:87. (close)
ثُمَّ اَنۡتُمۡ ہٰۤـؤُلَآءِ تَقۡتُلُوۡنَ اَنۡفُسَکُمۡ وَ تُخۡرِجُوۡنَ فَرِیۡقًا مِّنۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ دِیَارِہِمۡ ۫ تَظٰہَرُوۡنَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ بِالۡاِثۡمِ وَ الۡعُدۡوَانِ ؕ وَ اِنۡ یَّاۡتُوۡکُمۡ اُسٰرٰی تُفٰدُوۡہُمۡ وَ ہُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اِخۡرَاجُہُمۡ ؕ اَفَتُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِبَعۡضِ الۡکِتٰبِ وَ تَکۡفُرُوۡنَ بِبَعۡضٍ ۚ فَمَا جَزَآءُ مَنۡ یَّفۡعَلُ ذٰلِکَ مِنۡکُمۡ اِلَّا خِزۡیٌ فِی الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا ۚ وَ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ یُرَدُّوۡنَ اِلٰۤی اَشَدِّ الۡعَذَابِ ؕ وَ مَا اللّٰہُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۸۶﴾
ثُمَّ أَنتُمۡ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ تَقۡتُلُونَ أَنفُسَكُمۡ وَتُخۡرِجُونَ فَرِيقٗا مِّنكُم مِّن دِيَٰرِهِمۡ تَظَٰهَرُونَ عَلَيۡهِم بِٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَٱلۡعُدۡوَٰنِ وَإِن يَأۡتُوكُمۡ أُسَٰرَىٰ تُفَٰدُوهُمۡ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيۡكُمۡ إِخۡرَاجُهُمۡۚ أَفَتُؤۡمِنُونَ بِبَعۡضِ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ وَتَكۡفُرُونَ بِبَعۡضٖۚ فَمَا جَزَآءُ مَن يَفۡعَلُ ذَٰلِكَ مِنكُمۡ إِلَّا خِزۡيٞ فِي ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَاۖ وَيَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰٓ أَشَدِّ ٱلۡعَذَابِۗ وَمَا ٱللَّهُ بِغَٰفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُونَ
118. There lived in Medina in the time of the Holy Prophet three Jewish tribes, the Banu Qainuqa‘, the Banu Nadir and the Banu Quraizah; and two pagan tribes, the Aus and the Khazraj. Two of the Jewish tribes, Banu Qainuqa‘ and Banu Quraizah, sided with the Aus, and Banu Nadir with the Khazraj. Thus, whenever these pagan clans were at war with each other, the Jewish tribes were automatically involved. But, if during a war any Jews were taken prisoner by the pagans, the former would collect money by subscription and ransom them. They considered it improper for a Jew to remain in bondage with a Gentile. The Qur’an objects to this practice by saying that their Faith not only forbids the enslavement of Jews, but also prohibits mutual warfare and murder in which they openly indulged and there could be nothing worse than to accept a portion of a Scripture and reject the rest; for, when one accepts a portion of a Scripture, it is proof of the fact that one is convinced of the truth of the whole. Thus rejection of a portion is clear evidence of a perverted mind. For prohibition of enslavement of Jews, see Lev. 25:39-43, 47-49, 54-55; Neh. 5:8. (close)
92. See under 2:87. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ اشۡتَرَوُا الۡحَیٰوۃَ الدُّنۡیَا بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ ۫ فَلَا یُخَفَّفُ عَنۡہُمُ الۡعَذَابُ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یُنۡصَرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۸۷﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱشۡتَرَوُاْ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا بِٱلۡأٓخِرَةِۖ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنۡهُمُ ٱلۡعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمۡ يُنصَرُونَ
After considering the vices of the Jews in general in the previous verse, the Quran addresses the Jews of Medina in particular in verses 85 and 86. It is pointed out that in face of the clear injunctions to the contrary, the Jews of Medina had been killing one another and turning one another out of their homes. As explained under 2:18, there lived in Medina in the time of the Holy Prophet three Jewish tribes, the Banu Qainuqa‘, the Banu Nadir and the Banu Quraizah; and two pagan tribes, the Aus and the Khazraj. Two of the Jewish tribes, Banu Qainuqa‘ and Banu Quraizah, sided with the Aus, and Banu Nadir with the Khazraj. Thus, whenever these pagan clans were at war with each other, the Jewish tribes were automatically involved. But, if during a war any Jews were taken prisoner by the pagans, the former would collect money by subscription and ransom them. They considered it improper for a Jew to remain in bondage with a Gentile. The Quran objects to this course by saying that their faith not only forbids the enslavement of Jews, but also prohibits mutual warfare and murder in which they were openly indulging, and there could be nothing worse than to accept a portion of the Scriptures and reject the rest; for, when one accepts a portion of the Scriptures, it is proof of the fact that one is convinced of their truth. Thus rejection of a portion is clear evidence of a perverted mind. As regards the prohibition of the enslavement of Jews, the reader is referred to Lev. 25:39-43, 47-49, 54, 55; Neh. 5:8; and the Enc. Bib. iv, 4657. In accordance with these injunctions, the Jews of Medina used to have Jewish slaves redeemed, but it was absurd on their part to do so, because they themselves created the circum-stances which led to their enslavement.
