وَ اِذۡ غَدَوۡتَ مِنۡ اَہۡلِکَ تُبَوِّیٴُ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ مَقَاعِدَ لِلۡقِتَالِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعٌ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۲۲﴾ۙ
وَإِذۡ غَدَوۡتَ مِنۡ أَهۡلِكَ تُبَوِّئُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ مَقَٰعِدَ لِلۡقِتَالِۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
467. The reference is to the Battle of Uhud. In order to wipe out the humiliation of their defeat at Badr, the Quraish of Mecca, in the third year of the Hijrah marched against Medina with a well-equipped army of 3,000 seasoned warriors. Much against his own wish the Holy Prophet with a force of 1,000 including 300 followers of ‘Abdullah b. Ubayy, the notorious Hypocrite who afterwards defected, marched out of Medina to meet the enemy. The encounter took place near Uhud. (close)
In the preceding verses Muslims have been taught the lesson of patience, perseverance, and righteousness. If they act upon it, they will succeed and no enemy can injure them. Now the same lesson is brought home to them by an illustration from their current history.
The verse refers to the important Battle of Uhud, which was fought in the third year of Hijrah. After sustaining a crushing defeat at Badr, the Quraish of Mecca began to make preparations in earnest for another attack on the Holy Prophet and his followers at Medina. Accordingly, next year a well-equipped army of 3,000 warriors marched against Medina under the leadership of Abu Sufyan. When the Holy Prophet heard of it, he consulted his Companions as to the best way of meeting the enemy. The majority of the older Companions were of the opinion that they should remain in the city and defend themselves. ‘Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, leader of the Hypocrites, was also of the same opinion. The Holy Prophet also held the same view. He had seen in a dream that the Muslim army had suffered a loss, although it had also inflicted loss on the enemy. So he desired to remain in the city and there wait for the enemy. But the majority of his followers, mostly young men and such of the older people as had not taken part in the Battle of Badr, were eager to march out of Medina and meet the enemy in pitched battle. The Holy Prophet respected the wishes of the majority and decided to march out. Later, however, the majority thought better of the matter and veered round to the opinion of the Holy Prophet. But now the Holy Prophet refused to change his mind, saying that it did not behove a Prophet of God to put down his armour after he had once put it on till God decided between him and the enemy. So he marched out of Medina with a force of 1,000 men. A large party of Jews, who were apparently in alliance with the Muslims, wished to join him. But the Holy Prophet did not accept their help. They were a treacherous people and God had just warned him against them, saying, They will not fail to corrupt you; they love to see you in trouble (3:119).
When the Holy Prophet had proceeded some distance, ‘Abdullah bin Ubayy, leader of the Hypocrites, deserted and returned to Medina on the pretext that his advice to stay in Medina had been ignored and that the help of the Jews, whom he had brought as reinforcement, had also been rejected. This reduced the Muslim army to only 700 men. At this sudden defection on the part of ‘Abdullah, a tribe from the Khazraj called Banu Harithah, and a tribe from the Aus called Banu Salmah, in spite of being sincere Muslims, showed signs of wavering and thought of deserting, but God saved them from such defection (3:123).
On entering the valley of Uhud, the Holy Prophet arrayed his men in battle order with their backs towards the hill and their faces towards Medina. As a further precaution, he stationed 50 archers at a certain point on the hill in the rear of the Muslim army under the leadership of ‘Abdullah bin Jubair, with express orders not to quit the place until so ordered by the Prophet himself, even if they saw the Meccans fleeing before the Muslim or even if they saw the Muslims being defeated and their bodies eaten by birds.
As was the custom in Arabia, the battle commenced with single combats, resulting in the death of several disbelievers and some Muslims. Then the enemy made a general assault, which was repeated thrice, and each time they were completely repulsed. The battle waged hot, but at last the enemy force broke and they were forced to flee, pursued by the Muslims, so much so that some of the latter began to collect the booty.
