اِذۡ جَآءُوۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ فَوۡقِکُمۡ وَ مِنۡ اَسۡفَلَ مِنۡکُمۡ وَ اِذۡ زَاغَتِ الۡاَبۡصَارُ وَ بَلَغَتِ الۡقُلُوۡبُ الۡحَنَاجِرَ وَ تَظُنُّوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ الظُّنُوۡنَا ﴿۱۱﴾
إِذۡ جَآءُوكُم مِّن فَوۡقِكُمۡ وَمِنۡ أَسۡفَلَ مِنكُمۡ وَإِذۡ زَاغَتِ ٱلۡأَبۡصَٰرُ وَبَلَغَتِ ٱلۡقُلُوبُ ٱلۡحَنَاجِرَ وَتَظُنُّونَ بِٱللَّهِ ٱلظُّنُونَا۠
2337. The disbelievers burst upon Muslims from every direction—from the heights of Medina as well as from the plains. The reference in the words 'and you thought diverse thoughts about Allah,' is to the 'Hypocrites' and not to sincere and steadfast Muslims (v.13). (close)
The verse constitutes a very revealing commentary on the mightiness of the forces of disbelief and the most desperate state in which Muslims were then placed. The disbelievers burst upon Medina from every direction.
The words, "from above you and from below you" mean, from the heights of Medina as well as from the plains.
The reference in the words "and you thought diverse thoughts about Allah," is to the hypocrites and the weak of faith among the Muslims. V. 13 makes it quite clear that the reference in the above words is only to these two. (close)
ہُنَالِکَ ابۡتُلِیَ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ وَ زُلۡزِلُوۡا زِلۡزَالًا شَدِیۡدًا ﴿۱۲﴾
هُنَالِكَ ٱبۡتُلِيَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ وَزُلۡزِلُواْ زِلۡزَالٗا شَدِيدٗا
a. 8:18. (close)
a. 8:18. (close)
وَ اِذۡ یَقُوۡلُ الۡمُنٰفِقُوۡنَ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ مَّرَضٌ مَّا وَعَدَنَا اللّٰہُ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗۤ اِلَّا غُرُوۡرًا ﴿۱۳﴾
وَإِذۡ يَقُولُ ٱلۡمُنَٰفِقُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٞ مَّا وَعَدَنَا ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُۥٓ إِلَّا غُرُورٗا
b. 8:50. (close)
وَ اِذۡ قَالَتۡ طَّآئِفَۃٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ یٰۤاَہۡلَ یَثۡرِبَ لَا مُقَامَ لَکُمۡ فَارۡجِعُوۡا ۚ وَ یَسۡتَاۡذِنُ فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمُ النَّبِیَّ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ اِنَّ بُیُوۡتَنَا عَوۡرَۃٌ ؕۛ وَ مَا ہِیَ بِعَوۡرَۃٍ ۚۛ اِنۡ یُّرِیۡدُوۡنَ اِلَّا فِرَارًا ﴿۱۴﴾
وَإِذۡ قَالَت طَّآئِفَةٞ مِّنۡهُمۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ يَثۡرِبَ لَا مُقَامَ لَكُمۡ فَٱرۡجِعُواْۚ وَيَسۡتَـٔۡذِنُ فَرِيقٞ مِّنۡهُمُ ٱلنَّبِيَّ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّ بُيُوتَنَا عَوۡرَةٞ وَمَا هِيَ بِعَوۡرَةٍۖ إِن يُرِيدُونَ إِلَّا فِرَارٗا
2337A. This was the name of Medina before the Hijrah. (close)
2338. The words mean, 'Return to your old faith, or go back to your homes.' (close)
3084. Important Words:
عورة (exposed) is derived from عور and means, part between the navel and knee, pudenda; every part of the body which a person covers; defenceless or exposed; disgrace; any place of concealment; a cleft or fissure in a mountain; a woman; a time in which it is not proper for a woman to appear in public, as at or before day-break, nightfall, and mid-day; vice; weakness; blindness of one eye (Lane & Aqrab). See also 24:32.
یثرب is derived from ثرب. They say ثربه i.e. he rebuked or reproached him and showed him to be foul; he stripped him of his garment (Aqrab). یثرب (which now is known as مدینة النبی i.e. the City of the Prophet) was so called perhaps because the place was malaria-stricken or because the Medinites being cultivators and having been given to farming were looked down upon by the warlike Arabs. See also 12:93.
