وَ اِذَا قِیۡلَ لَہُمۡ اٰمِنُوۡا بِمَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ قَالُوۡا نُؤۡمِنُ بِمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ عَلَیۡنَا وَ یَکۡفُرُوۡنَ بِمَا وَرَآءَہٗ ٭ وَ ہُوَ الۡحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَہُمۡ ؕ قُلۡ فَلِمَ تَقۡتُلُوۡنَ اَنۡۢبِیَآءَ اللّٰہِ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۹۲﴾
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمۡ ءَامِنُواْ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ قَالُواْ نُؤۡمِنُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيۡنَا وَيَكۡفُرُونَ بِمَا وَرَآءَهُۥ وَهُوَ ٱلۡحَقُّ مُصَدِّقٗا لِّمَا مَعَهُمۡۗ قُلۡ فَلِمَ تَقۡتُلُونَ أَنۢبِيَآءَ ٱللَّهِ مِن قَبۡلُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
c. 2:171. (close)
d. 3:113, 182. (close)
a. 2:171. (close)
b. 3:113, 182. (close)
The verse means that whenever Islam is presented to Jews, they, far from reflecting over its claims, consider it enough to say that they will believe in what is sent to Israelite Prophets only, and not in the revelation of outsiders, although the revelation they reject on such flimsy grounds fulfils the prophecies contained in their own Scriptures about a new Book. Further, it is added that the statement that they would adhere to what was revealed to Israelite Prophets is absurd, seeing that they had opposed even their own Prophets in their time.
This verse also makes it clear what the word مصدقا means when followed by the preposition لام. The expression has been used as a proof of the truth of the Quran, and it is therefore clear that it conveys the sense of "fulfilling" and not that of "confirming". It is only the fulfilment of prophecies in the Bible that can serve as evidence of the truth of the Quran. In this connection, see also 2:42.
For the prophecies alluded to in this verse, i.e. the prophecies contained in the Bible about the Quran and the Holy Prophet, the reader is referred to Deut. 18:15-19; Acts 3:19-24; Deut. 33:2; Matt. 21:42-44; Isa. 21:13-17; 28:9-13; chap. 42; 62:2-4; Dan. 7; etc.
For a discussion of the words, why did you attempt to slay the Prophets, see under 2:62. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ جَآءَکُمۡ مُّوۡسٰی بِالۡبَیِّنٰتِ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذۡتُمُ الۡعِجۡلَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ ظٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۹۳﴾
۞وَلَقَدۡ جَآءَكُم مُّوسَىٰ بِٱلۡبَيِّنَٰتِ ثُمَّ ٱتَّخَذۡتُمُ ٱلۡعِجۡلَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ وَأَنتُمۡ ظَٰلِمُونَ
a. 2:52; 4:154; 7:149, 153; 20:98. (close)
a. 2:52; 4:154; 7:149, 153; 20:98. (close)
99. See note on 2:55. (close)
وَ اِذۡ اَخَذۡنَا مِیۡثَاقَکُمۡ وَ رَفَعۡنَا فَوۡقَکُمُ الطُّوۡرَ ؕ خُذُوۡا مَاۤ اٰتَیۡنٰکُمۡ بِقُوَّۃٍ وَّ اسۡمَعُوۡا ؕ قَالُوۡا سَمِعۡنَا وَ عَصَیۡنَا ٭ وَ اُشۡرِبُوۡا فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمُ الۡعِجۡلَ بِکُفۡرِہِمۡ ؕ قُلۡ بِئۡسَمَا یَاۡمُرُکُمۡ بِہٖۤ اِیۡمَانُکُمۡ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۹۴﴾
وَإِذۡ أَخَذۡنَا مِيثَٰقَكُمۡ وَرَفَعۡنَا فَوۡقَكُمُ ٱلطُّورَ خُذُواْ مَآ ءَاتَيۡنَٰكُم بِقُوَّةٖ وَٱسۡمَعُواْۖ قَالُواْ سَمِعۡنَا وَعَصَيۡنَا وَأُشۡرِبُواْ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ ٱلۡعِجۡلَ بِكُفۡرِهِمۡۚ قُلۡ بِئۡسَمَا يَأۡمُرُكُم بِهِۦٓ إِيمَٰنُكُمۡ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ
121. See 105. (close)
121A. The words signify that they practically refused to obey. For the meaning of Qala see 57. (close)
122. The expression Ushriba Fi Qalbihi Hubbu Fulanin means, the love of such a person permeated his heart (Aqrab). The word is so used because love is like alcohol that intoxicates one who partakes of it. The words used in the text mean, the love of the calf had sunk deep into their hearts. (close)
b. 2:64; 4:155; 7:172. (close)
100. Important Words:
اشربوا (were permeated with) is derived from شرب meaning, he drank. اشرب means, he was made to drink. The expression,اشرب فی قلبه حب فلان means, the love of such and such a person permeated his heart (Aqrab). The word is so used because love is like alcohol that intoxicates one who partakes of it. The clause, اشربوا فی قلوبھم العجل (lit. they were made to drink into their hearts the calf) must really be read as اشربوا فی قلوبھم حب العجل (lit. they were made to drink into their hearts the love of the calf), the word حب (love) being understood before the word عجل (calf).
