Introduction of Sad
(Revealed before Hijrah)
Like its predecessors this Surah is also admittedly of Meccan origin. It was revealed in the early years of the Holy Prophet’s life at Mecca. Ibn ‘Abbas, as reported by Baihaqi and Ibn Merdawaih, also subscribes to this view, and other scholars, too, agree with him. From its contents and subject matter the Surah bears a very close resemblance to As-Saffat. It takes its title from its opening word Sad, i.e. the Truthful God.
The preceding Surah ended with the challenging Divine declaration that "God’s hosts shall be victorious and it shall be an evil day for the disbelievers when Divine punishment shall descend into their courtyard." The present Surahopens with an equally emphatic declaration that it is an unalterable decree of the Truthful God and it shall happen without fail that the believers shall attain wealth, power and eminence by acting upon the teachings of the Quran, while disbelievers shall meet with disgrace and destruction like those who disobeyed and defied Divine Prophets in the past.
As stated above the Surah opens with a firm declaration—in fact, God swears by the Quran—that by acting upon its teaching and by making it a rule of their lives the believers will achieve glory and eminence and will come to occupy a most honoured place in the comity of mighty nations; and disbelievers will suffer humiliation and disgrace because they "are steeped in false pride and enmity." Disbelievers are further warned to take a lesson from the histories of past generations of disbelievers who, because of their rejection of the Divine Message, met with a very sad fate. The Surah proceeds to say that the Meccan disbelievers repeat the parrot-cry that they will not give up the worship of their gods at the behest of a man who is just one of them. In reply to this foolish plea they are asked: Since when have they begun to arrogate to themselves the possession of the treasures of God’s grace and mercy? It is God’s own prerogative that He chooses whom He deems fit for the conveyance of His will to His creatures; and now He has chosen the Holy Prophet Muhammad for this purpose. If they will not believe in him their combined forces will be routed and they will be destroyed like the opponents of past Messengers; and Islam will triumph and grow from strength to strength.
After making a brief reference to the central theme of the Unity of God in its opening verses, and by way of introduction making an emphatic prediction that the forces of evil will suffer defeat and disgrace and the votaries of the One God will be given power, wealth and distinction, the Surah gives a somewhat detailed description of the great glory and prosperity which the Israelite nation had attained in the reigns of two of their Prophet-Kings—David and Solomon. It also refers to the plots that had been hatched in David’s glorious reign to undermine his power and influence and to the seeds of decay and disintegration that had become sown during Solomon’s reign when the Israelites rolled in wealth and were at the peak of material prosperity. The Holy Prophet, by implication, is told that, consumed with jealousy at his growing power, his enemies will also hatch plots to take his life, and so he should always be on his guard against them. Similarly, reference to Israelite prosperity in the reigns of David and Solomon implies a prophecy that the enemies of Islam, by plotting to kill the Holy Prophet, will seek to nip the tender plant of Islam in the bud, but they will fail in their wicked designs and Islam will continue to gain power and strength till it will attain the heights of grandeur and prosperity. But if Muslims did not take proper care, they would find, to their cost, that in the very heyday of their glory, forces were at work seeking to undermine the solidarity and stability of Islam. After this a brief mention is made of Prophet Job who had to suffer great hardships, but the temporary phase of his tribulation quickly passed and he came into his own and his loss was doubly made up. The reference to Job is followed by a fleeting allusion to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Prophets Ishmael, Elisha and Dhul-Kifl. All these were honoured servants of God, says the Surah, whom He chose for the bestowal of His grace because they worked in the ways of righteousness and preached and propagated piety in the world.
Next, we are told that those good people who copy the example of the noble Prophets of God and follow in their footsteps will receive God’s favours which know no decrease or diminution. But those who oppose truth and adopt evil ways will burn in the fire of Hell.
After referring to some of the Prophets who suffered great hardships at the hands of their enemies and after dealing with the subject that opposition to God’s Messengers never goes unpunished or their acceptance unrewarded, the Surah reverts to its main subject, namely, Divine Unity. It closes on the note that whenever men stray away from the path of rectitude, and begin to worship false gods, a Divine Messenger is raised among them to bring them back to the worship of the One True God, and all the angel-like men are bidden to believe in him and help him in the furtherance of his cause. The sons of darkness seek to put all sorts of obstacles and impediments in the Prophet’s way, and deceive and beguile men away from God. But truth overcomes all hindrances, and triumphs and prevails in the long run.