The reference in the word طائفة (party) is to the hypocrites of Medina. Weakness of faith causes hypocrisy and vice versa.
The expression, "therefore turn back," may mean, return to your old faith, or (2) go back to your homes. (close)
وَ لَوۡ دُخِلَتۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ مِّنۡ اَقۡطَارِہَا ثُمَّ سُئِلُوا الۡفِتۡنَۃَ لَاٰتَوۡہَا وَ مَا تَلَبَّثُوۡا بِہَاۤ اِلَّا یَسِیۡرًا ﴿۱۵﴾
وَلَوۡ دُخِلَتۡ عَلَيۡهِم مِّنۡ أَقۡطَارِهَا ثُمَّ سُئِلُواْ ٱلۡفِتۡنَةَ لَأٓتَوۡهَا وَمَا تَلَبَّثُواْ بِهَآ إِلَّا يَسِيرٗا
2339. The verse purports to say that if an enemy had entered into Medina from another direction and the Hypocrites were invited to make common cause with him against the Muslims, they would have willingly and readily done so. (close)
The present verse unmasks the falsity of excuses of the hypocrites mentioned in the preceding verse, viz. that their houses were exposed and defenceless and, therefore, they were unable to take part in the fighting on the side of Muslims. It purports to say that if an enemy had entered into Medina from another direction and they were invited to make common cause with him against the Muslims, they would have willingly and readily done so. It is because they have been asked in fulfilment of their solemn pledges to fight for Muslims against disbelievers that they advance the lame excuse of their houses being defenceless. (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ کَانُوۡا عَاہَدُوا اللّٰہَ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ لَا یُوَلُّوۡنَ الۡاَدۡبَارَ ؕ وَ کَانَ عَہۡدُ اللّٰہِ مَسۡـُٔوۡلًا ﴿۱۶﴾
وَلَقَدۡ كَانُواْ عَٰهَدُواْ ٱللَّهَ مِن قَبۡلُ لَا يُوَلُّونَ ٱلۡأَدۡبَٰرَۚ وَكَانَ عَهۡدُ ٱللَّهِ مَسۡـُٔولٗا
2340. The words refer to the treaty which the Jews of Medina had made with the Holy Prophet that they would fight on his side against any enemy who invaded Medina. (close)
The words, "they had already covenanted with Allah," refer to the treaty that the Jews of Medina had made with the Holy Prophet that they would fight on his side against any enemy who invaded Medina. The verse holds out a solemn warning to these breakers of their plighted word that they will have to account for their treachery. The exact words of the above-mentioned treaty were:
و ان بینھم النصر علی من دھم یثرب
i.e. "and they take upon themselves to help the Holy Prophet against anyone who should attack Yathrib" (Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Part II, by Mirza Bashir Ahmad). (close)
قُلۡ لَّنۡ یَّنۡفَعَکُمُ الۡفِرَارُ اِنۡ فَرَرۡتُمۡ مِّنَ الۡمَوۡتِ اَوِ الۡقَتۡلِ وَ اِذًا لَّا تُمَتَّعُوۡنَ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۱۷﴾
قُل لَّن يَنفَعَكُمُ ٱلۡفِرَارُ إِن فَرَرۡتُم مِّنَ ٱلۡمَوۡتِ أَوِ ٱلۡقَتۡلِ وَإِذٗا لَّا تُمَتَّعُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا
a. 4:79; 62:9. (close)
a. 4:79; 62:9. (close)
قُلۡ مَنۡ ذَا الَّذِیۡ یَعۡصِمُکُمۡ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ اِنۡ اَرَادَ بِکُمۡ سُوۡٓءًا اَوۡ اَرَادَ بِکُمۡ رَحۡمَۃً ؕ وَ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ لَہُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَلِیًّا وَّ لَا نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۸﴾
قُلۡ مَن ذَا ٱلَّذِي يَعۡصِمُكُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ إِنۡ أَرَادَ بِكُمۡ سُوٓءًا أَوۡ أَرَادَ بِكُمۡ رَحۡمَةٗۚ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ لَهُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِيّٗا وَلَا نَصِيرٗا