When the party stationed on the hill in the rear of the army saw this, they thought of leaving their position, thinking that as the battle was over the object of the Holy Prophet’s command was fulfilled and their presence on the hill was no longer needed. Their leader remonstrated with them and asked them to stick to the place in obedience to the Holy Prophet’s command. But they paid no heed to his words and left the place. A few, however, remained behind with him on the hill. Khalid bin Walid, who was among the disbelievers, having not yet embraced Islam, at once saw his opportunity and with a party of disbelievers attacked and killed the few men with their leader who had remained behind, and fell on the Muslims from the rear. Seeing this, the fleeing Meccans also took heart and returned to the attack, and in the confusion that followed someone mischievously shouted that the Prophet had been killed. This disheartened the believers, some of whom fled to Medina, and others left the battlefield, overwhelmed with grief at the supposed death of their Holy Master. Many, however, not desiring to live when the Prophet was dead, rushed into the ranks of the enemy and died fighting bravely.
The confusion was so complete that the Holy Prophet was at one time left with only twelve Companions; at another time, he had only two Companions with him and was thus practically left all alone. All this time, he was the centre of the enemy’s attacks, but the few Companions that stood by him shielded him with their bodies and, standing like statues of stone, received all the arrows and all the blows on their bodies which became pierced like sieves. But they did not swerve even by the fraction of an inch from their place lest by so doing they should expose the body of the Holy Prophet. Whenever anyone of them fell, his place was promptly taken by another. The Holy Prophet was also wounded. One of his teeth was broken by a stone and a ring of his helmet was smashed into his face by a ruthless blow. When the Companions who still remained in or near the battlefield learned that their Master was alive, a section of them gathered round him and, repelling the attacks of the enemy, slowly took him to a safe place on the hillside. Then the enemy withdrew. More than seventy of the Companions fell in the battle, including Hamzah, the valiant uncle of the Holy Prophet; and many were wounded. But as later events showed, this calamity, however great in itself, did not prove a check to the forward march of Islam. The rest of the battle is described in the succeeding verses. (close)
اِذۡ ہَمَّتۡ طَّآئِفَتٰنِ مِنۡکُمۡ اَنۡ تَفۡشَلَا ۙ وَ اللّٰہُ وَلِیُّہُمَا ؕ وَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ فَلۡیَتَوَکَّلِ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۳﴾
إِذۡ هَمَّت طَّآئِفَتَانِ مِنكُمۡ أَن تَفۡشَلَا وَٱللَّهُ وَلِيُّهُمَاۗ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَكَّلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ
468. The two parties were the two tribes of Banu Salimah and Banu Harithah, belonging respectively to Khazraj and Aus (Bukhari, Kitabul- Maghazi). The verse indicates that they did not actually show cowardice, but seeing that by the defection of ‘Abdullah’s 300 followers, the small Muslim army had been further greatly depleted, they only thought of deserting but in fact did not do so. (close)
407. Important Words:
یتوکل (should rely) is derived from وکل (wakala). They say وکل الیه الامر i.e. he left the matter to him for disposal as he might think fit. وکله بكذا (wakkalahu) means, he appointed him his وکیل or agent for the disposal or management of such and such a matter. توکل بالامر means, he became responsible, or accepted responsibility, for the management of the affair. توکل علی الله means, he relied on God; he put his trust in Him; he submitted himself to Him. The infinitive noun توکل signifies relying on, and trusting in, God alone, to the exclusion of worldly means (Aqrab & Lane).
The two groups mentioned here were, as stated above, the two tribes of Banu Salmah and Banu Harithah, belonging respectively to Aus and Khazraj. Their idea of returning (referred to in the note under the preceding verse) was not due to any doubt on their part with regard to the truth of Islam, but was merely due to weakness born of attending circumstances. But as they were sincere believers, God saved them from yielding to this weakness. See also note on 3:122.