Verse 87 points to the fact that the Jews who opposed the Holy Prophet had entirely become worldly-minded, forgetting all about the next life. So they deserved no mercy, and there being no extenuating circumstances, their punishment would not be lightened. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ اٰتَیۡنَا مُوۡسَی الۡکِتٰبَ وَ قَفَّیۡنَا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ بِالرُّسُلِ ۫ وَ اٰتَیۡنَا عِیۡسَی ابۡنَ مَرۡیَمَ الۡبَیِّنٰتِ وَ اَیَّدۡنٰہُ بِرُوۡحِ الۡقُدُسِ ؕ اَفَکُلَّمَا جَآءَکُمۡ رَسُوۡلٌۢ بِمَا لَا تَہۡوٰۤی اَنۡفُسُکُمُ اسۡتَکۡبَرۡتُمۡ ۚ فَفَرِیۡقًا کَذَّبۡتُمۡ ۫ وَ فَرِیۡقًا تَقۡتُلُوۡنَ ﴿۸۸﴾
وَلَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَا مُوسَى ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ وَقَفَّيۡنَا مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ بِٱلرُّسُلِۖ وَءَاتَيۡنَا عِيسَى ٱبۡنَ مَرۡيَمَ ٱلۡبَيِّنَٰتِ وَأَيَّدۡنَٰهُ بِرُوحِ ٱلۡقُدُسِۗ أَفَكُلَّمَا جَآءَكُمۡ رَسُولُۢ بِمَا لَا تَهۡوَىٰٓ أَنفُسُكُمُ ٱسۡتَكۡبَرۡتُمۡ فَفَرِيقٗا كَذَّبۡتُمۡ وَفَرِيقٗا تَقۡتُلُونَ
a. See 2:54. (close)
b. 5:47; 57:28. (close)
c. 2:254; 3:185; 5:111; 43:64. (close)
d. 16:103. (close)
119. It is commonly believed that the Spirit of holiness is another name of the angel Gabriel (Jarir & Kathir). Ruhul-Qudus also means, the holy or blessed Word of God. (close)
a. See 2:54. (close)
b. 5:47; 57:28. (close)
94. Important Words:
قفینا (We caused to follow) is derived from قفا which means, the back of the neck. Hence قفا أثره means, he followed him. قفی(qaffa) means, he made a person or thing follow or come after another (Aqrab).
بینات (manifest Signs) is derived from بین meaning, he explained a thing so as to make it clear or manifest. So بینات means, such signs and arguments as make a thing manifest and clearly establish the truth of a claimant (Mufradat & Aqrab).
روح القدس (Spirit of Holiness) is a compound word made up of روح and القدس. The first-mentioned word, i.e. روح means, a spirit, an angel, a word of God; and قدس means, sanctity, holiness. روح القدس would thus mean, the holy or blessed word of God; the spirit or angel of holiness (Aqrab & Lane). It is generally taken to signify the angel Gabriel.
In this verse, the Israelites are told that they had opposed all the Prophets of God, beginning from Moses and ending with Jesus, for no other reason than that some of the teachings of these Prophets were at variance with their cherished desires.
The verse, while speaking generally of the Prophets who came after Moses, makes a special mention of Jesus. The reason for this lies in the fact that somehow or other, the Jews accepted all those Prophets who appeared prior to Jesus, but they stubbornly refused to accept him. It was, therefore, in the fitness of things that particular mention should have been made of Jesus, and it should have been declared that he was as good and as holy a Prophet as so many others who had gone before him and in whom the Jews had believed, inasmuch as he possessed, in common with them, that characteristic Spirit of Holiness which distinguished God’s Prophets from other men of the world. The most powerful proof of the truth of the claims of Jesus as a Prophet was his being favoured with Signs and the assistance of the Holy Spirit, and this is the very proof on the basis of which the Jews had believed in the previous Prophets. The بینات(manifest Signs) and روح القدس (the Spirit of Holiness) have been mentioned here not because they were the unique characteristics of Jesus, but because both these evidences, which must accompany every true Prophet, were denied him by the Jews. From Matt. 12:38-40, it is apparent that the Jews denied that Jesus showed any Sign, while from Luke 11:15 and Matt. 10:25 we learn that, according to the Jews, Jesus, far from being favoured with the Holy Spirit, was influenced by the Evil Spirit and was (God forbid!) himself a devil.