For an explanation of the expression, raised high above you the Mount, see under 2:64.
The words, they said, We hear and we disobey, signify that they practically refused to obey God. They did not necessarily use these exact words; for the word, as pointed out under 2:31, sometimes conveys the sense not of actual speech but of practical conduct.
Reference to calf-worship in verse 93 is not a mere reiteration of what has been already said in verse 55; the incident has been mentioned here as an illustration of what has been said about the Jews in the previous verse. Their attention is drawn to their conduct in the days of Moses. When Moses was absent from them for a short time only, they took the image of a calf for their idol, although they had witnessed how God had helped Moses and had shown mighty Signs at his hands; and that at a time when they had given a solemn promise not to worship anything besides God. In spite of that promise, they showed active opposition to the commandments of God by their deeds.
In the concluding portion of the verse, it is pointed out that the Jews professed to believe in what was revealed to them by God, but their belief was of a strange character for in spite of it, they persisted in their opposition to the Prophets. If this was believing, then their faith was only leading them astray. (close)
قُلۡ اِنۡ کَانَتۡ لَکُمُ الدَّارُ الۡاٰخِرَۃُ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ خَالِصَۃً مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُا الۡمَوۡتَ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۹۵﴾
قُلۡ إِن كَانَتۡ لَكُمُ ٱلدَّارُ ٱلۡأٓخِرَةُ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ خَالِصَةٗ مِّن دُونِ ٱلنَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُاْ ٱلۡمَوۡتَ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَٰدِقِينَ
c. 2:112; 62:7. (close)
122A. The meaning is that if the Jews are convinced that they are justified in their claim that God will bestow His favours upon them alone, and that the Holy Prophet’s claim is false, then they should invoke death and destruction upon the liar. (close)
a. 2:112; 62:7. (close)
See under 2:96 below. (close)
وَ لَنۡ یَّتَمَنَّوۡہُ اَبَدًۢا بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌۢ بِالظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۹۶﴾
وَلَن يَتَمَنَّوۡهُ أَبَدَۢا بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ أَيۡدِيهِمۡۚ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
a. 62:8. (close)
b. 62:8. (close)
In verses 95 and 96 Jews are invited to join with Muslims in what is termed a مباھلة or prayer contest. They are called upon to pray to God in the company of Muslims for the death or destruction of the party with which God is displeased on account of its espousal of the cause of falsehood. If Jews are really the favourites of God and Muslims are under His wrath, the latter, as a result of the prayer contest, will surely meet with ruin, and thus it will become clear which of the two parties is on the side of truth. The only evidence which in this world can prove the truth of any of the conflicting claims regarding the next life made by the different religious systems is that the promises held out about the next life should in part at least begin to fulfil themselves in this very life. If, in such a prayer contest as the above, God were to show His favour to the Jews, it would furnish a clear proof that His favours would accompany them also in the next life.
The Quran adds that Jews will never venture to accept the challenge, for they are well aware of their actions and the motives that guide them.