The clause, upon Allah should the believers rely, does not mean that a Muslim should neglect material means and confine himself to praying to God and waiting for His help. This is a misguided conception of توکل (trusting in God) which finds no support in Islamic teachings. What Islam teaches is this, that true believer should use all the available means of attaining an object but should, at the same time, not rely upon them. He should trust in God alone looking upon worldly means as only being effective under the will of God. "Tie the knees of your camel and then trust in God", says the Holy Prophet—an extremely difficult position but nevertheless the only right way of demonstrating true faith in God! (close)
وَ لَقَدۡ نَصَرَکُمُ اللّٰہُ بِبَدۡرٍ وَّ اَنۡتُمۡ اَذِلَّۃٌ ۚ فَاتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَشۡکُرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۴﴾
وَلَقَدۡ نَصَرَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِبَدۡرٖ وَأَنتُمۡ أَذِلَّةٞۖ فَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ
a. 8:8, 11; 9:25. (close)
469. Badr is the name of a place on the route between Mecca and Medina. It takes its name from a spring which belonged to a man named Badr. The Battle of Badr referred to here took place near this place. (close)
b. 2:250. (close)
a. 8:8, 11; 9:25. (close)
b. 2:250. (close)
408. Important Words:
بدر (Badr) literally means the full moon. The verb form بدر from which the noun-form is derived gives the sense of making haste. They say بدر الی الشیء i.e. he hastened towards it. Badr, in the sense of full moon, is so called because it hastens to rise before the sun sets and to set before the sun rises. Badr is also the name of a place on the route between Mecca and Medina. It takes its name from a spring which belonged to a man named Badr. The Battle of Badr referred to here took place near this place.
These words are addressed to Muslims through the Holy Prophet, who actually used them after the Battle of Uhud. They remind the Faithful that God had granted them victory at Badr while they were much weaker than at the time of the Battle of Uhud, because they behaved obediently, patiently and God-fearingly on that occasion. So the setback at Uhud was due to their own weakness and the disobedience, though not quite intentional, which some of them showed to their Master. But the words also imply a promise of help in future if the Muslims repent of their mistake and behave like true believers. (close)
اِذۡ تَقُوۡلُ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ اَلَنۡ یَّکۡفِیَکُمۡ اَنۡ یُّمِدَّکُمۡ رَبُّکُمۡ بِثَلٰثَۃِ اٰلٰفٍ مِّنَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ مُنۡزَلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۵﴾ؕ
إِذۡ تَقُولُ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ أَلَن يَكۡفِيَكُمۡ أَن يُمِدَّكُمۡ رَبُّكُم بِثَلَٰثَةِ ءَالَٰفٖ مِّنَ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ مُنزَلِينَ
c. 8:10. (close)
470. As mistakenly understood these words do not refer to the Battle of Badr which has been mentioned in the preceding verse only incidentally in order to cite an illustration of how God helped the steadfast Muslims in time of danger. The number of angels sent at the Battle of Badr was, according to 8:10, one thousand as the number of the enemy was then one thousand. In the Battle of Uhud the number of the enemy was 3,000, so the Muslims were also promised the help of 3,000 angels. The fulfilment of the present promise is referred to in 3:153. (close)
The verse means that if the Meccans made another attack upon Muslims sometime after Uhud, God would help the latter by sending down a force of three thousand angels. It is a mistake to think that these words refer to the Battle of Badr which has been mentioned in the preceding verse only incidentally in order to cite an illustration of how God helped steadfast Muslims in times of danger. Moreover, the number of angels sent at the Battle of Badr was, according to 8:10, one thousand and not three thousand, as here stated. The fulfilment of the present promise is referred to in 3:152 below. (close)
بَلٰۤی ۙ اِنۡ تَصۡبِرُوۡا وَ تَتَّقُوۡا وَ یَاۡتُوۡکُمۡ مِّنۡ فَوۡرِہِمۡ ہٰذَا یُمۡدِدۡکُمۡ رَبُّکُمۡ بِخَمۡسَۃِ اٰلٰفٍ مِّنَ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ مُسَوِّمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۶﴾
بَلَىٰٓۚ إِن تَصۡبِرُواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ وَيَأۡتُوكُم مِّن فَوۡرِهِمۡ هَٰذَا يُمۡدِدۡكُمۡ رَبُّكُم بِخَمۡسَةِ ءَالَٰفٖ مِّنَ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ مُسَوِّمِينَ