یہ سورۃ مکی ہے اور بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی نواسی آیات ہیں۔
اس سورتِ کریمہ کا آغاز بھی حروفِ مقطعات میں سے ایک حرف ص سے فرمایا گیا ہے جس کی ایک تشریح مفسرین یہ بیان کرتے ہیں کہ ص سے مراد ’’صَادِقُ الْقَوْل‘‘ ہے یعنی وہ اللہ جس کی باتیں ضرور پوری ہوکر رہیں گی۔ اور قرآن کو جو عظیم نصیحتوں پر مشتمل ہے اس بات پر گواہ ٹھہرایا گیا ہے کہ اس قرآن کا انکار محض جھوٹی عزت کے نتیجہ میں پیدا ہو نے والی مخالفت کی وجہ سے ہے۔ اسی سورت میں حضرت داؤد علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کے کشف کا نظارہ پیش کیا گیا ہے جس سے انسانی فطرت کی حرص ظاہر ہوتی ہے کہ اگر اسے ننانوے فی صدی بھی غلبہ عطا ہوجائے تو پھر وہ سو فیصد غلبہ چاہتا ہے اور کمزوروں اور غریبوں کے لئے ایک فی صد بھی نہیں چھوڑتا۔ گزشتہ سورت میں جو بڑی بڑی طاقتوں کی جنگوں کا ذکر ملتا ہے ان کا بھی صرف یہی مقصد ہے کہ تمام غریب ملکوں سے بادشاہت کے تمام حقوق چھین لیں اور بِلاشرکتِ غیرے سب دنیا پر حکومت کریں۔ بالفاظ دیگر یہ خدائی کا دعویٰ ہے۔ اس کے بعدنوع انسان کو حضرت داؤد علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کے حوالہ سے یہ نصیحت فرمائی گئی ہے کہ آپس کے جھگڑوں کا فیصلہ حق کے ساتھ کرنا چاہئے، ظلم اور تعدّی سے نہیں۔
اسی سورت میں حضرت سلیمان علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کے متعلق یہ ذکر ملتا ہے کہ آپؑ کو گھوڑوں سے بہت محبت تھی۔ اس واقعہ کی غلط تفسیر کرتے ہوئے بعض علماء یہ بیان کرتے ہیں کہ ایک دفعہ آپؑ گھوڑوں کو تھپکیاں دے رہے تھے اور ان کی ٹانگوں پر ہاتھ پھیر رہے تھے کہ نماز کا وقت نکل گیا، اس پر حضرت سلیمانؑ نے اپنی اس غفلت کا غصّہ ان بے چارے گھوڑوں پر اُتارا اور ان کے قتلِ عام کا حکم دیا۔ لیکن اس انتہائی مضحکہ خیز تفسیر کو وہ آیت کلیۃً جھٹلارہی ہے جس میں حضرت سلیمان علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام فرماتے ہیں کہ ان کو میری طرف واپس لے آؤ۔ اس سے پتہ چلتا ہے کہ انبیاء کو اللہ تعالیٰ کی خاطر جہاد کے لئے جو سواریاں عطا ہوتی ہیں وہ ان سے بے حد محبت کرتے ہیں اور بار بار اُن کو دیکھنا چاہتے ہیں۔ آنحضور صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم نے بھی فرمایا کہ میری امّت کے لئے ایسے گھوڑوں کی پیشانیوں میں قیامت تک کے لئے برکت رکھ دی گئی ہے جو بغرض جہاد تیار کئے جاتے ہیں۔
اسی سورت میں حضرت ایوب علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کو ایک عظیم الشان صاحبِ صبر نبی کے طور پر بطور مثال پیش فرمایا گیا ہے اور وہ حقائق پیش فرمائے ہیں جو بائیبل میں کئی قسم کی عجیب و غریب کہانیوں کی صورت میں ملتے ہیں۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. 1:1. (close)
a. See1:1. (close)
See. 1:1. (close)
صٓ وَ الۡقُرۡاٰنِ ذِی الذِّکۡرِ ؕ﴿۲﴾
صٓۚ وَٱلۡقُرۡءَانِ ذِي ٱلذِّكۡرِ
2513. The letter Sad may signify 'the Truthful God,' or 'I am Allah, the Truthful,' or 'God has spoken the truth.' (close)
b. 43:45. (close)
2514. The Truthful God swears by the Qur’an that the followers of the Holy Prophet, by acting upon the teachings of the Qur’an and making it a rule of their lives, shall achieve eminence and shall come to occupy a most honoured place among the comity of great nations, Dhikr also meaning eminence (Lane). (close)
b. 43:45. (close)
The letter ص may signify "the Truthful God" or "I am Allah, the Truthful" or "God has spoken the truth" (صدق الله). For an explanation of abbreviated letters see 2:2 & 19:2.