For a fuller description of the institution of Mubahalah or prayer contest see under 3:62. (close)
وَ لَتَجِدَنَّہُمۡ اَحۡرَصَ النَّاسِ عَلٰی حَیٰوۃٍ ۚۛ وَ مِنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اَشۡرَکُوۡا ۚۛ یَوَدُّ اَحَدُہُمۡ لَوۡ یُعَمَّرُ اَلۡفَ سَنَۃٍ ۚ وَ مَا ہُوَ بِمُزَحۡزِحِہٖ مِنَ الۡعَذَابِ اَنۡ یُّعَمَّرَ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ بَصِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿٪۹۷﴾
وَلَتَجِدَنَّهُمۡ أَحۡرَصَ ٱلنَّاسِ عَلَىٰ حَيَوٰةٖ وَمِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُواْۚ يَوَدُّ أَحَدُهُمۡ لَوۡ يُعَمَّرُ أَلۡفَ سَنَةٖ وَمَا هُوَ بِمُزَحۡزِحِهِۦ مِنَ ٱلۡعَذَابِ أَن يُعَمَّرَۗ وَٱللَّهُ بَصِيرُۢ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُونَ
122B. The pagans were less cringingly attached to the present life than the Jews because unlike the Jews they did not believe in the life after death and therefore had no fear of punishment after death. (close)
b. 62:9. (close)
a. 62:9. (close)
The reason why Jews were more attached to the world than pagans is that the latter did not believe in any retribution after death and, therefore, though they loved this world as the only place for enjoying honour and happiness and entertained no hope about the next, yet with no fear of punishment after death, they were less cringingly attached to the present life than the Jews, who believed in Resurrection after death and feared in their hearts that their actions would make them liable to punishment before God. (close)
قُلۡ مَنۡ کَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبۡرِیۡلَ فَاِنَّہٗ نَزَّلَہٗ عَلٰی قَلۡبِکَ بِاِذۡنِ اللّٰہِ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَیۡنَ یَدَیۡہِ وَ ہُدًی وَّ بُشۡرٰی لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۹۸﴾
قُلۡ مَن كَانَ عَدُوّٗا لِّـجِبۡرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُۥ نَزَّلَهُۥ عَلَىٰ قَلۡبِكَ بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٗا لِّمَا بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡهِ وَهُدٗى وَبُشۡرَىٰ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
123. Jibril is a compound word, made up of Jabr and Il, and means—a brave man of God, or a servant of God. Jabr in Hebrew is Geber which means, 'a servant, and Il means the Mighty; the Powerful' (Hebrew English-Lexicon by William Geseneus; Bukhari, chap. on Tafsir; and Aqrab). According to Ibn-e-‘Abbas the other name of Jibril is ‘Abdullah (Jarir). Gabriel being the chief among the angels (Manthur) was the bearer of the Quranic Revelation. See also The Larger Edition of the Commentary. According to Commentators of the Holy Qur’an Jibril is synonymous with Ruhul-Qudus and Ruhul-Amin. According to the Bible also the function of Gabriel is to convey Messages of God to His servants (Dan. 8:16; 9:21 & Luke 1:19). The Qur’an, as the present verse points out, assigns the same function to Gabriel. But in some later Jewish writings he is described as "the angel of fire and thunder" (Enc. Bib. under Gabriel). In the Holy Prophet’s time the Jews looked upon Gabriel as their enemy and as an angel of wars, calamities and hardships (Jarir & Musnad). (close)
a. 26:194-195. (close)
b. See 2:90. (close)
b. 26:194, 195. (close)
c. See 2:90. (close)
104. Important Words:
جبریل (Gabriel) is a compound word made up of جبر (גבך) which in Hebrew means a man or a mighty man or a hero, and ایل (א ל) which means God (Hebrew-English Lexicon by William Geseneus, Boston, 1836. Also see Bukhari, chap. onTafsir). The latter word occurs in many combinations (e.g. in the word Ishmael in Gen. 16:11 which means "God heareth" or "God has heard"). In Arabic, which is the mother of Hebrew, the word جبر means, mending a broken thing; giving a poor man so liberally as to make him well off; a brave man. The word ایل is either derived from the Arabic word الله (God) or from the root آل, the active participle from which is آئل meaning Controller or Ruler, i.e. God (Aqrab). Ibn ‘Abbas relates that the other name of جبریل is عبدالله i.e. the servant of God (Jarir), which is simply another rendering of the word جبریل. Thus the angel جبریل (Gabriel) is so called because he is the servant of God; he is the strong and brave servant of God; he looks after the repairing or reformation of the universe, he bestows God’s bounties on mankind and is a liberal giver.
