لِیَقۡطَعَ طَرَفًا مِّنَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡۤا اَوۡ یَکۡبِتَہُمۡ فَیَنۡقَلِبُوۡا خَآئِبِیۡنَ ﴿۱۲۸﴾
لِيَقۡطَعَ طَرَفٗا مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ أَوۡ يَكۡبِتَهُمۡ فَيَنقَلِبُواْ خَآئِبِينَ
475. When the Holy Prophet learnt that the Meccans were contemplating an immediate attack on Medina, he marched against them. The Meccans fled in disgrace and abasement. (close)
412. Important Words:
یکبت (abase) is derived from کبت. They say کبته i.e. (1) he overthrew or prostrated him; (2) he humbled or abased him; (3) he turned him away; (4) he turned him back with his fury; (5) he destroyed him or caused him to perish (Aqrab).
The words, or abase them, mean that if the disbelievers attacked the Muslims, they would be punished and a part of them killed, and if they did not attack the Muslims, they would retreat in abasement and disgrace. Actually, it was the lesser of the two alternatives that came to pass; for when the Holy Prophet, learning that the Meccans were contemplating an immediate attack on Medina, marched out with his followers, the Meccans fled in disgrace and abasement (see note on 3:126).
The verse also shows that God sometimes makes conditional prophecies, i.e. He predicts two alternative events of which only one is to occur, according as circum-stances demand. In the present case, God knew that only the latter alternative would come to pass, yet He did not foretell it definitely. The coming of the angels, it may be noted further, was meant as a guarantee of the punishment or disgrace of the enemy, as the case might be. (close)
لَیۡسَ لَکَ مِنَ الۡاَمۡرِ شَیۡءٌ اَوۡ یَتُوۡبَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ اَوۡ یُعَذِّبَہُمۡ فَاِنَّہُمۡ ظٰلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۲۹﴾
لَيۡسَ لَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡأَمۡرِ شَيۡءٌ أَوۡ يَتُوبَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ أَوۡ يُعَذِّبَهُمۡ فَإِنَّهُمۡ ظَٰلِمُونَ
476. This verse is erroneously considered to contain an admonition to the Holy Prophet for his having prayed to God to destroy the Meccans. There is no mention of any such prayer here, nor was there any occasion for such a one. In fact, a Prophet never prays for the destruction of any people without the permission of God. The verse is meant only as an answer to those who attributed the reverse of Muslims at Uhud to the alleged error of their leaving the city against the advice of experienced men. It says that the temporary reverse was brought about by the supreme wisdom of God and that the Holy Prophet had nothing to do with the matter. One good result of this reverse was that many disbelievers were guided to Islam, among them being the famous Khalid. They saw how God had helped the Holy Prophet in the hour of distress and how He had afforded him protection although, at one time, he was left all by himself in the battle. (close)
This verse is erroneously supposed to contain a sort of admonition or warning to the Holy Prophet for his having prayed to God for the destruction of the Meccans. There is no mention of any such prayer here, nor was there any occasion for such a prayer. In fact, a Prophet never prays for the destruction of any people without the permission of God.
The words are meant only as an answer to those who attributed the reverse of the Muslims at Uhud to the alleged error of their leaving the city against the advice of experienced men. The Quran says that the result was brought about by the supreme wisdom of God and that the Holy Prophet had nothing to do with the matter. One good result of this reverse was that many were guided to acceptance of Islam, seeing how God helped the Holy Prophet and how He afforded him protection although he was left alone in the battle.
The verse also contains a reply to the hypocrites. ‘Abdullah bin Ubayy and his followers, who had deserted the Holy Prophet at Uhud, saying he had not followed their advice. It tells them that it was God Who was helping the Prophet, and Who, even after the reverse at Uhud, had fulfilled His promise regarding the ignominious retreat of the Meccans referred to in the preceding verse.