ذی الذکر means full of admonition and exhortation or possessing eminence and honour; or acting upon its teaching the believers will achieve honour, good name and eminence.
The whole verse may mean that the Truthful God swears by the Quran that the followers of the Holy Prophet, by acting upon the teaching of the Quran and making it a rule of their lives, will achieve eminence and will come to occupy a most honoured place in the comity of nations. The verse thus constitutes a great prophecy about the glorious future of Islam. (close)
بَلِ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا فِیۡ عِزَّۃٍ وَّ شِقَاقٍ ﴿۳﴾
بَلِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فِي عِزَّةٖ وَشِقَاقٖ
2515. The root-cause of all sin and disbelief are false pride, conceit and arrogance. The first recorded sin committed by Satan was that he refused to submit to Adam on the plea of his fancied superiority over him (Adam). 'I am better than he' (7:13) has always been the boast of disbelievers which has prevented them from accepting the truth in the time of every Prophet. (close)
The root-cause of all sin and disbelief is false pride, conceit and arrogance. The first recorded sin was committed by Satan who refused to submit to Adam on the basis of his farcical superiority to him (Adam).
انا خیر منه i.e. "I am better than he" (17:13) has always been the boast of disbelievers which has prevented them from accepting the truth in the time of every Prophet. They cannot persuade themselves to give their allegiance to one who, they say, is quite like themselves; even inferior to them in some respects. (close)
کَمۡ اَہۡلَکۡنَا مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ مِّنۡ قَرۡنٍ فَنَادَوۡا وَّ لَاتَ حِیۡنَ مَنَاصٍ ﴿۴﴾
كَمۡ أَهۡلَكۡنَا مِن قَبۡلِهِم مِّن قَرۡنٖ فَنَادَواْ وَّلَاتَ حِينَ مَنَاصٖ
c. 6:7; 19:75; 36:32; 50:37. (close)
2516. According to some scholars Lata is originally Laisa; some others think that the feminine ta is added to the negative la to render the negation more intensive. According to a third school it is an independent word, neither originally Laisa nor la. The fourth school, however, is of the view that it is a word and also a part of a word, namely the negative la, and ta, prefixed to Hina. It is generally accompanied by Hina or some other word synonymous with it. (close)
c. 6:7; 19:75; 36:32; 50:37. (close)
3375. Important Words:
لات (it was no longer). لاته عن کذا means, he withheld him or restrained him and turned him from such a course. لات شیئا means, he concealed a thing that he knew, and told or narrated something different from it. لاته حقه means, he diminished unto him his due or right. According to some scholars لات is originally لیس, its س being changed into ت and ی into الف; others are of the opinion that it is made up of two words, the fem. ت is added to the negative لا to make the word feminine or to render the negation more intensive. According to a third school, it is an independent word, neither originally لیس nor لا. The fourth school, however, thinks that it is a word and also a part of a word, namely the negative لا, and ت prefixed to حین.It is generally accompanied with حین or some word synonymous with it and is used as لات الحین حین مناص i.e. the time was not the time of refuge. The expression لات حین مناص may have the following different meanings:
1. There was no place of flight existing for them.
2. The time is, and was, not a time of flight.
3. The time of fleeing or petitioning or being aided will not be available to them.
لات was also one of three great idols of the Meccans, the other two being عزی and مناة (Lane, Aqrab & Zamakhshari).
مناص (time for escape) is derived from ناص. They say ناص عن قرینه i.e. he fled from, kept away from or left, his associate. ناص فلانا means, he missed such a one and went ahead of him. They say مالک من مناص i.e. there is no time or place of refuge for thee (Aqrab).
