وَ اِذۡ اَخَذۡنَا مِیۡثَاقَ بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ لَا تَعۡبُدُوۡنَ اِلَّا اللّٰہَ ۟ وَ بِالۡوَالِدَیۡنِ اِحۡسَانًا وَّ ذِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ الۡیَتٰمٰی وَ الۡمَسٰکِیۡنِ وَ قُوۡلُوۡا لِلنَّاسِ حُسۡنًا وَّ اَقِیۡمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتُوا الزَّکٰوۃَ ؕ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّیۡتُمۡ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا مِّنۡکُمۡ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَ ﴿۸۴﴾
وَإِذۡ أَخَذۡنَا مِيثَٰقَ بَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ لَا تَعۡبُدُونَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ وَبِٱلۡوَٰلِدَيۡنِ إِحۡسَانٗا وَذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَٱلۡيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلۡمَسَٰكِينِ وَقُولُواْ لِلنَّاسِ حُسۡنٗا وَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُواْ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيۡتُمۡ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا مِّنكُمۡ وَأَنتُم مُّعۡرِضُونَ
a. 4:155; 5:13. (close)
b. 2:44, 111; 4:78; 6:73; 22:79; 24:57; 30:32. (close)
116. The verse does not refer to any particular covenant but to a general covenant enjoining the Jews to give up the vices which were rife among them at that time and to lead a virtuous life (Exod. 20:3-6, 12; Lev. 19:17-18; Prov. 3:27-28, 30; Deut. 6:13 & 14:29). In this verse, as everywhere else in the Qur’an, the sequence of words follows the natural order of importance of the works mentioned. (close)
b. 2:44; 4:78; 6:73; 22:79; 24:57; 30:32. (close)
90. Important Words:
میثاق (a covenant). See 2:64.
After setting forth the attitude of the Israelites of the Holy Prophet’s time towards the Prophets of God and their own Scriptures, the Quran draws their attention to the teachings which they had been required to follow but which they ignored.
The verse under comment does not refer to any particular covenant, but to the vices which were rife among the Jews at the time and which were forbidden them in the Bible. Worship of any object other than God is repeatedly forbidden in the Jewish scriptures (Exod. 20:3-6). Again, kindness to parents is also among the injunctions (Exod. 20:12). Similarly, for the kind treatment of kinsmen, clear injunctions have been given (Lev. 19:17, 18; Exod. 21:9, and Prov. 3:27, 28). For care of orphans, an injunction is to be met with in Deut. 14:29. Sympathy for the poor is enjoined in Deut. 15:11. The injunction to deal gently with mankind is found in Prov. 3:30. The commandment to observe Prayer is given in Deut. 6:13. The injunction for alms-giving may be seen in Exod. 23:10, 11.
The Jews openly disregarded these clear injunctions. They set up equals to God, some believing in Ezra as the son of God, others taking the word of their divines as revelation and setting aside the dictates of the Holy Writ. Their treatment of their own kinsmen and others was cruel. Their attitude towards orphans and the indigent was unsympathetic. They were quite devoid of fellow feeling and were lax in worship and alms-giving. It should, however, be noted that God has not condemned the whole Jewish nation, but has made an exception in the case of the righteous few among them.
In this verse, as everywhere else in the Quran, the sequence of words follows the natural order of importance. The worship of the One God is mentioned first. Then mention is made of mankind, who have been divided into two classes: (1) those who deserve good treatment as a right; (2) those to whom kindness is shown as an act of charity. The first class is mentioned first, because in their case there is a sort of obligation, a debt to be paid. Those who are to be treated kindly out of charity are mentioned afterwards, the degree of need in each case determining the sequence. Last of all, acts of obedience to God are mentioned; and out of them the most important ones pertaining to the purification of the soul and the payment of religious taxes are selected; and these are placed after fellow feeling, because fellow feeling is the first step towards the moral elevation of man, who often feels impelled to it from within without reference to any law.