That بینات (manifest Signs) and روح القدس (the Spirit of Holiness) are the common characteristics of all the Prophets of God and not an exclusive distinction of Jesus is apparent from other verses of the Quran as well. Says the Quran: That was because their Messengers came to them with بینات (manifest Signs) but they disbelieved; so Allah seized them. Surely, He is strong and severe in chastising (40:23). Also see 2:100. And elsewhere the Quran says about the Holy Prophet, Say, theروح القدس (Spirit of Holiness) has brought it (the Quran) down from thy Lord with truth that He may strengthen those who believe and as a guidance and glad tidings for Muslims (16:103). The Quran goes still further and declares that the Spirit of Holiness descends not only on Prophets but also on true believers (58:23).
In this connection we have also the testimony of the Holy Prophet who is reported to have said to the poet Hassan, "Reply, O Hassan (to the disbelievers), on behalf of the Prophet of God, and O God, help Thou Hassan with روح القدس i.e. the Spirit of Holiness" (Bukhari & Muslim).
Hassan also declares in a couplet of his that روح القدس i.e. the Holy Spirit was always with the Muslims. Says he:
و جبریل رسول الله فینا
و روح القدس لیس له كفاء
"And Gabriel, the Messenger of God, is among us and the Spirit of Holiness has no match" (Muslim).
From the above it is clear that البینات (manifest Signs) and روح القدس (the Spirit of Holiness) are not the exclusive privileges of Jesus but were vouchsafed to all the Prophets of God. Even holy men other than Prophets have received the Spirit of Holiness from God. The specific mention of "manifest Signs" and "the Spirit of Holiness" in this verse is thus meant only to bring home to the Jews that the rejection of Jesus was entirely unjustified.
It is commonly believed that روح القدس is another name of the angel Gabriel (Jarir & Kathir). As explained under 2:31, out of His infinite wisdom, God has appointed different angels to execute His will and manifest His attributes in the universe; and the angel to whom the work of bringing about purification in the world and of reflecting God’s attribute of holiness has been assigned is called, روح القدس. The expression "Holy Spirit" is also met with in the Old Testament (Ps. 51:11). Some commentators have also interpreted روح القدس as a special manifestation of God’s اسم اعظم i.e. His chief attribute of Holiness (Kathir). (close)
وَ قَالُوۡا قُلُوۡبُنَا غُلۡفٌ ؕ بَلۡ لَّعَنَہُمُ اللّٰہُ بِکُفۡرِہِمۡ فَقَلِیۡلًا مَّا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۸۹﴾
وَقَالُواْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلۡفُۢۚ بَل لَّعَنَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُفۡرِهِمۡ فَقَلِيلٗا مَّا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
e. 4:156; 41:6. (close)
a. 4:156; 41:6. (close)
95. Important Words:
غلف (wrapped in covers) is the plural of اغلف which means a thing wrapped in a covering. غلاف means a covering. The word اغلف has also come to mean, one who is uncircumcised, i.e. one whose foreskin, which is also like a covering, is not removed. On the same basis قلب اغلف has come to mean, a heart which is wrapped in a covering; a heart that does not understand anything (Aqrab). The word also signifies, a heart which is a storehouse (lit. bag) of knowledge (Mufradat). لعنھم (cursed them). لعنه means: (1) he drove him away and removed him from all good; (2) he humiliated him and expressed an evil opinion about him; (3) he cursed him (Aqrab). اللعن which is the infinitive from لعن gives the sense of driving away a person and putting him at a distance from oneself by way of anger and displeasure. When used by God it means: (1) deprivation of His mercy; and (2) infliction of punishment (Mufradat). The word is not here used by way of abuse but as expressing an actual state or condition.
The clause, قلوبنا غلف can be interpreted here in all the different senses given above. Whenever the Jews found themselves unable to refute Quranic arguments, they ironically said that they were men of poor intelligence and unable to comprehend Islamic doctrines, and that Muslims should, therefore, go to their learned men and explain their tenets to them. Or taking the word غلف to mean "enclosed in coverings" this reply of the Jews would mean that their hearts enjoyed special protection from their Lord so that they could not be influenced by the preachings of Muslims. Again, taking the word to signify "a storehouse of knowledge", the reply of the Jews would mean that, as they possessed all necessary spiritual knowledge, they did not stand in need of further teaching.
Whatever was the motive of the Jews in saying these words, the Quran says that Islamic doctrines were not only consistent with reason and easy to grasp, but superior to all other teachings, and the reply of the Jews only indicated that they had lost all touch with God and their faith had become corrupt and vitiated.
The clause, Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, is intended to point to the truth that Allah’s curse comes only as a result of some evil act on man’s own part. Allah, being most Merciful, never deprives a man of His mercy, unless and until he shuts upon himself the doors of divine mercy.
The words, little is that which they believe, point to yet another great principle. Though the Jews have been declared to be "accursed" in the sight of God and have been adjudged as "disbelievers", yet God does not say that they are altogether deprived of faith. Their faith is indeed imperfect; nay, it is positively evil, containing much more of falsehood than of truth, yet the little faith that they still happen to possess has been expressly acknowledged by God. Compare with this the claim of the Jews themselves when they say, the Christians stand on nothing (2:114). The God of Islam would not say that of either the Jews or the Christians. (close)