اِنَّا جَعَلۡنَا فِیۡۤ اَعۡنَاقِہِمۡ اَغۡلٰلًا فَہِیَ اِلَی الۡاَذۡقَانِ فَہُمۡ مُّقۡمَحُوۡنَ ﴿۹﴾
إِنَّا جَعَلۡنَا فِيٓ أَعۡنَٰقِهِمۡ أَغۡلَٰلٗا فَهِيَ إِلَى ٱلۡأَذۡقَانِ فَهُم مُّقۡمَحُونَ
a. 13:6; 76:5. (close)
2428. Shackles of customs, usages and prejudices, by which disbelievers are fettered and which prevent them from accepting the truth and smother all efforts at reform. (close)
2428A. Even when a person tries to use his intelligence and to get away from the stranglehold of customs, etc. he is under pressure from various quarters, and he can scarcely see aright. (close)
c. 13:6; 76; 5. (close)
3217. Important Words:
مقمحون (their heads are forced up) is derived from قمح. They say قمح البعیر i.e. the camel raised his head from the water and refused to drink, his thirst being satisfied or by reason of his dislike of water. أقمح means, he raised his head and contracted his eyes. أقمحه الغل means, the collar caused his (the captive’s) head to be raised by reason of the straitness thereof. أقمح بأنفهmeans, he was proud; behaved proudly; or elevated his nose from pride. إقماح also signifies the elevating of the head by means of pride (Aqrab & Lane).
The reference in the word أغلال (chains) may be to the "shackles" of customs, usages, and prejudices, by which disbelievers are fettered and which prevent them from accepting the truth. The word مقمحون (their heads are forced up) may also refer to disbelievers’ notion of false superiority and pride which leads to the same result. The verse may have reference also to the Battle of Badr or to the Fall of Mecca. After the Battle of Badr the Meccan chiefs were brought in chains, and at the Fall of Mecca they were seized with utter confusion, the word مقمحون (see root meaning of the word under "Important Words" above) giving a graphic description of their bewilderment and consternation when all of a sudden they found the Holy Prophet at the very gates of Mecca, at the head of an army of ten thousand strong. Their eyes remained fixed in a stare and they ran about with heads raised in bewilderment. (close)
وَ جَعَلۡنَا مِنۡۢ بَیۡنِ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ سَدًّا وَّ مِنۡ خَلۡفِہِمۡ سَدًّا فَاَغۡشَیۡنٰہُمۡ فَہُمۡ لَا یُبۡصِرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾
وَجَعَلۡنَا مِنۢ بَيۡنِ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ سَدّٗا وَمِنۡ خَلۡفِهِمۡ سَدّٗا فَأَغۡشَيۡنَٰهُمۡ فَهُمۡ لَا يُبۡصِرُونَ
2429. On account of the barriers of usages, prejudices and pride the disbelievers could not have looked forward to the great and bright future which lay before them if they accepted Islam, and they did not look back to the histories of past peoples who rejected the truth and were seized with Divine punishment. (close)
The barriers referred to in the verse may be the barriers of usages, prejudices, and pride of disbelievers. They could not look forward to the great and bright future which lay before them if they accepted Islam, and they did not look back to the histories of past peoples who rejected the truth and were seized with Divine punishment. The result of the barriers placed before and behind them was that they themselves became totally devoid of all spiritual light. (close)
وَ سَوَآءٌ عَلَیۡہِمۡ ءَاَنۡذَرۡتَہُمۡ اَمۡ لَمۡ تُنۡذِرۡہُمۡ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۱﴾
وَسَوَآءٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ ءَأَنذَرۡتَهُمۡ أَمۡ لَمۡ تُنذِرۡهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ
b. 2:7. (close)
2430. See 26. (close)
a. 2:7. (close)
The verse means to say that the inevitable result of disbelievers’ deliberately shutting their eyes and ears to the truth to which reference has been made in the preceding verse was that the timely warning did not benefit them and by their persistent rejection of the Truth they rendered themselves deserving of Divine punishment. (close)