It is noteworthy that the injunctions that are found scattered in the Bible have been placed together in a most beautiful order in the Quran. (close)
وَ اِذۡ اَخَذۡنَا مِیۡثَاقَکُمۡ لَا تَسۡفِکُوۡنَ دِمَآءَکُمۡ وَ لَا تُخۡرِجُوۡنَ اَنۡفُسَکُمۡ مِّنۡ دِیَارِکُمۡ ثُمَّ اَقۡرَرۡتُمۡ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ تَشۡہَدُوۡنَ ﴿۸۵﴾
وَإِذۡ أَخَذۡنَا مِيثَٰقَكُمۡ لَا تَسۡفِكُونَ دِمَآءَكُمۡ وَلَا تُخۡرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَٰرِكُمۡ ثُمَّ أَقۡرَرۡتُمۡ وَأَنتُمۡ تَشۡهَدُونَ
117. The reference may be to the covenant between the Holy Prophet and the Jews of Medina by which both sides undertook to help each other against a common enemy and all disputes were to be referred to the Holy Prophet for decision (Muir’s 'Life of Mahomet' & 'Sirat' by Mirza Bashir Ahmad, M.A.). (close)
91. See under 2:87. (close)
ثُمَّ اَنۡتُمۡ ہٰۤـؤُلَآءِ تَقۡتُلُوۡنَ اَنۡفُسَکُمۡ وَ تُخۡرِجُوۡنَ فَرِیۡقًا مِّنۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ دِیَارِہِمۡ ۫ تَظٰہَرُوۡنَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ بِالۡاِثۡمِ وَ الۡعُدۡوَانِ ؕ وَ اِنۡ یَّاۡتُوۡکُمۡ اُسٰرٰی تُفٰدُوۡہُمۡ وَ ہُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اِخۡرَاجُہُمۡ ؕ اَفَتُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِبَعۡضِ الۡکِتٰبِ وَ تَکۡفُرُوۡنَ بِبَعۡضٍ ۚ فَمَا جَزَآءُ مَنۡ یَّفۡعَلُ ذٰلِکَ مِنۡکُمۡ اِلَّا خِزۡیٌ فِی الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا ۚ وَ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ یُرَدُّوۡنَ اِلٰۤی اَشَدِّ الۡعَذَابِ ؕ وَ مَا اللّٰہُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۸۶﴾
ثُمَّ أَنتُمۡ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ تَقۡتُلُونَ أَنفُسَكُمۡ وَتُخۡرِجُونَ فَرِيقٗا مِّنكُم مِّن دِيَٰرِهِمۡ تَظَٰهَرُونَ عَلَيۡهِم بِٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَٱلۡعُدۡوَٰنِ وَإِن يَأۡتُوكُمۡ أُسَٰرَىٰ تُفَٰدُوهُمۡ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيۡكُمۡ إِخۡرَاجُهُمۡۚ أَفَتُؤۡمِنُونَ بِبَعۡضِ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ وَتَكۡفُرُونَ بِبَعۡضٖۚ فَمَا جَزَآءُ مَن يَفۡعَلُ ذَٰلِكَ مِنكُمۡ إِلَّا خِزۡيٞ فِي ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَاۖ وَيَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰٓ أَشَدِّ ٱلۡعَذَابِۗ وَمَا ٱللَّهُ بِغَٰفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُونَ
118. There lived in Medina in the time of the Holy Prophet three Jewish tribes, the Banu Qainuqa‘, the Banu Nadir and the Banu Quraizah; and two pagan tribes, the Aus and the Khazraj. Two of the Jewish tribes, Banu Qainuqa‘ and Banu Quraizah, sided with the Aus, and Banu Nadir with the Khazraj. Thus, whenever these pagan clans were at war with each other, the Jewish tribes were automatically involved. But, if during a war any Jews were taken prisoner by the pagans, the former would collect money by subscription and ransom them. They considered it improper for a Jew to remain in bondage with a Gentile. The Qur’an objects to this practice by saying that their Faith not only forbids the enslavement of Jews, but also prohibits mutual warfare and murder in which they openly indulged and there could be nothing worse than to accept a portion of a Scripture and reject the rest; for, when one accepts a portion of a Scripture, it is proof of the fact that one is convinced of the truth of the whole. Thus rejection of a portion is clear evidence of a perverted mind. For prohibition of enslavement of Jews, see Lev. 25:39-43, 47-49, 54-55; Neh. 5:8. (close)