471. The word bala also denotes a connection between the verses and supplies the answer to the question in 3:125, viz. Will it not suffice you? Thus the meaning would be: "Yes, it will suffice us, and so will suffice a force of 5,000 angels if the enemy were to return to the attack at this very moment." (close)
472. The words signify that if the disbelievers returned to the attack at once, without giving the Muslims any time to recoup themselves, God would help them with 5,000 angels. The difference in the number of angels—in the preceding verse the number mentioned being 3,000—was due to the later greatly weakened condition of the Muslims. They were at that time exhausted and badly mauled and, therefore, needed greater help. After having gone to some distance towards Mecca the Quraish decided to return and attack the Muslims again. When the Holy Prophet came to know of this, on the day following the battle, he gave immediate orders to march and directed that only those of his followers who had taken part in the Battle of Uhud should go with him. The Muslims went as far as Hamra’ul-Asad, a place about eight miles from Medina. The Meccans were, however, so overawed by this unexpectedly bold and prompt appearance of the Holy Prophet and his followers that they decided to retreat hastily to Mecca. This was due to the fear which the angels had cast into their hearts. Otherwise there was no reason for them to flee from Muslims upon whom they had inflicted so heavy a loss only a day before and who, besides being very much reduced in number, were greatly exhausted and were suffering from grievous wounds as a result of the previous day’s fighting. (close)
473. Musawwimin is derived from Sawwama. They say Sawwama ‘Alaihim, i.e. he suddenly and vehemently attacked them and wrought havoc among them (Aqrab). (close)
410. Important Words:
فور (immediately) is derived from فار. They say فار الماء i.e. the water gushed forth from the earth. فارت القدر means, the contents of the cooking pot vehemently boiled and rose high in it. فورة means, the intensity of heat or anger or the like. فورة النھار means, the first part of the day. فور signifies the state or condition that comes without delay. The Arabs say رجع من فوره he returned or turned back immediately without tarrying (Arab).
مسومین (attacking vehemently) is derived from سوم. They say سوم الفرس i.e. he branded the horse with a brand. سوم الخیل means, he let loose the horses for grazing. سوم علیھمmeans, he suddenly and vehemently attacked them and wrought havoc among them (Aqrab). In the verse under comment the word is used in the last-mentioned sense.
The verse signifies that if the disbelievers returned to the attack at once, without giving the Muslims any opportunity to recoup themselves, God would help the latter with five thousand angels. The difference in the number of angels,—in the preceding verse the number mentioned being 3,000—was due to the difference in the condition of the Muslims. They were at that time exhausted and wounded and, therefore, needed greater help than they would have needed, if the enemy attack had been delayed.
The enemy did indeed think of returning, but God prevented them from doing so. Briefly stated, the facts are that when the Quraish were retracing their steps towards Mecca, members of the Arab tribes living in the vicinity of Medina asked them about the results of the battle, and when they declared that they were victorious, these men put them to shame by saying, "If you have been really victorious, where are the spoils? What have you brought from the battlefield?" Touched to the quick by this taunt, the Quraish decided to retrieve their shame by attacking the Muslims once more. When the Holy Prophet came to know of this, on the day following the battle, he gave immediate orders to march and directed that only those of his followers who had taken part in the Battle of Uhud should join him. The Muslims went as far as Hamra’ul-Asad, a place about eight miles from Medina. The Meccans were, however, so overawed by this unexpectedly bold and prompt appearance of the Holy Prophet and his followers that they decided to retreat hastily to Mecca. This was due to the fear which the angels had inspired in their hearts. Otherwise there was no reason for them to flee from an enemy upon whom they had inflicted so heavy a loss only a day before and who, besides being very much reduced in number, were utterly exhausted and were suffering from grievous wounds as a result of the previous day’s fighting.