In Islam جبریل has been described as the chief among the angels (Manthur) and was therefore selected by God to be the bearer of the Quranic message, the best and the last شریعة (Law) to descend from Heaven. Many commentators consider that جبریل (Gabriel) is synonymous with روح القدس (the Spirit of Holiness) spoken of in the Quran and the Hadith. Similarly, Gabriel has been spoken of as روح الامین (the Trusty Spirit) in the Quran (26:194).
The Jews had been invited to believe in the Quran, but they refused to accept it (v. 92 above) on the ground that it was said to have been brought by Gabriel while, according to them, the bearer of Divine Revelation was Michael, and not Gabriel (Musnad). The function of Gabriel, as we learn from the Bible, is to convey the messages of God to His servants (Dan. 8:16; 9:21; and Luke 1:19, 26. It is strange that Gabriel is mentioned in the Old Testament for the first time in Daniel and not earlier). The Quran, as the verse under comment points out, assigns the same function to Gabriel. But in some later writings of the Jews, he is described as "the angel of fire and thunder" (Enc. Bib. under Gabriel).
Such was the idea of the Jews in the days of the Holy Prophet. They looked upon Gabriel as an angel of wars, calamities and hardships (Jarir under 2:98). Muslim historians tell us that this idea had such a firm hold on the minds of the Jews that when they were told that the bearer of the Quranic revelation was Gabriel, they said: جبریل ذالك الذی ینزل بالحرب والقتال والعذاب- عدونا i.e. "Gabriel is the angel who is associated with war and bloodshed and punishment. He is our enemy." By saying this, they meant that they would not believe in a revelation brought by Gabriel (Musnad). The reason why the Jews bore enmity to Gabriel seems to be that they had fallen on evil days and as, according to them, Gabriel was the angel of war and punishment, therefore they ascribed their misfortunes to him. There is no doubt that the Talmudic traditions and the Targums were the origin of this notion which gained such a firm footing among Jews; otherwise originally the Bible declares Gabriel to be the angel of good tidings and of the Divine Word. It is evident that with the lapse of time legends and myths grew round the original truth, which was subsequently lost; and the Jews clung fast to their erroneous belief, which stood in the way of their accepting the Quran or, for that matter, any revelation coming through the agency of Gabriel.
The Quran has, in the verse under comment, brought forward four arguments in refutation of the Jewish plea for rejecting the Quran:
Firstly, that no angel can bring down any revelation unless he receives direct command from God. Hence the angel who brings the revelation, whether he is Gabriel or Michael or any other, is only a vehicle for the Divine Word; and even if Jewish tradition associates an angel with calamities, it cannot call into question the authority from which his message originates.
Secondly, that the revelation sent down to the Prophet of Islam is مصدق (in fulfilment) of the previous Books and in it all the prophecies about the promised Lawgiver contained in the earlier Scriptures find their fulfilment, which is a clear proof of its Divine origin.
Thirdly, that when it is practically established that the teachings of the Quran are a guidance for mankind, its acceptance becomes binding upon all right thinking men.