92. See under 2:87. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ اشۡتَرَوُا الۡحَیٰوۃَ الدُّنۡیَا بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ ۫ فَلَا یُخَفَّفُ عَنۡہُمُ الۡعَذَابُ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یُنۡصَرُوۡنَ ﴿٪۸۷﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱشۡتَرَوُاْ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا بِٱلۡأٓخِرَةِۖ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنۡهُمُ ٱلۡعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمۡ يُنصَرُونَ
After considering the vices of the Jews in general in the previous verse, the Quran addresses the Jews of Medina in particular in verses 85 and 86. It is pointed out that in face of the clear injunctions to the contrary, the Jews of Medina had been killing one another and turning one another out of their homes. As explained under 2:18, there lived in Medina in the time of the Holy Prophet three Jewish tribes, the Banu Qainuqa‘, the Banu Nadir and the Banu Quraizah; and two pagan tribes, the Aus and the Khazraj. Two of the Jewish tribes, Banu Qainuqa‘ and Banu Quraizah, sided with the Aus, and Banu Nadir with the Khazraj. Thus, whenever these pagan clans were at war with each other, the Jewish tribes were automatically involved. But, if during a war any Jews were taken prisoner by the pagans, the former would collect money by subscription and ransom them. They considered it improper for a Jew to remain in bondage with a Gentile. The Quran objects to this course by saying that their faith not only forbids the enslavement of Jews, but also prohibits mutual warfare and murder in which they were openly indulging, and there could be nothing worse than to accept a portion of the Scriptures and reject the rest; for, when one accepts a portion of the Scriptures, it is proof of the fact that one is convinced of their truth. Thus rejection of a portion is clear evidence of a perverted mind. As regards the prohibition of the enslavement of Jews, the reader is referred to Lev. 25:39-43, 47-49, 54, 55; Neh. 5:8; and the Enc. Bib. iv, 4657. In accordance with these injunctions, the Jews of Medina used to have Jewish slaves redeemed, but it was absurd on their part to do so, because they themselves created the circum-stances which led to their enslavement.
Verse 87 points to the fact that the Jews who opposed the Holy Prophet had entirely become worldly-minded, forgetting all about the next life. So they deserved no mercy, and there being no extenuating circumstances, their punishment would not be lightened. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ اٰتَیۡنَا مُوۡسَی الۡکِتٰبَ وَ قَفَّیۡنَا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ بِالرُّسُلِ ۫ وَ اٰتَیۡنَا عِیۡسَی ابۡنَ مَرۡیَمَ الۡبَیِّنٰتِ وَ اَیَّدۡنٰہُ بِرُوۡحِ الۡقُدُسِ ؕ اَفَکُلَّمَا جَآءَکُمۡ رَسُوۡلٌۢ بِمَا لَا تَہۡوٰۤی اَنۡفُسُکُمُ اسۡتَکۡبَرۡتُمۡ ۚ فَفَرِیۡقًا کَذَّبۡتُمۡ ۫ وَ فَرِیۡقًا تَقۡتُلُوۡنَ ﴿۸۸﴾
وَلَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَا مُوسَى ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ وَقَفَّيۡنَا مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ بِٱلرُّسُلِۖ وَءَاتَيۡنَا عِيسَى ٱبۡنَ مَرۡيَمَ ٱلۡبَيِّنَٰتِ وَأَيَّدۡنَٰهُ بِرُوحِ ٱلۡقُدُسِۗ أَفَكُلَّمَا جَآءَكُمۡ رَسُولُۢ بِمَا لَا تَهۡوَىٰٓ أَنفُسُكُمُ ٱسۡتَكۡبَرۡتُمۡ فَفَرِيقٗا كَذَّبۡتُمۡ وَفَرِيقٗا تَقۡتُلُونَ
a. See 2:54. (close)
b. 5:47; 57:28. (close)
c. 2:254; 3:185; 5:111; 43:64. (close)
d. 16:103. (close)
119. It is commonly believed that the Spirit of holiness is another name of the angel Gabriel (Jarir & Kathir). Ruhul-Qudus also means, the holy or blessed Word of God. (close)
a. See 2:54. (close)
b. 5:47; 57:28. (close)
94. Important Words:
قفینا (We caused to follow) is derived from قفا which means, the back of the neck. Hence قفا أثره means, he followed him. قفی(qaffa) means, he made a person or thing follow or come after another (Aqrab).