The words, that He might cut off a part of the disbelievers, and, or abase them, occurring in the preceding verse correspond to the words He may turn to them in mercy, and, or punish them, occurring in the present verse in the reverse order, the suggestion being that the part that will be cut off will be those who are to be punished by God, while those whom God will temporarily abase and who will return unsuccessful will be those to whom God is finally to turn in mercy; i.e. by returning safe, though unsuccessful, they will be afforded an opportunity to repent. Accordingly, we find that many of those who escaped alive were after-wards converted to Islam, and among them were men like Khalid, son of Walid; ‘Ikrimah, son of Abu Jahl; ‘Abdur-Rahman, son of Abu Bakr, and many others who later made a name in the history of Islam. Abu Sufyan, Commander of the Meccan army, was also among them.
The verse also throws light on the general nature of prophecies made by the Prophets of God. There is often an element of contingency or uncertainty in them; sometimes it is hidden and sometimes expressed as in the present verse. A clear alter-native is put forward here in the form of mercy and punishment to be shown according to the will of God. The reason for this is that prophecies do not proceed from a mechanical or rigid source which is arbitrary and inflexible, but from God, Who possesses both the quality of mercy and the power to punish, which He exercises, according as circumstances demand. In keeping with this principle, the Prophets of God hold out the hope of salvation on condition of genuine repentance, even when they utter unqualified predictions about the doom of their enemies. (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ یَغۡفِرُ لِمَنۡ یَّشَآءُ وَ یُعَذِّبُ مَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۳۰﴾٪
وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ يَغۡفِرُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُۚ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
a. 3:110, 190; 4:132; 57:11. (close)
a. 3:110, 190; 4:132; 24:11. (close)
As Master and Owner, Allah is more inclined to forgiveness and mercy than to punishment, although He has sometimes resort to the latter for the ultimate good of mankind. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَاۡکُلُوا الرِّبٰۤوا اَضۡعَافًا مُّضٰعَفَۃً ۪ وَ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۱﴾ۚ
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَأۡكُلُواْ ٱلرِّبَوٰٓاْ أَضۡعَٰفٗا مُّضَٰعَفَةٗۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُونَ
a. 2:276; 30:40. (close)
477. The words Ad‘afan Muda‘afah are not used here as a qualifying phrase to restrict the meaning of Riba (interest) so as to confine it to a particular kind of interest. They are used as a descriptive clause to point to the inherent nature of Riba (interest) which continually goes on increasing. The charging of interest, although now legalized by Christian nations, was prohibited by Moses (Exod. 22:25; Lev. 25:36, 37; Deut. 23:19, 20). The verse does not mean that interest is permissible at a moderate rate, only a high rate having been disallowed. All interest is prohibited, whether moderate or excessive; and the words Ad‘afan Muda‘afah rendered as, involving multiple additions, have been added only to point to the practice actually in vogue in the time of the Holy Prophet. Thus the extreme limit has been mentioned merely to bring out its heinousness, otherwise, all interest is prohibited, as clearly stated in 2:276-281. Mention of the commandment about the prohibition of interest while dealing with the subject of war is significant. In 2:280 also prohibition of interest has been mentioned in connection with the subject of war. This shows that war and interest are closely related to each other—a fact amply borne out by the wars of modern times. As a matter of fact, interest is one of the causes of war, and also helps to prolong it. (close)
415. Important Words:
الربوا (interest). See 2:276.
اضعافا مضاعفة (involving diverse additions). اضعاف is the plural of ضعف which originally means, the like of a thing. In its wider significance, the word means the like of a thing or more than that indefinitely. So اضعاف means, manifold or simply a great addition, the addition being unlimited. مضاعفة is the infinitive of ضاعف. They say ضاعفه i.e. he doubled it or trebled it, or redoubled it, or simply increased it indefinitely (Aqrab & Taj). The expression اضعافا مضاعفة would mean, increased manifold; or increased indefinitely. It should be noted that the words اضعافا مضاعفة are not used here as a qualifying phrase to restrict the meaning of ربوا (interest) so as to confine it to a particular kind of interest. They are used as a descriptive cause to point to the inherent nature of ربوا (interest) which involves a continual increase that never ends.
The charging of interest, although now legalized by Christian nations, was prohibited by Moses (see Exod. 22:25; Lev. 25:36, 37; Deut. 23:19).