Fourthly, that the Quran contains teachings which, besides being right, are also بشری (bearers of glad tidings) to its followers and harbingers of God’s mercy and favours. Such revelation should not be rejected simply for the reason that it has been brought down by Gabriel. (close)
مَنۡ کَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّلّٰہِ وَ مَلٰٓئِکَتِہٖ وَ رُسُلِہٖ وَ جِبۡرِیۡلَ وَ مِیۡکٰٮلَ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۹۹﴾
مَن كَانَ عَدُوّٗا لِّلَّهِ وَمَلَـٰٓئِكَتِهِۦ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَجِبۡرِيلَ وَمِيكَىٰلَ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَدُوّٞ لِّلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
c. 58:6. (close)
124. Mikal is also one of the chief angels. The word is considered as being a combination of Mik and Il which means, who is like God (Jew. Enc. & Bukhari.) i.e. there is none like God. The Jews looked upon Michael as their favourite angel (Jew. Enc.) and as the angle of peace and plenty, rain and herbage (Kathir) and is considered to be associated chiefly with the work of sustaining the world. (close)
125. Angels constitute an important link in the spiritual chain and he, who breaks even one link of the spiritual chain or manifests against any single unit of the spiritual system, in fact, severs his connection with the whole system. Such a one deprives himself of the favours and blessings which are bestowed upon the true servants of God and renders himself deserving of the punishment decreed for transgressors. (close)
a. 58:6. (close)
105. Important Words:
میکال (Michael) is the name of another angel who, like Gabriel, is also one of the chief angels. The word has been described, as being a combination of words, i.e. می کائیل or من کائیل which means, who as God? or who is like God? (Geseneus & Jew. Enc.); i.e. there is none like God, the angel Michael having been given this name owing to his being assigned the duty of establishing God’s Unity and Oneness in the universe. The Jews looked upon Michael as their favourite angel (Jew. Enc., also Jarir, under verse 2:98, 99). He was the guardian angel of the Israelites (Enc. Brit. under Michael). In Islam Gabriel is believed to be superior to Michael in rank, for whereas Gabriel is known as عبدالله Michael has been given the name عبیدالله, the word عبید being diminutive of the word عبد (Jarir, i. 329). In the days of the Holy Prophet, the Jews looked upon Gabriel as the angel of wars, calamities and hardships, whereas they looked upon Michael as the angel of peace and plenty and rain and herbage (Jarir & Kathir).
As an insult to a king’s agent implies insult to the king himself, so those who say unworthy things about any of the angels really find fault with God. The Quran, therefore, declares that the words of the Jews referred to in the preceding verse imply irreverence to God and opposition to His will, such as only an enemy of God could show. Angels constitute an important link in the spiritual chain and he who breaks even one link of the spiritual chain or manifests ill-will against any single unit of the spiritual system, in fact severs his connection with the whole system. Such a man deprives himself of the favours and blessings which are bestowed upon the true servants of God and renders himself deserving of the punishment fixed for transgressors.
In this verse a general mention of God, the angels and the Prophets is followed by a specific mention of Gabriel and Michael. The reason is not far to seek. The Jews regarded Gabriel as their enemy. It is therefore particularly pointed out that enmity with Gabriel merits divinepunishment. The name of Michael is also mentioned along with Gabriel’s so that no Muslim might take it into his head to retort to Jewish hatred of Gabriel by speaking ill of Michael, the favourite angel of the Jews. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ اٰیٰتٍۭ بَیِّنٰتٍ ۚ وَ مَا یَکۡفُرُ بِہَاۤ اِلَّا الۡفٰسِقُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۰﴾
وَلَقَدۡ أَنزَلۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ ءَايَٰتِۭ بَيِّنَٰتٖۖ وَمَا يَكۡفُرُ بِهَآ إِلَّا ٱلۡفَٰسِقُونَ
The verse purports to say that the denial of the Holy Prophet by the Jews, and for that matter by all other disbelievers, is quite unreasonable because his claim is based on convincing arguments and manifest Signs. The verse gives the lie to those who have the effrontery to assert that, according to the Quran, the Prophet of Islam showed no Signs. The greatest of the Signs shown by the Holy Prophet is the matchlessness of the Quran itself.
The word الفاسقون (the disobedient) occurring at the end of this verse means "those who first take upon themselves to observe what the Law orders and acknowledge its authority and then go against it" (Lane). This is a true picture of the Jews who rejected the Holy Prophet in spite of the fact that his coming had been foretold in their own Scriptures. (close)
اَوَ کُلَّمَا عٰہَدُوۡا عَہۡدًا نَّبَذَہٗ فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ ؕ بَلۡ اَکۡثَرُہُمۡ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۱﴾
أَوَكُلَّمَا عَٰهَدُواْ عَهۡدٗا نَّبَذَهُۥ فَرِيقٞ مِّنۡهُمۚ بَلۡ أَكۡثَرُهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
d. 3:188. (close)
a. 3:188. (close)
See under next verse. (close)