بینات (manifest Signs) is derived from بین meaning, he explained a thing so as to make it clear or manifest. So بینات means, such signs and arguments as make a thing manifest and clearly establish the truth of a claimant (Mufradat & Aqrab).
روح القدس (Spirit of Holiness) is a compound word made up of روح and القدس. The first-mentioned word, i.e. روح means, a spirit, an angel, a word of God; and قدس means, sanctity, holiness. روح القدس would thus mean, the holy or blessed word of God; the spirit or angel of holiness (Aqrab & Lane). It is generally taken to signify the angel Gabriel.
In this verse, the Israelites are told that they had opposed all the Prophets of God, beginning from Moses and ending with Jesus, for no other reason than that some of the teachings of these Prophets were at variance with their cherished desires.
The verse, while speaking generally of the Prophets who came after Moses, makes a special mention of Jesus. The reason for this lies in the fact that somehow or other, the Jews accepted all those Prophets who appeared prior to Jesus, but they stubbornly refused to accept him. It was, therefore, in the fitness of things that particular mention should have been made of Jesus, and it should have been declared that he was as good and as holy a Prophet as so many others who had gone before him and in whom the Jews had believed, inasmuch as he possessed, in common with them, that characteristic Spirit of Holiness which distinguished God’s Prophets from other men of the world. The most powerful proof of the truth of the claims of Jesus as a Prophet was his being favoured with Signs and the assistance of the Holy Spirit, and this is the very proof on the basis of which the Jews had believed in the previous Prophets. The بینات(manifest Signs) and روح القدس (the Spirit of Holiness) have been mentioned here not because they were the unique characteristics of Jesus, but because both these evidences, which must accompany every true Prophet, were denied him by the Jews. From Matt. 12:38-40, it is apparent that the Jews denied that Jesus showed any Sign, while from Luke 11:15 and Matt. 10:25 we learn that, according to the Jews, Jesus, far from being favoured with the Holy Spirit, was influenced by the Evil Spirit and was (God forbid!) himself a devil.
That بینات (manifest Signs) and روح القدس (the Spirit of Holiness) are the common characteristics of all the Prophets of God and not an exclusive distinction of Jesus is apparent from other verses of the Quran as well. Says the Quran: That was because their Messengers came to them with بینات (manifest Signs) but they disbelieved; so Allah seized them. Surely, He is strong and severe in chastising (40:23). Also see 2:100. And elsewhere the Quran says about the Holy Prophet, Say, theروح القدس (Spirit of Holiness) has brought it (the Quran) down from thy Lord with truth that He may strengthen those who believe and as a guidance and glad tidings for Muslims (16:103). The Quran goes still further and declares that the Spirit of Holiness descends not only on Prophets but also on true believers (58:23).
In this connection we have also the testimony of the Holy Prophet who is reported to have said to the poet Hassan, "Reply, O Hassan (to the disbelievers), on behalf of the Prophet of God, and O God, help Thou Hassan with روح القدس i.e. the Spirit of Holiness" (Bukhari & Muslim).
Hassan also declares in a couplet of his that روح القدس i.e. the Holy Spirit was always with the Muslims. Says he:
و جبریل رسول الله فینا
و روح القدس لیس له كفاء
"And Gabriel, the Messenger of God, is among us and the Spirit of Holiness has no match" (Muslim).
From the above it is clear that البینات (manifest Signs) and روح القدس (the Spirit of Holiness) are not the exclusive privileges of Jesus but were vouchsafed to all the Prophets of God. Even holy men other than Prophets have received the Spirit of Holiness from God. The specific mention of "manifest Signs" and "the Spirit of Holiness" in this verse is thus meant only to bring home to the Jews that the rejection of Jesus was entirely unjustified.