The verse means to say that disbelievers have rejected the message of truth with contempt and disdain, and consider it below their dignity to listen to the Holy Prophet, but when Divine punishment overtook them, they will cry for help but will find no refuge or asylum. (close)
وَ عَجِبُوۡۤا اَنۡ جَآءَہُمۡ مُّنۡذِرٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ ۫ وَ قَالَ الۡکٰفِرُوۡنَ ہٰذَا سٰحِرٌ کَذَّابٌ ۖ﴿ۚ۵﴾
وَعَجِبُوٓاْ أَن جَآءَهُم مُّنذِرٞ مِّنۡهُمۡۖ وَقَالَ ٱلۡكَٰفِرُونَ هَٰذَا سَٰحِرٞ كَذَّابٌ
d. 7:64. (close)
a. 7:64. (close)
The greatest obstacle in the way of disbelievers to accept the truth has always been that they would not pledge their allegiance to a man who is just one of them. (close)
اَجَعَلَ الۡاٰلِہَۃَ اِلٰـہًا وَّاحِدًا ۚۖ اِنَّ ہٰذَا لَشَیۡءٌ عُجَابٌ ﴿۶﴾
أَجَعَلَ ٱلۡأٓلِهَةَ إِلَٰهٗا وَٰحِدًاۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيۡءٌ عُجَابٞ
وَ انۡطَلَقَ الۡمَلَاُ مِنۡہُمۡ اَنِ امۡشُوۡا وَ اصۡبِرُوۡا عَلٰۤی اٰلِہَتِکُمۡ ۚۖ اِنَّ ہٰذَا لَشَیۡءٌ یُّرَادُ ۖ﴿ۚ۷﴾
وَٱنطَلَقَ ٱلۡمَلَأُ مِنۡهُمۡ أَنِ ٱمۡشُواْ وَٱصۡبِرُواْ عَلَىٰٓ ءَالِهَتِكُمۡۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيۡءٞ يُرَادُ
a. 71:24. (close)
a. 71:24. (close)
As disbelievers believed that there were many gods, and the Holy Prophet proclaimed the Unity of God, they would say that somehow he had rolled all the gods into one.
The words "This is a thing designed" put in the mouths of the leaders of disbelief signify that according to them the Holy Prophet had his own ulterior motives to serve in preaching the message of the Unity of God. Or the words may mean that when invited by the Holy Prophet to give up idolatry, the leaders of the Quraish said to one another that they should stick to their own gods and that was a most desirable thing for them to do. (close)
مَا سَمِعۡنَا بِہٰذَا فِی الۡمِلَّۃِ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ۚۖ اِنۡ ہٰذَاۤ اِلَّا اخۡتِلَاقٌ ۖ﴿ۚ۸﴾
مَا سَمِعۡنَا بِهَٰذَا فِي ٱلۡمِلَّةِ ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ إِنۡ هَٰذَآ إِلَّا ٱخۡتِلَٰقٌ
b. 23:25. (close)
2517. The 'previous creed' may refer to Christianity or the idolatrous faith of the pagans of Mecca, or it may refer to all religions preceding Islam, because in no religion before Islam had belief in the Unity of God remained pure and unadulterated. (close)
b. 23:25. (close)
3378. Important Words:
اختلاق (fabrication) is derived from خلق which among other things means, he forged or fabricated a story or a lie, etc. (Lane). See also 3:50 & 26:138.
The words "the latest religion" may refer to Christianity or the idolatrous Faith of the pagans of Mecca, or they may refer to all religions preceding Islam, because in no religion before Islam had belief in the Unity of God remained pure and unadulterated. (close)
ءَ اُنۡزِلَ عَلَیۡہِ الذِّکۡرُ مِنۡۢ بَیۡنِنَا ؕ بَلۡ ہُمۡ فِیۡ شَکٍّ مِّنۡ ذِکۡرِیۡ ۚ بَلۡ لَّمَّا یَذُوۡقُوۡا عَذَابِ ؕ﴿۹﴾
أَءُنزِلَ عَلَيۡهِ ٱلذِّكۡرُ مِنۢ بَيۡنِنَاۚ بَلۡ هُمۡ فِي شَكّٖ مِّن ذِكۡرِيۚ بَل لَّمَّا يَذُوقُواْ عَذَابِ
c. 54:26. (close)
c. 54:26. (close)
The verse refers to a great obstacle which stands in the way of disbelievers to accept the truth. They simply cannot, they say, persuade themselves to follow the lead of a man just like themselves—rather inferior to them in certain respects. The same subject has been referred to in 43:32 where the Meccan infidels are described as refusing to accept the Message of the Quran on the pretext, "why has not this Quran been sent to some great man of the two towns." (close)
اَمۡ عِنۡدَہُمۡ خَزَآئِنُ رَحۡمَۃِ رَبِّکَ الۡعَزِیۡزِ الۡوَہَّابِ ۚ﴿۱۰﴾
أَمۡ عِندَهُمۡ خَزَآئِنُ رَحۡمَةِ رَبِّكَ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡوَهَّابِ
d. 17:101; 52:38. (close)
a. 17:101; 52:38. (close)
In reply to the refusal of disbelievers to accept the Holy Prophet on the plea that he was a mere mortal like them and nothing more, the verse reproachfully asks them: Since when have they arrogated to themselves the possession of the treasures of Divine mercy? It is God’s own special prerogative to select, in His infallible wisdom, whom He deems fit to be the bearer of His Message and the conveyer of His will to His creatures. (close)