A recent commentator, having translated the words, من فورھم ھذا as "in headlong manner", has applied them to the Battle of Ahzab. This is not right. The fact is that verses 125 and 126, as already explained, are both connected with the Battle of Uhud and relate to the time immediately following it. The word بلی (yea) occurring in the beginning of the verse also denotes a connection between the verses and supplies the answer to the question in 3:125, viz: will it not suffice you? Thus the word بلی would here mean "yes, it will suffice, and so will suffice a force of 5,000 angels if the enemy were to return to the attack at this very moment." (close)
وَ مَا جَعَلَہُ اللّٰہُ اِلَّا بُشۡرٰی لَکُمۡ وَ لِتَطۡمَئِنَّ قُلُوۡبُکُمۡ بِہٖ ؕ وَ مَا النَّصۡرُ اِلَّا مِنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ الۡعَزِیۡزِ الۡحَکِیۡمِ ﴿۱۲۷﴾ۙ
وَمَا جَعَلَهُ ٱللَّهُ إِلَّا بُشۡرَىٰ لَكُمۡ وَلِتَطۡمَئِنَّ قُلُوبُكُم بِهِۦۗ وَمَا ٱلنَّصۡرُ إِلَّا مِنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡحَكِيمِ
a. 8:11. (close)
474. The angels helped Muslims on the one hand, by strengthening their hearts, and, on the other, by filling the hearts of their enemies with awe and fear. If God had so willed, a single angel would have been enough to help the Muslims at Uhud, but He promised to send as many as five thousand of them. This constituted a veiled hint that a large number of the hidden forces of nature would work in their favour. It may incidentally be noted that some believers, and even some disbelievers, are reported to have actually seen angels in the Battle of Badr (Jarir, iv. 47). See also 8:10. (close)
The verse is intended to warn Muslims against treating angels as gods or even as an independent source of help. Help comes from Allah alone; angels are entirely subservient to Him and do nothing by their own will. They come only by the command of God and do only what God commands them. The way in which angels help men is that they strengthen their hearts and fill their enemies with awe and fear. If God had so willed, a single angel would have been enough to help the Muslims, but He promised to send as many as five thousand angels in order to cheer and strengthen their hearts and to hint that a very large number of the hidden forces of nature were working in their favour. For the work and duties of angels, see 2:31.
It may incidentally be noted here that some believers, and even some disbelievers, are reported to have actually seen the angels at the Battle of Badr (Jarir, iv. 47). See also 8:11. (close)
لِیَقۡطَعَ طَرَفًا مِّنَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اَوۡ یَکۡبِتَہُمۡ فَیَنۡقَلِبُوۡا خَآئِبِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۸﴾
لِيَقۡطَعَ طَرَفٗا مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ أَوۡ يَكۡبِتَهُمۡ فَيَنقَلِبُواْ خَآئِبِينَ
475. When the Holy Prophet learnt that the Meccans were contemplating an immediate attack on Medina, he marched against them. The Meccans fled in disgrace and abasement. (close)
412. Important Words:
یکبت (abase) is derived from کبت. They say کبته i.e. (1) he overthrew or prostrated him; (2) he humbled or abased him; (3) he turned him away; (4) he turned him back with his fury; (5) he destroyed him or caused him to perish (Aqrab).
The words, or abase them, mean that if the disbelievers attacked the Muslims, they would be punished and a part of them killed, and if they did not attack the Muslims, they would retreat in abasement and disgrace. Actually, it was the lesser of the two alternatives that came to pass; for when the Holy Prophet, learning that the Meccans were contemplating an immediate attack on Medina, marched out with his followers, the Meccans fled in disgrace and abasement (see note on 3:126).