The verse does not mean that usury is permissible at a moderate rate, only a high rate being disallowed. All interest is prohibited, whether moderate or excessive; and the words اضعافا مضاعفة rendered as, involving diverse additions, have been added only to point to the practice that was actually in vogue in the time of the Prophet. Thus the extreme limit has been mentioned merely to bring out its heinousness whereas, in fact, all interest is prohibited, as clearly stated in 2:276-281.
The mention of the prohibition of interest while dealing with the subject of war is significant. We find that in 2:276-281 the prohibition of interest has also been mentioned in connection with the question of war. This shows that war and interest are closely related to one another - a fact amply borne out by the history of modern times. As a matter of fact, interest is one of the causes of war, and it also helps to prolong it. If there were no lending and borrowing at interest, wars could not be prolonged. If it is asked how the expenses of war are to be met in Islam, if money is not to be borrowed on interest, the answer is that when an aggressive war is forced upon Muslims, they are required to make free contributions for the sake of their religion and country. Suitable taxes also provide a fair means to meet the expenses of war, and taxes automatically prove a check on the undue prolongation of hostilities. See also 2:276, 277; 2:279, 280.
The mention of the prohibition of interest in connection with wars also shows that the verses of the Quran have not been thrown together at random but that there runs a wise and natural order through them. (close)
وَ اتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِیۡۤ اُعِدَّتۡ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۲﴾ۚ
وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱلنَّارَ ٱلَّتِيٓ أُعِدَّتۡ لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ
b. 2:25; 66:7. (close)
478. In 2:276 also the prohibition of interest has been followed by a warning against fire. Evidently, it is the fire of war that is primarily meant here. The word "disbelievers," besides being general, may here mean those who disobey the Divine commandment about interest. (close)
a. 2:25; 66:7. (close)
In 2:276 also the prohibition of interest has also been followed by a warning against fire. Evidently it is the fire of war that is primarily meant here. The word "disbelievers", besides being general, may also here mean those who disobey the divine commandment relating to interest. (close)
وَ اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ الرَّسُوۡلَ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُرۡحَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۳﴾ۚ
وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلرَّسُولَ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُرۡحَمُونَ
c. See 3:33. (close)
b. See 3:33. (close)
وَ سَارِعُوۡۤا اِلٰی مَغۡفِرَۃٍ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ وَ جَنَّۃٍ عَرۡضُہَا السَّمٰوٰتُ وَ الۡاَرۡضُ ۙ اُعِدَّتۡ لِلۡمُتَّقِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۴﴾ۙ
۞وَسَارِعُوٓاْ إِلَىٰ مَغۡفِرَةٖ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرۡضُهَا ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتُ وَٱلۡأَرۡضُ أُعِدَّتۡ لِلۡمُتَّقِينَ
d. 57:22; See also 2:26. (close)
479. ‘Ard means, (1) price or value of a thing in a form other than money; (2) breadth or width; (3) vastness (Aqrab). (close)
479A. This verse is an answer to those who, obsessed by their present environments, think that commerce and trade cannot be carried on without interest. It says that by following the teachings of Islam, Muslims can and will enjoy all sorts of benefits. The verse constitutes an invitation to Muslims to follow the commandments of Islam. It also signifies that Paradise will comprise both heavens and earth, i.e. the believers will be in Paradise both in this life and in the life to come. A well-known saying of the Holy Prophet throws interesting light on the nature of Paradise and Hell. When asked, "If Paradise encompasses both the heavens and the earth, where is Hell," the Prophet replied, "Where is night when the day comes" (Kathir)? He is further reported to have said that the smallest reward of Paradise will be as great as the space between heaven and earth. This also shows that Paradise is a spiritual state and not a particular physical place. (close)
c. 57:22; See also 2:26. (close)
417. Important Words:
عرض (price). The verb عرض gives a number of meanings. They say عرض الشیء علیه i.e. he showed him the thing. عرض له عارض means, some difficulty confronted him, or came across his way, or some accident happened to him. عرض means: (1) price of a thing in a form other than money; (2) breadth or width; (3) vastness; (4) goods; (5) a valley; (6) side of a mountain (Aqrab).