It is commonly believed that روح القدس is another name of the angel Gabriel (Jarir & Kathir). As explained under 2:31, out of His infinite wisdom, God has appointed different angels to execute His will and manifest His attributes in the universe; and the angel to whom the work of bringing about purification in the world and of reflecting God’s attribute of holiness has been assigned is called, روح القدس. The expression "Holy Spirit" is also met with in the Old Testament (Ps. 51:11). Some commentators have also interpreted روح القدس as a special manifestation of God’s اسم اعظم i.e. His chief attribute of Holiness (Kathir). (close)
وَ قَالُوۡا قُلُوۡبُنَا غُلۡفٌ ؕ بَلۡ لَّعَنَہُمُ اللّٰہُ بِکُفۡرِہِمۡ فَقَلِیۡلًا مَّا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۸۹﴾
وَقَالُواْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلۡفُۢۚ بَل لَّعَنَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُفۡرِهِمۡ فَقَلِيلٗا مَّا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
e. 4:156; 41:6. (close)
a. 4:156; 41:6. (close)
95. Important Words:
غلف (wrapped in covers) is the plural of اغلف which means a thing wrapped in a covering. غلاف means a covering. The word اغلف has also come to mean, one who is uncircumcised, i.e. one whose foreskin, which is also like a covering, is not removed. On the same basis قلب اغلف has come to mean, a heart which is wrapped in a covering; a heart that does not understand anything (Aqrab). The word also signifies, a heart which is a storehouse (lit. bag) of knowledge (Mufradat). لعنھم (cursed them). لعنه means: (1) he drove him away and removed him from all good; (2) he humiliated him and expressed an evil opinion about him; (3) he cursed him (Aqrab). اللعن which is the infinitive from لعن gives the sense of driving away a person and putting him at a distance from oneself by way of anger and displeasure. When used by God it means: (1) deprivation of His mercy; and (2) infliction of punishment (Mufradat). The word is not here used by way of abuse but as expressing an actual state or condition.
The clause, قلوبنا غلف can be interpreted here in all the different senses given above. Whenever the Jews found themselves unable to refute Quranic arguments, they ironically said that they were men of poor intelligence and unable to comprehend Islamic doctrines, and that Muslims should, therefore, go to their learned men and explain their tenets to them. Or taking the word غلف to mean "enclosed in coverings" this reply of the Jews would mean that their hearts enjoyed special protection from their Lord so that they could not be influenced by the preachings of Muslims. Again, taking the word to signify "a storehouse of knowledge", the reply of the Jews would mean that, as they possessed all necessary spiritual knowledge, they did not stand in need of further teaching.
Whatever was the motive of the Jews in saying these words, the Quran says that Islamic doctrines were not only consistent with reason and easy to grasp, but superior to all other teachings, and the reply of the Jews only indicated that they had lost all touch with God and their faith had become corrupt and vitiated.
The clause, Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, is intended to point to the truth that Allah’s curse comes only as a result of some evil act on man’s own part. Allah, being most Merciful, never deprives a man of His mercy, unless and until he shuts upon himself the doors of divine mercy.