The verse also shows that God sometimes makes conditional prophecies, i.e. He predicts two alternative events of which only one is to occur, according as circum-stances demand. In the present case, God knew that only the latter alternative would come to pass, yet He did not foretell it definitely. The coming of the angels, it may be noted further, was meant as a guarantee of the punishment or disgrace of the enemy, as the case might be. (close)
لَیۡسَ لَکَ مِنَ الۡاَمۡرِ شَیۡءٌ اَوۡ یَتُوۡبَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ اَوۡ یُعَذِّبَہُمۡ فَاِنَّہُمۡ ظٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۹﴾
لَيۡسَ لَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡأَمۡرِ شَيۡءٌ أَوۡ يَتُوبَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ أَوۡ يُعَذِّبَهُمۡ فَإِنَّهُمۡ ظَٰلِمُونَ
476. This verse is erroneously considered to contain an admonition to the Holy Prophet for his having prayed to God to destroy the Meccans. There is no mention of any such prayer here, nor was there any occasion for such a one. In fact, a Prophet never prays for the destruction of any people without the permission of God. The verse is meant only as an answer to those who attributed the reverse of Muslims at Uhud to the alleged error of their leaving the city against the advice of experienced men. It says that the temporary reverse was brought about by the supreme wisdom of God and that the Holy Prophet had nothing to do with the matter. One good result of this reverse was that many disbelievers were guided to Islam, among them being the famous Khalid. They saw how God had helped the Holy Prophet in the hour of distress and how He had afforded him protection although, at one time, he was left all by himself in the battle. (close)
This verse is erroneously supposed to contain a sort of admonition or warning to the Holy Prophet for his having prayed to God for the destruction of the Meccans. There is no mention of any such prayer here, nor was there any occasion for such a prayer. In fact, a Prophet never prays for the destruction of any people without the permission of God.
The words are meant only as an answer to those who attributed the reverse of the Muslims at Uhud to the alleged error of their leaving the city against the advice of experienced men. The Quran says that the result was brought about by the supreme wisdom of God and that the Holy Prophet had nothing to do with the matter. One good result of this reverse was that many were guided to acceptance of Islam, seeing how God helped the Holy Prophet and how He afforded him protection although he was left alone in the battle.
The verse also contains a reply to the hypocrites. ‘Abdullah bin Ubayy and his followers, who had deserted the Holy Prophet at Uhud, saying he had not followed their advice. It tells them that it was God Who was helping the Prophet, and Who, even after the reverse at Uhud, had fulfilled His promise regarding the ignominious retreat of the Meccans referred to in the preceding verse.
The words, that He might cut off a part of the disbelievers, and, or abase them, occurring in the preceding verse correspond to the words He may turn to them in mercy, and, or punish them, occurring in the present verse in the reverse order, the suggestion being that the part that will be cut off will be those who are to be punished by God, while those whom God will temporarily abase and who will return unsuccessful will be those to whom God is finally to turn in mercy; i.e. by returning safe, though unsuccessful, they will be afforded an opportunity to repent. Accordingly, we find that many of those who escaped alive were after-wards converted to Islam, and among them were men like Khalid, son of Walid; ‘Ikrimah, son of Abu Jahl; ‘Abdur-Rahman, son of Abu Bakr, and many others who later made a name in the history of Islam. Abu Sufyan, Commander of the Meccan army, was also among them.