This verse is an answer to those who, obsessed by their present environments, think that commerce and other affairs of the world cannot be carried on without interest. God says that by following the teachings of Islam, Muslims can and will enjoy all sorts of benefits.
The verse is an invitation to follow the commandments of Islam, which has been spoken of as leading to "forgiveness" and "Paradise". The former word implies freedom from pain and afflictions; the latter stands for bliss.
The word عرض rendered as "price" gives, as shown above, a number of meanings. The idea is that the blessings of Paradise will not be limited. While in Paradise, a man will feel happy wherever he may be. On the contrary in this world, we find that a man often possesses the necessary means of enjoyment while at home, but when he is on a journey, he is often put to inconvenience. Such will not be the case in Paradise.
The clause also means that believers will be granted a Paradise which will comprise both heaven and earth, i.e. the believers will be in Paradise both on this earth and in the life to come.
There is a tradition to the effect that once certain Companions asked the Holy Prophet, "If Paradise encom-passes the heavens and the earth, where is Hell?" To this the Prophet replied: "Where is the night when the day comes?" (Kathir). This reply throws very interesting light on the nature of Heaven and Hell. The Holy Prophet has also said that the smallest reward of the inmates of Paradise will be as immense as the space between heaven and earth. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ یُنۡفِقُوۡنَ فِی السَّرَّآءِ وَ الضَّرَّآءِ وَ الۡکٰظِمِیۡنَ الۡغَیۡظَ وَ الۡعَافِیۡنَ عَنِ النَّاسِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یُحِبُّ الۡمُحۡسِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۵﴾ۚ
ٱلَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ فِي ٱلسَّرَّآءِ وَٱلضَّرَّآءِ وَٱلۡكَٰظِمِينَ ٱلۡغَيۡظَ وَٱلۡعَافِينَ عَنِ ٱلنَّاسِۗ وَٱللَّهُ يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ
480. A man is said to exercise the quality of ‘Afw when he obliterates from his mind, or totally forgets, the sins or offences committed against him by others. When used with reference to God, it signifies not only obliteration of sins but also of all traces thereof. (close)
481. The verse mentions three stages of ‘Afw. In the first stage a believer, when offended against, restrains or suppresses his anger. In the second stage, he goes a step further and grants forgiveness and free pardon to the offender. In the third stage, he not only grants the offender complete pardon, but also does an additional act of kindness to him and bestows some favour upon him. These three stages—suppression of anger, pardoning, and doing of good—are well illustrated by an incident in the life of Hasan, son of ‘Ali and a grandson of the Holy Prophet. A slave of his once committed an offence and Hasan became very angry and was about to punish him when the slave recited the first part of the verse, i.e. those who suppress anger. Hearing these words, Hasan withheld his hand. Then the slave recited the words, and pardon men, upon which Hasan promptly pardoned him. The slave then recited, and Allah loves those who do good. In obedience to this Divine command Hasan was so moved that he at once set him free (Bayan, i. 366). (close)
418. Important Words:
العافین (those who pardon) is derived from عفو which means, to obliterate or remove traces of a thing (Aqrab). See also 2:188. A man is said to exercise the quality of عفو when he obliterates from his mind, or totally forgets, the sins or mistakes committed against him by others. When used with reference to God, the word signifies not only obliteration of sins but also obliteration of all traces thereof.