b. 39:39. (close)
a. 39:39. (close)
قَدۡ یَعۡلَمُ اللّٰہُ الۡمُعَوِّقِیۡنَ مِنۡکُمۡ وَ الۡقَآئِلِیۡنَ لِاِخۡوَانِہِمۡ ہَلُمَّ اِلَیۡنَا ۚ وَ لَا یَاۡتُوۡنَ الۡبَاۡسَ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿ۙ۱۹﴾
۞قَدۡ يَعۡلَمُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُعَوِّقِينَ مِنكُمۡ وَٱلۡقَآئِلِينَ لِإِخۡوَٰنِهِمۡ هَلُمَّ إِلَيۡنَاۖ وَلَا يَأۡتُونَ ٱلۡبَأۡسَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا
The expression "they come not to the fight but a little," may mean, (a) very few of them take the field on the side of the Muslims; (b) they withdraw after having gone a short distance towards the field of battle, i.e. they take little or no part in the fighting. (close)
اَشِحَّۃً عَلَیۡکُمۡ ۚۖ فَاِذَا جَآءَ الۡخَوۡفُ رَاَیۡتَہُمۡ یَنۡظُرُوۡنَ اِلَیۡکَ تَدُوۡرُ اَعۡیُنُہُمۡ کَالَّذِیۡ یُغۡشٰی عَلَیۡہِ مِنَ الۡمَوۡتِ ۚ فَاِذَا ذَہَبَ الۡخَوۡفُ سَلَقُوۡکُمۡ بِاَلۡسِنَۃٍ حِدَادٍ اَشِحَّۃً عَلَی الۡخَیۡرِ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَمۡ یُؤۡمِنُوۡا فَاَحۡبَطَ اللّٰہُ اَعۡمَالَہُمۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ ذٰلِکَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ یَسِیۡرًا ﴿۲۰﴾
أَشِحَّةً عَلَيۡكُمۡۖ فَإِذَا جَآءَ ٱلۡخَوۡفُ رَأَيۡتَهُمۡ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيۡكَ تَدُورُ أَعۡيُنُهُمۡ كَٱلَّذِي يُغۡشَىٰ عَلَيۡهِ مِنَ ٱلۡمَوۡتِۖ فَإِذَا ذَهَبَ ٱلۡخَوۡفُ سَلَقُوكُم بِأَلۡسِنَةٍ حِدَادٍ أَشِحَّةً عَلَى ٱلۡخَيۡرِۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ لَمۡ يُؤۡمِنُواْ فَأَحۡبَطَ ٱللَّهُ أَعۡمَٰلَهُمۡۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرٗا
2341. Shuhh meaning both niggardliness and greed, the expression means, (a) that the Hypocrites are very niggardly in giving help to the Muslims; (b) that they are very greedy of getting money, and taunt the Muslims if their greed is not satisfied. (close)
b. 22:12; 70:21-22. (close)
3088. Important Words:
أشحة (being niggardly) is the plural of شحیح which is derived from شح. They say شح بالشیء او علی الشیء i.e. he was or became avaricious and niggardly with regard to the thing. تشا حوا علی الشیء means, everyone of them tried to get the thing in preference to others.شح means, niggardliness, avarice. شحیح means, niggardly or stingy, or niggardly in the utmost degree; and excessively or culpably desirous or avaricious or covetous (Aqrab & Lane).
سلقو کم (they assail you). They say سلقه بالرمح i.e. he pierced him with the lance, سلقه بالکلام means, he smote him or taunted him with speech. سلقه بالسوط means, he beat him with the whip till his skin became flayed. سلق البرد النبات means, cold burned the herbage (Aqrab & Lane).
As shown under "Important Words" the word شح possesses the sense of both niggardliness and greed. Both these senses have been expressed in the words أشحة علیکم used twice in the verse under comment. In the former place the expression means that the hypocrites are very niggardly in giving help to the Muslims and in the latter the same expression means that they are very greedy of getting money and taunt the Muslims if their greed is not satisfied. In fact, niggardliness or miserliness and greediness are two facets of the same bad quality. A miser must also be greedy. A person is miser in so far as the giving of anything by him to another person is concerned and he is greedy in so far as the taking of something from someone else is concerned. (close)