The words, little is that which they believe, point to yet another great principle. Though the Jews have been declared to be "accursed" in the sight of God and have been adjudged as "disbelievers", yet God does not say that they are altogether deprived of faith. Their faith is indeed imperfect; nay, it is positively evil, containing much more of falsehood than of truth, yet the little faith that they still happen to possess has been expressly acknowledged by God. Compare with this the claim of the Jews themselves when they say, the Christians stand on nothing (2:114). The God of Islam would not say that of either the Jews or the Christians. (close)
وَ لَمَّا جَآءَہُمۡ کِتٰبٌ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَہُمۡ ۙ وَ کَانُوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ یَسۡتَفۡتِحُوۡنَ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا ۚۖ فَلَمَّا جَآءَہُمۡ مَّا عَرَفُوۡا کَفَرُوۡا بِہٖ ۫ فَلَعۡنَۃُ اللّٰہِ عَلَی الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۹۰﴾
وَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمۡ كِتَٰبٞ مِّنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٞ لِّمَا مَعَهُمۡ وَكَانُواْ مِن قَبۡلُ يَسۡتَفۡتِحُونَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم مَّا عَرَفُواْ كَفَرُواْ بِهِۦۚ فَلَعۡنَةُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَى ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
f. 2:42, 92, 98, 102; 3:82; 4:48; 35:32; 46:13. (close)
120. The verse signifies that Jews used to disclose to the pagan Arabs the fact that there were prophecies in their Scriptures about the advent of a Prophet who would spread the truth all over the world (Deut. 18:18 & 28:1-2). But when that Prophet actually appeared, even those of them who had seen the Signs of God being fulfilled in his person turned away from him. Or the meaning may be that before the advent of the Holy Prophet the Jews used to pray fervently to God to raise a Prophet who should cause the true Faith to triumph over false Faiths (Hisham, i. 150). But when the Prophet for whom they had prayed actually came and the ascendancy of truth over falsehood became manifest, they refused to accept him; consequently bringing on their heads the curse of God. (close)
a. 2:147. (close)
a. 2:42, 92, 98, 102; 3:82; 4:48; 35:32; 46:13. (close)
b. 2:147. (close)
96. Important Words:
یستفتحون (they prayed for victory) is derived from فتح meaning (1) he opened a thing, or he disclosed a thing; (2) he conquered or gained victory over. The word یستفتحون would, therefore, have two meanings: (1) they disclose; and (2) they ask or pray for victory (Aqrab).
According to the first meaning of یستفتحون the verse would signify that Jews used to disclose to the pagan Arabs the fact that there was foretold in their Scriptures the appearance of a Prophet who would spread the truth all over the world. But when that Prophet actually appeared, even those of them who had seen the signs of God fulfilled in his person turned away from him.
Taking the second meaning of the word, the verse would signify that before the advent of the Holy Prophet, the Jews used to pray fervently to God to raise a Prophet who would cause the true faith to triumph over the false ones (Hisham, i. 150). But when the Prophet for whom they prayed actually came and the ascendancy of truth over falsehood became manifest, they refused to accept him. This naturally brought on their heads the curse of God.
It may be repeated here that the word "curse" is not used in the Quran as abuse but as indicative of the actual state or condition of a person or a people. As explained under the preceding verse, the literal meaning of the word لعنة is "to be driven away from God" and hence all who stand in opposition to God and His Prophets incur لعنة and are spoken of as being under the curse of God; i.e. driven away from God’s presence and deprived of His mercy. (close)
بِئۡسَمَا اشۡتَرَوۡا بِہٖۤ اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ اَنۡ یَّکۡفُرُوۡا بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ بَغۡیًا اَنۡ یُّنَزِّلَ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ عَلٰی مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِہٖ ۚ فَبَآءُوۡ بِغَضَبٍ عَلٰی غَضَبٍ ؕ وَ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَذَابٌ مُّہِیۡنٌ ﴿۹۱﴾
بِئۡسَمَا ٱشۡتَرَوۡاْ بِهِۦٓ أَنفُسَهُمۡ أَن يَكۡفُرُواْ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ بَغۡيًا أَن يُنَزِّلَ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِهِۦۖ فَبَآءُو بِغَضَبٍ عَلَىٰ غَضَبٖۚ وَلِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٞ مُّهِينٞ
b. 3:113; 5:61. (close)
a. 3:113; 5:61. (close)
97. Important Words:
بغیا (grudging) is derived from بغی. They say بغی الشیء i.e. he wished or desired or sought the thing. بغی الرجل means, the man transgressed or turned away from the truth, or he disobeyed or revolted against a lawful authority. بغی علیه means, he wronged him and continued long in the act (Aqrab). بغی علی اخیه means, he envied his brother; he wished that a blessing might become transferred from his brother to himself (Lane). In the text the word has been translated as "grudging" which is the same as "envying".