The verse describes three stages of dealing with other people. In the first stage, a spiritual wayfarer, when offended against, restrains or suppresses his anger. In the second stage, he goes a step further and grants forgiveness and free pardon to the offender. In the third stage, he not only grants the offender complete pardon, but also does a suitable act of kindness to him and bestows some favour upon him. These three stages are well illustrated by an incident in the life of Hasan, son of ‘Ali and grandson of the Holy Prophet. A slave of his once committed an offence, and Hasan became very angry and decided to punish him. Thereupon, the slave recited the first part of the verse, i.e. those who suppress anger. Hearing these words, Hasan withheld his hand and stood still where he was. Then the slave recited the second part, i.e. and pardon men. Hearing this, Hasan promptly complied with the divine behest by saying, "Go, I pardon thee". Then the slave recited the last part of the verse, i.e. and Allah loves those who do good. In obedience to this command of God, Hasan at once set the slave free, saying, "You are a freeman and may go where you like" (Bayan, i. 366). (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اِذَا فَعَلُوۡا فَاحِشَۃً اَوۡ ظَلَمُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ ذَکَرُوا اللّٰہَ فَاسۡتَغۡفَرُوۡا لِذُنُوۡبِہِمۡ ۪ وَ مَنۡ یَّغۡفِرُ الذُّنُوۡبَ اِلَّا اللّٰہُ ۪۟ وَ لَمۡ یُصِرُّوۡا عَلٰی مَا فَعَلُوۡا وَ ہُمۡ یَعۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۳۶﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ إِذَا فَعَلُواْ فَٰحِشَةً أَوۡ ظَلَمُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ ذَكَرُواْ ٱللَّهَ فَٱسۡتَغۡفَرُواْ لِذُنُوبِهِمۡ وَمَن يَغۡفِرُ ٱلذُّنُوبَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهُ وَلَمۡ يُصِرُّواْ عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلُواْ وَهُمۡ يَعۡلَمُونَ
a. 7:202. (close)
b. 14:11; 39:54; 61:13. (close)
482. When good men happen to be guilty of a moral lapse, they do not seek to justify their conduct but frankly confess their guilt, and try to reform. (close)
a. 7:202. (close)
b. 14:11; 39:54; 61:13. (close)
This verse embodies a refutation of the Christian doctrine of Atonement. The words remember Allah, mean that righteous persons are at once reminded of Allah whenever they happen to commit a sin. As a matter of fact though even good men may occasionally fall into sin, their hearts are not dead and they are always ready to repent. So if they happen to commit a sin, it is due only to a temporary lapse, and not because they love to indulge in sin. Thus so long as a man "remembers God" immediately after he commits a sin and feels sincere remorse and compunction at his evil deed, there is always time for his repentance to be accepted. But when he goes of sinning until he loses all sense of sin and ceases to feel compunction and remorse at his evil deeds, he loses the power to repent and is doomed, unless God should work some special change in him.
The words, and who can forgive sins except Allah? have been introduced as a parenthetical clause to exhort sinners to repent. They are not made to repent through fear, but by being reminded of Divine forgiveness. When God is Gracious and Forgiving, why should not man repent?
The words, do not persist knowingly, imply that whenever good men happen to commit an error, they do not try to justify their conduct, but frankly admit their mistake and then reform themselves. The verse does not, however, mean that a man should confess his sins to others. What is meant is that one should confess one’s guilt to oneself, i.e. one should feel that one has been in the wrong and should not proceed to defend one’s conduct when someone else, or, for that matter, when one’s own conscience reproaches one for one’s misdeeds. Those truly righteous never try to deceive themselves. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ جَزَآؤُہُمۡ مَّغۡفِرَۃٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّہِمۡ وَ جَنّٰتٌ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَا ؕ وَ نِعۡمَ اَجۡرُ الۡعٰمِلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۳۷﴾ؕ
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ جَزَآؤُهُم مَّغۡفِرَةٞ مِّن رَّبِّهِمۡ وَجَنَّـٰتٞ تَجۡرِي مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَاۚ وَنِعۡمَ أَجۡرُ ٱلۡعَٰمِلِينَ
c. 39:75. (close)
483. When a man truly turns to God after having committed a sin, and sincerely repents of his misdeeds, he is not only forgiven by God, but God leads him to higher stages of spiritual progress and promises him Heaven. (close)
a. 39:75. (close)
When a man truly turns to God, after committing a sin, and sincerely repents of his misdeeds, he is forgiven by God. The verse makes it further clear that forgiveness is only the first stage. God leads those who repent to higher stages of spiritual progress and promises them Heaven. (close)