اِنَّمَا تُنۡذِرُ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الذِّکۡرَ وَ خَشِیَ الرَّحۡمٰنَ بِالۡغَیۡبِ ۚ فَبَشِّرۡہُ بِمَغۡفِرَۃٍ وَّ اَجۡرٍ کَرِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۲﴾
إِنَّمَا تُنذِرُ مَنِ ٱتَّبَعَ ٱلذِّكۡرَ وَخَشِيَ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنَ بِٱلۡغَيۡبِۖ فَبَشِّرۡهُ بِمَغۡفِرَةٖ وَأَجۡرٖ كَرِيمٍ
c. 35:19. (close)
a. 35:19. (close)
The expression بالغیب (in secret) may mean that (1) a believer fears God while he does not see Him; (2) he behaves as a righteous and God-fearing person even when other people are not seeing him, i.e. he is sincere and honest in his belief and actions. (close)
اِنَّا نَحۡنُ نُحۡیِ الۡمَوۡتٰی وَ نَکۡتُبُ مَا قَدَّمُوۡا وَ اٰثَارَہُمۡ ؕؑ وَ کُلَّ شَیۡءٍ اَحۡصَیۡنٰہُ فِیۡۤ اِمَامٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿٪۱۳﴾
إِنَّا نَحۡنُ نُحۡيِ ٱلۡمَوۡتَىٰ وَنَكۡتُبُ مَا قَدَّمُواْ وَءَاثَٰرَهُمۡۚ وَكُلَّ شَيۡءٍ أَحۡصَيۡنَٰهُ فِيٓ إِمَامٖ مُّبِينٖ
a. 18:50; 72:29. (close)
2431. Imam means, a leader of a people or army; a model or an example; the religious Scripture of any people; a road or way, etc. (Lane). (close)
b. 18:50; 72:29. (close)
3221. Important Words:
إمام (Book) is derived from أم. They say أم القوم او أم بالقوم i.e. he led the people; he took precedence of them. إمام means, a leader of a people or army; a model or an example; the religious scripture of any people; a road or way, a tract of land, etc. (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:125; 17:72 & 25:75.
آثارھم (that which they leave behind). آثار is the plural of أثر which is infinitive noun from أثر (athara). They say أثر خف البعیرi.e. he made an incision in the foot of the camel. أثر means, a relic; a trace remaining of a thing; a sign or mark or trace; a foot-print (Lane). See also 20:97.
The verse means to say that with the exception of those unfortunate people who by their persistent rejection of Truth have shut upon themselves the door of God’s mercy and for whom no admonition is of any avail, the spiritually dead Arabs will be brought to life through the teachings of the Quran and they will set such a noble example of righteousness and godliness that the footprints they will leave behind for others to follow will be made to endure and will be remembered with respect and serve as a source of inspiration for generations yet unborn. (close)
وَ اضۡرِبۡ لَہُمۡ مَّثَلًا اَصۡحٰبَ الۡقَرۡیَۃِ ۘ اِذۡ جَآءَہَا الۡمُرۡسَلُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۱۴﴾
وَٱضۡرِبۡ لَهُم مَّثَلًا أَصۡحَٰبَ ٱلۡقَرۡيَةِ إِذۡ جَآءَهَا ٱلۡمُرۡسَلُونَ
2432. Qaryah may mean any town or place, or metaphorically speaking it may stand for the whole world. Thus Ashabul-Qaryah may signify humanity at large. Or, the word signifying a particular town may refer to Mecca, the Centre and Citadel of Islam. In this case the word 'the Messengers' will apply to the Holy Prophet who represented in his person all the Messengers and Prophets of God. (close)
3222. Important Words:
القریة (the town) is infinitive-noun from قری. They say قری الضیف i.e. he entertained the guest. قری الماء فی الحوض means, he collected the water in the pond. قریة means, a town, a central town. It is so called because people from all quarters gather there and also because they are entertained there. The word also means, gathering of men (Aqrab).
A part of the Surah deals, in metaphorical language, with the advent of a great Reformer in the Latter Days who was to represent the Second Coming of the Holy Prophet. This important subject begins with the present verse.
