وَ قَرۡنَ فِیۡ بُیُوۡتِکُنَّ وَ لَا تَبَرَّجۡنَ تَبَرُّجَ الۡجَاہِلِیَّۃِ الۡاُوۡلٰی وَ اَقِمۡنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتِیۡنَ الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ اَطِعۡنَ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ ؕ اِنَّمَا یُرِیۡدُ اللّٰہُ لِیُذۡہِبَ عَنۡکُمُ الرِّجۡسَ اَہۡلَ الۡبَیۡتِ وَ یُطَہِّرَکُمۡ تَطۡہِیۡرًا ﴿ۚ۳۴﴾
2353. The words show that the principal sphere of the activities of a woman is her house––not that she is not allowed to leave its four walls. She may go out as many times as she may require for the performance of a legitimate errand or the satisfaction of a legitimate need. But to move about in mixed society and take part in all sorts of avocations and professions, shoulder to shoulder with man, and to do so to the neglect and detriment of her special domestic duties as the mistress of the house is not the Islamic conception of ideal womanhood. The Holy Prophet’s wives were particularly required to 'stay in their houses' because the dignity of their exalted position as 'Mothers of the Faithful' demanded this and also because Muslims often visited them to pay their respects and sought necessary guidance from them on important religious matters. The commandment equally applies to all Muslim women. It is the Quranic way of address that while it appears to be particularly addressing the Holy Prophet, the address is meant equally for all Muslims. Similarly, a commandment addressed to the wives of the Holy Prophet applies also to all Muslim women.
The expression Ahlul-Bait applies principally and primarily to the Holy Prophet’s wives. This is quite clear from the context and also from vv. 11:74 and 28:13. In its wider sense, however, it includes all members of a family who form one’s household, even one’s children and children’s children. The expression had also been used by the Holy Prophet for some of his select Companions. 'Salman is a member of our household' is a well-known saying of the Holy Prophet (Saghir). (close)
a. 19:56; 20:133. (close)
وَ اذۡکُرۡنَ مَا یُتۡلٰی فِیۡ بُیُوۡتِکُنَّ مِنۡ اٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ وَ الۡحِکۡمَۃِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ لَطِیۡفًا خَبِیۡرًا ﴿٪۳۵﴾
2354. The Holy Prophet’s noble consorts were required not only to serve as model of virtue, piety and righteousness for the Faithful but to teach them the principles and precepts of Islam which they had learnt direct from the Holy Prophet. (close)
اِنَّ الۡمُسۡلِمِیۡنَ وَ الۡمُسۡلِمٰتِ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتِ وَ الۡقٰنِتِیۡنَ وَ الۡقٰنِتٰتِ وَ الصّٰدِقِیۡنَ وَ الصّٰدِقٰتِ وَ الصّٰبِرِیۡنَ وَ الصّٰبِرٰتِ وَ الۡخٰشِعِیۡنَ وَ الۡخٰشِعٰتِ وَ الۡمُتَصَدِّقِیۡنَ وَ الۡمُتَصَدِّقٰتِ وَ الصَّآئِمِیۡنَ وَ الصّٰٓئِمٰتِ وَ الۡحٰفِظِیۡنَ فُرُوۡجَہُمۡ وَ الۡحٰفِظٰتِ وَ الذّٰکِرِیۡنَ اللّٰہَ کَثِیۡرًا وَّ الذّٰکِرٰتِ ۙ اَعَدَّ اللّٰہُ لَہُمۡ مَّغۡفِرَۃً وَّ اَجۡرًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۳۶﴾
a. 9:112. (close)
2355. This verse embodies a most effective repudiation of the charge that Islam accords a lower status to women. According to the Qur’an women stand on the same level with men, and they can attain to all those spiritual heights to which men can attain and enjoy all those political and social rights which men enjoy. Only their spheres of activities being different, their duties are different. It is this difference in duties of both the sexes that has mistakenly, or perhaps deliberately, been misunderstood by hostile critics of Islam as implying a lower status for women. (close)
وَ مَا کَانَ لِمُؤۡمِنٍ وَّ لَا مُؤۡمِنَۃٍ اِذَا قَضَی اللّٰہُ وَ رَسُوۡلُہٗۤ اَمۡرًا اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ لَہُمُ الۡخِیَرَۃُ مِنۡ اَمۡرِہِمۡ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّعۡصِ اللّٰہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ ضَلٰلًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿ؕ۳۷﴾
b. 4:66. (close)
2356. The immediate occasion for the revelation of this verse may have been Zainab’s hesitation to comply with the Holy Prophet’s greatly cherished wish that she should marry Zaid, his freed slave. It goes to Zainab’s credit that in deference to the Prophet’s wish she agreed to her marriage with Zaid, much against her personal inclination. The Holy Prophet did not press her to accept Zaid as her husband. She only deferred to the wish of the Holy Prophet. (close)
وَ اِذۡ تَقُوۡلُ لِلَّذِیۡۤ اَنۡعَمَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہِ وَ اَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَیۡہِ اَمۡسِکۡ عَلَیۡکَ زَوۡجَکَ وَ اتَّقِ اللّٰہَ وَ تُخۡفِیۡ فِیۡ نَفۡسِکَ مَا اللّٰہُ مُبۡدِیۡہِ وَ تَخۡشَی النَّاسَ ۚ وَ اللّٰہُ اَحَقُّ اَنۡ تَخۡشٰہُ ؕ فَلَمَّا قَضٰی زَیۡدٌ مِّنۡہَا وَطَرًا زَوَّجۡنٰکَہَا لِکَیۡ لَا یَکُوۡنَ عَلَی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ حَرَجٌ فِیۡۤ اَزۡوَاجِ اَدۡعِیَآئِہِمۡ اِذَا قَضَوۡا مِنۡہُنَّ وَطَرًا ؕ وَ کَانَ اَمۡرُ اللّٰہِ مَفۡعُوۡلًا ﴿۳۸﴾
2357. Zaid bin Harith, a young freed man of the Holy Prophet whom he had adopted as his son before adoption was declared unlawful in Islam. (close)
2357A. Had divorced her; Watar means, need; want; an object of want (Lane). (close)