The verse also throws light on the general nature of prophecies made by the Prophets of God. There is often an element of contingency or uncertainty in them; sometimes it is hidden and sometimes expressed as in the present verse. A clear alter-native is put forward here in the form of mercy and punishment to be shown according to the will of God. The reason for this is that prophecies do not proceed from a mechanical or rigid source which is arbitrary and inflexible, but from God, Who possesses both the quality of mercy and the power to punish, which He exercises, according as circumstances demand. In keeping with this principle, the Prophets of God hold out the hope of salvation on condition of genuine repentance, even when they utter unqualified predictions about the doom of their enemies. (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ یَغۡفِرُ لِمَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ یُعَذِّبُ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۳۰﴾٪
وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ يَغۡفِرُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُۚ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
a. 3:110, 190; 4:132; 57:11. (close)
a. 3:110, 190; 4:132; 24:11. (close)
As Master and Owner, Allah is more inclined to forgiveness and mercy than to punishment, although He has sometimes resort to the latter for the ultimate good of mankind. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَاۡکُلُوا الرِّبٰۤوا اَضۡعَافًا مُّضٰعَفَۃً ۪ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۱﴾ۚ
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَأۡكُلُواْ ٱلرِّبَوٰٓاْ أَضۡعَٰفٗا مُّضَٰعَفَةٗۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُونَ
a. 2:276; 30:40. (close)
477. The words Ad‘afan Muda‘afah are not used here as a qualifying phrase to restrict the meaning of Riba (interest) so as to confine it to a particular kind of interest. They are used as a descriptive clause to point to the inherent nature of Riba (interest) which continually goes on increasing. The charging of interest, although now legalized by Christian nations, was prohibited by Moses (Exod. 22:25; Lev. 25:36, 37; Deut. 23:19, 20). The verse does not mean that interest is permissible at a moderate rate, only a high rate having been disallowed. All interest is prohibited, whether moderate or excessive; and the words Ad‘afan Muda‘afah rendered as, involving multiple additions, have been added only to point to the practice actually in vogue in the time of the Holy Prophet. Thus the extreme limit has been mentioned merely to bring out its heinousness, otherwise, all interest is prohibited, as clearly stated in 2:276-281. Mention of the commandment about the prohibition of interest while dealing with the subject of war is significant. In 2:280 also prohibition of interest has been mentioned in connection with the subject of war. This shows that war and interest are closely related to each other—a fact amply borne out by the wars of modern times. As a matter of fact, interest is one of the causes of war, and also helps to prolong it. (close)
415. Important Words:
الربوا (interest). See 2:276.
اضعافا مضاعفة (involving diverse additions). اضعاف is the plural of ضعف which originally means, the like of a thing. In its wider significance, the word means the like of a thing or more than that indefinitely. So اضعاف means, manifold or simply a great addition, the addition being unlimited. مضاعفة is the infinitive of ضاعف. They say ضاعفه i.e. he doubled it or trebled it, or redoubled it, or simply increased it indefinitely (Aqrab & Taj). The expression اضعافا مضاعفة would mean, increased manifold; or increased indefinitely. It should be noted that the words اضعافا مضاعفة are not used here as a qualifying phrase to restrict the meaning of ربوا (interest) so as to confine it to a particular kind of interest. They are used as a descriptive cause to point to the inherent nature of ربوا (interest) which involves a continual increase that never ends.
The charging of interest, although now legalized by Christian nations, was prohibited by Moses (see Exod. 22:25; Lev. 25:36, 37; Deut. 23:19).
The verse does not mean that usury is permissible at a moderate rate, only a high rate being disallowed. All interest is prohibited, whether moderate or excessive; and the words اضعافا مضاعفة rendered as, involving diverse additions, have been added only to point to the practice that was actually in vogue in the time of the Prophet. Thus the extreme limit has been mentioned merely to bring out its heinousness whereas, in fact, all interest is prohibited, as clearly stated in 2:276-281.
The mention of the prohibition of interest while dealing with the subject of war is significant. We find that in 2:276-281 the prohibition of interest has also been mentioned in connection with the question of war. This shows that war and interest are closely related to one another - a fact amply borne out by the history of modern times. As a matter of fact, interest is one of the causes of war, and it also helps to prolong it. If there were no lending and borrowing at interest, wars could not be prolonged. If it is asked how the expenses of war are to be met in Islam, if money is not to be borrowed on interest, the answer is that when an aggressive war is forced upon Muslims, they are required to make free contributions for the sake of their religion and country. Suitable taxes also provide a fair means to meet the expenses of war, and taxes automatically prove a check on the undue prolongation of hostilities. See also 2:276, 277; 2:279, 280.
The mention of the prohibition of interest in connection with wars also shows that the verses of the Quran have not been thrown together at random but that there runs a wise and natural order through them. (close)