The word القریة may have been used here in its wider sense meaning any town or place, or speaking metaphorically, it may stand for the whole world. The whole world has been called a قریة here because in the Latter Days the means of commun-ication were to develop so extensively that the whole world was to become, as it were, one town. In this sense of the word the expression may signify humanity at large. The use of the word "parable" with regard to the account of اصحاب القریة i.e. people of the town, seems to lend further support to the view that القریة may not be a particular town that has been mentioned here. The whole account is a parable or simile.
Or the word القریة signifying a particular town may refer to Mecca, the Centre and Citadel of Islam. In that case the word المرسلون (the Messengers) will apply to the Holy Prophet in whose person all the Messengers and Prophets of God were represented. See next verse. (close)
اِذۡ اَرۡسَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡہِمُ اثۡنَیۡنِ فَکَذَّبُوۡہُمَا فَعَزَّزۡنَا بِثَالِثٍ فَقَالُوۡۤا اِنَّاۤ اِلَیۡکُمۡ مُّرۡسَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵﴾
إِذۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَآ إِلَيۡهِمُ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ فَكَذَّبُوهُمَا فَعَزَّزۡنَا بِثَالِثٖ فَقَالُوٓاْ إِنَّآ إِلَيۡكُم مُّرۡسَلُونَ
2433. Moses and Jesus or Abraham and Ishmael. (close)
2434. The Holy Prophet 'strengthened' Moses and Jesus by fulfilling in his person the prophecies they had made about his advent (Deut.18:18 & Matt. 21:33-46). And he 'strengthened' Abraham and Ishmael because in his person was fulfilled their prayer referred to in 2:129, 130. (close)
The verse by way of introduction to the main subject makes a brief reference to two great Israelite Prophets, Moses and Jesus, one the Founder, and the other the great exponent of the Jewish Dispensation.
If the word القریة in the preceding verse may be taken as referring to Mecca, the two Messengers mentioned in the verse under comment will be Abraham and Ishmael.
The reference in the words "a third," in the expression "We strengthened them by third," seems to be to the Holy Prophet who testified to the truth of both Moses and Jesus and also to that of Abraham and Ishmael. The word ثالث (a third) has been used as a نکرة in order to signify the greatness of the third Prophet, the Holy Prophet.
The Holy Prophet "strengthened" Moses and Jesus, also Abraham and Ishmael by testifying to the truth of their missions and by fulfilling in his person the prophecies they had made about his advent (Deut. 18:18 & Matt. 21:33-46). (close)
قَالُوۡا مَاۤ اَنۡتُمۡ اِلَّا بَشَرٌ مِّثۡلُنَا ۙ وَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ الرَّحۡمٰنُ مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ ۙ اِنۡ اَنۡتُمۡ اِلَّا تَکۡذِبُوۡنَ ﴿۱۶﴾
قَالُواْ مَآ أَنتُمۡ إِلَّا بَشَرٞ مِّثۡلُنَا وَمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنُ مِن شَيۡءٍ إِنۡ أَنتُمۡ إِلَّا تَكۡذِبُونَ
b. 14:11; 26:155. (close)
a. 14:11; 26:155. (close)
All the three great Prophets mentioned in the preceding verse were rejected on the plea that they were just ordinary "men like us" and that God never revealed anything to anybody. The pretext which disbelievers put forward in justi-fication of their rejection of God’s Prophets has elsewhere been mentioned in the Quran in the words: "We have not heard of such a thing among our forefathers" (23:25). (close)
قَالُوۡا رَبُّنَا یَعۡلَمُ اِنَّاۤ اِلَیۡکُمۡ لَمُرۡسَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷﴾
قَالُواْ رَبُّنَا يَعۡلَمُ إِنَّآ إِلَيۡكُمۡ لَمُرۡسَلُونَ
وَ مَا عَلَیۡنَاۤ اِلَّا الۡبَلٰغُ الۡمُبِیۡنُ ﴿۱۸﴾
وَمَا عَلَيۡنَآ إِلَّا ٱلۡبَلَٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ
a. 13:41; 16:36; 24:55; 29:19. (close)
b. 13:41; 16:36; 24:55; 29:19. (close)