2357B. Zainab was the daughter of the Holy Prophet’s aunt, hence a full- blooded Arab lady, intensely proud of her ancestry and exalted social status. Islam had envisaged and given to the world a civilization and culture in which there were no class divisions, no hereditary nobility, no vested interests. All men were free and equal in the sight of God. The Holy Prophet wanted to start with his own family to carry into actual effect this noble ideal of Islam. He wished to marry Zainab to Zaid, who in spite of having been freed by the Prophet, unfortunately still carried the stigma of slavery in the minds of some people. It was exactly this stigma of slavery, this invidious distinction between 'free' and 'slave' which the Holy Prophet sought to remove by Zainab’s marriage with Zaid. In deference to the Holy Prophet’s wish Zainab agreed to the proposal. The purpose of the Holy Prophet was achieved. The marriage levelled to the ground class distinctions and divisions. It was a practical demonstration of Islam’s noble ideal. But the marriage unfortunately ended in failure, not so much due to a difference in the social status of Zainab and Zaid as to the incompatibility of their dispositions and temperaments and also due to a feeling of inferiority from which Zaid himself suffered. The failure of the marriage naturally grieved the Holy Prophet. But it also served a very useful purpose. In pursuance of a Divine command, as mentioned in the latter part of the verse, the Holy Prophet himself married Zainab, thus cutting at the very root of the obnoxious and deep-seated Arab custom that it was a sacrilege to marry the wife of one’s adopted son. The custom of adoption was abolished and with it went also this foolish notion. Thus Zainab’s marriage with Zaid served one very noble object and its failure another.
The words 'fear Allah' signify that Zaid wanted to divorce Zainab, and as divorce according to Islam is very hateful in the sight of God, the Holy Prophet exhorted him not to do so. The clause and… thou shouldst fear Him, may apply to both Zaid and the Holy Prophet. Applying to Zaid it would mean that Zaid did not like that the cause of his separation from Zainab should come to light, perhaps because as the words 'fear Allah' indicate the fault lay more with him than with Zainab. As, however, applying to the Holy Prophet, it would signify that as the marriage between Zaid and Zainab was arranged at his instance and wish, he naturally did not like its breach. The clause also shows that the Prophet feared that the breakdown of the marriage which resulted in an ostensible failure of the experiment in Islamic brotherhood, would cause some mental confusion and uneasiness among people whose faith was weak. This was the anxiety that lay heavy on the Prophet’s heart. The words, 'thou didst fear the people,' seem to point to this fear of his.
Some Christian critics of Islam pretend to find in the Holy Prophet’s marriage with Zainab a basis for mean attacks on him. It is stated that the Prophet, having by chance seen Zainab, became enamoured of her beauty and Zaid, having come to know of his desire to marry her, sought divorce from her. The fact that the Holy Prophet’s most inveterate enemies, before whose eyes the whole affair had actually taken place, dared not attribute the base motives ascribed to him by these critics after so many centuries, completely knocks the bottom from under this base and totally unfounded charge. Zainab was the Prophet’s own cousin and, being so closely related to him, he must have seen her many times before "Pardah" was enjoined. Besides, it was in deference to his own persistently expressed wish that Zainab had reluctantly agreed to marry Zaid. It is on record that she and her brother had desired before her marriage with Zaid that she should be taken into marriage by the Holy Prophet himself. What was it that prevented the Holy Prophet from marrying her when she was a virgin and when she herself desired to get married to him? The whole story evidently seems to be a figment of the "fertile" imagination of the Holy Prophet’s hostile critics and it is an insult to human intellect to give credence to it. (close)
مَا کَانَ عَلَی النَّبِیِّ مِنۡ حَرَجٍ فِیۡمَا فَرَضَ اللّٰہُ لَہٗ ؕ سُنَّۃَ اللّٰہِ فِی الَّذِیۡنَ خَلَوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ ؕ وَ کَانَ اَمۡرُ اللّٰہِ قَدَرًا مَّقۡدُوۡرَا ۣ ﴿۫ۙ۳۹﴾
2358. The reference in the words is to the Holy Prophet’s marriage with Zainab. The words show that his marriage took place in obedience to express Divine command. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ یُبَلِّغُوۡنَ رِسٰلٰتِ اللّٰہِ وَ یَخۡشَوۡنَہٗ وَ لَا یَخۡشَوۡنَ اَحَدًا اِلَّا اللّٰہَ ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِاللّٰہِ حَسِیۡبًا ﴿۴۰﴾
a. 67:13. (close)
مَا کَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ اَبَاۤ اَحَدٍ مِّنۡ رِّجَالِکُمۡ وَ لٰکِنۡ رَّسُوۡلَ اللّٰہِ وَ خَاتَمَ النَّبِیّٖنَ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمًا ﴿٪۴۱﴾
2359. Khatam is derived from Khatama which means, he sealed, stamped, impressed or imprinted the thing. This is the primary signification of this word. The secondary meaning is he reached the end of the thing; or covered the thing; or protected what is in a writing by marking or stamping a piece of clay upon it, or by means of a seal of any kind. Khatam means, a signet ring; a seal or stamp and a mark; the end or last part or portion and result or issue of a thing. The word also signifies embellishment or ornament; the best and most perfect. The words Khatim and Khatm and Khatam are almost synonymous (Lane, Mufradat, Fath & Zurqani). So the expression Khatamun-Nabiyyin would mean, the Seal of the Prophets; the best and most perfect of the Prophets; the embellishment and ornament of the Prophets. Secondarily it means, the last of the Prophets.