باؤا (they incurred) is derived from باء which means, he returned. باء به means, he returned with it. باء بغضب من الله means, he returned with anger from God, i.e. the anger of God came upon him; he incurred His anger (Aqrab & Lane).
In this verse, we are told that the Jews rejected the Holy Prophet solely because he was of different nationality. The verse means that the Jews upon whom the truth has dawned and who have come to recognize the Quran as the very Book mentioned in their Scriptures are, out of sheer pride and obstinacy, impiously rejecting it, little knowing that, by so doing, they are hastening the ruin of their own souls. The truth is that they cannot bear to see a Prophet raised from among any people other than their own. They fail to realize that all alike are the creatures of God and there is no earthly reason why Prophets should appear only from among the Israelites.
The words باؤا بغضب translated here as, they incurred wrath, literally mean "they returned with (God’s) wrath" which points to the fact that though God called them to His presence in order to bestow on them His favours, they, instead of receiving favours, returned from His presence loaded with His displeasure and anger.
The words, wrath upon wrath, are used to signify that even before the coming of the Holy Prophet the Jews had incurred the anger of God by their rejection of Jesus and other iniquities; so when they rejected the Holy Prophet, they incurred wrath upon wrath, i.e. they added to their previous load of God’s anger. (close)
وَ اِذَا قِیۡلَ لَہُمۡ اٰمِنُوۡا بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ قَالُوۡا نُؤۡمِنُ بِمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ عَلَیۡنَا وَ یَکۡفُرُوۡنَ بِمَا وَرَآءَہٗ ٭ وَ ہُوَ الۡحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَہُمۡ ؕ قُلۡ فَلِمَ تَقۡتُلُوۡنَ اَنۡۢبِیَآءَ اللّٰہِ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۹۲﴾
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمۡ ءَامِنُواْ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ قَالُواْ نُؤۡمِنُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيۡنَا وَيَكۡفُرُونَ بِمَا وَرَآءَهُۥ وَهُوَ ٱلۡحَقُّ مُصَدِّقٗا لِّمَا مَعَهُمۡۗ قُلۡ فَلِمَ تَقۡتُلُونَ أَنۢبِيَآءَ ٱللَّهِ مِن قَبۡلُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
c. 2:171. (close)
d. 3:113, 182. (close)
a. 2:171. (close)
b. 3:113, 182. (close)
The verse means that whenever Islam is presented to Jews, they, far from reflecting over its claims, consider it enough to say that they will believe in what is sent to Israelite Prophets only, and not in the revelation of outsiders, although the revelation they reject on such flimsy grounds fulfils the prophecies contained in their own Scriptures about a new Book. Further, it is added that the statement that they would adhere to what was revealed to Israelite Prophets is absurd, seeing that they had opposed even their own Prophets in their time.
This verse also makes it clear what the word مصدقا means when followed by the preposition لام. The expression has been used as a proof of the truth of the Quran, and it is therefore clear that it conveys the sense of "fulfilling" and not that of "confirming". It is only the fulfilment of prophecies in the Bible that can serve as evidence of the truth of the Quran. In this connection, see also 2:42.
For the prophecies alluded to in this verse, i.e. the prophecies contained in the Bible about the Quran and the Holy Prophet, the reader is referred to Deut. 18:15-19; Acts 3:19-24; Deut. 33:2; Matt. 21:42-44; Isa. 21:13-17; 28:9-13; chap. 42; 62:2-4; Dan. 7; etc.
For a discussion of the words, why did you attempt to slay the Prophets, see under 2:62. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ جَآءَکُمۡ مُّوۡسٰی بِالۡبَیِّنٰتِ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذۡتُمُ الۡعِجۡلَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ ظٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۹۳﴾
۞وَلَقَدۡ جَآءَكُم مُّوسَىٰ بِٱلۡبَيِّنَٰتِ ثُمَّ ٱتَّخَذۡتُمُ ٱلۡعِجۡلَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ وَأَنتُمۡ ظَٰلِمُونَ
a. 2:52; 4:154; 7:149, 153; 20:98. (close)
a. 2:52; 4:154; 7:149, 153; 20:98. (close)
99. See note on 2:55. (close)