At Mecca when all the Holy Prophet’s male children had died in their childhood, his enemies taunted him with being Abtar (one who has no male issue), meaning that in the absence of male heirs to succeed him his Movement would sooner or later come to an end (Muhit). In answer to this taunt of disbelievers it was emphatically declared in Surah Kauthar that not the Prophet but his enemies would remain issueless. After the revelation of Surah Kauthar the idea naturally found favour with early Muslims that the Prophet would be blessed with Sons who would live to an adult age. The verse under comment removed that misconception inasmuch as it declared that the Prophet is not, never was, nor will ever be the father of any grown-up young men (Rijal meaning grown-up young men). The verse while appearing to be in conflict with Surah Kauthar in which not the Holy Prophet but his enemies were threatened with being issueless, in reality seeks to set at rest doubts and misgivings to which this seeming contradiction gives rise. It says that the Holy Prophet is Rasulullah, signifying that he is the spiritual father of a whole Ummah and he is also Khatamun-Nabiyyin, signifying that he is the spiritual father of all the Prophets. So when he is the spiritual father of all believers and of all Prophets, how can he be said to be Abtar (issueless). If the expression be taken to mean that he is the last of the Prophets and that no Prophet will come after him, then the verse would appear to be out of tune and to possess no relevance with the context, and instead of refuting the taunt of disbelievers that the Holy Prophet was issueless, would support and reinforce it. Briefly, according to the meaning of the word Khatam, given above, the expression Khatamun-Nabiyyin can have four possible meanings: (1) The Holy Prophet was the Seal of the Prophets, i.e. no Prophet can be regarded as true unless his Prophethood bears the seal of the Holy Prophet. The Prophethood of every past Prophet must be confirmed and testified to by the Holy Prophet, and also nobody can attain to Prophethood after him except by being his follower. (2) The Holy Prophet was the best, the noblest and the most perfect of all the Prophets and he was also a source of embellishment for them (Zurqani, Sharah Mawahibul-Ladunniyyah). (3) The Holy Prophet was the last of the law-bearing Prophets. This interpretation has been accepted by eminent Muslim theologians, saints and savants such as Ibn-e-‘Arabi, Shah Waliyullah, Imam ‘Ali Qari, Mujaddid Alf Thani, and others. According to these great scholars and saints no Prophet can come after the Holy Prophet who could abrogate his Millah or who should be from outside his Ummah (Futuhat, Tafhimat, Maktubat & Yawaqitu wal-Jawahir). ‘A’ishah, the talented spouse of the Holy Prophet, is reported to have said, 'Say that he (the Holy Prophet) is Khatamun-Nabiyyin, but do not say that there will be no Prophet after him' (Manthur). (4) The Holy Prophet was the last of the Prophets only in this sense that all the qualities and attributes of Prophethood found their most perfect and complete consummation and expression in him; Khatam in the sense of being the last word in excellence and perfection is of common use. Moreover the Qur’an clearly speaks of the advent of Prophets after the Holy Prophet (7:36). The Holy Prophet himself was clear in his mind as to the continuity of Prophethood after him. He is reported to have said: 'If Ibrahim (his son) had remained alive, he would have been a Prophet' (Majah, Kitabul- Jana’iz), and, 'Abu Bakr is best of men after me, except that a Prophet should appear' (Kanz). (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَاالَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا اذۡکُرُوا اللّٰہَ ذِکۡرًا کَثِیۡرًا﴿ۙ۴۲﴾
a. 4:104; 8:46; 62:11. (close)
وَّ سَبِّحُوۡہُ بُکۡرَۃً وَّ اَصِیۡلًا ﴿۴۳﴾
b. 3:42; 19:12. (close)