وَ لَئِنۡ قُتِلۡتُمۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ اَوۡ مُتُّمۡ لَمَغۡفِرَۃٌ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ وَ رَحۡمَۃٌ خَیۡرٌ مِّمَّا یَجۡمَعُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۸﴾
وَلَئِن قُتِلۡتُمۡ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡ مُتُّمۡ لَمَغۡفِرَةٞ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَحۡمَةٌ خَيۡرٞ مِّمَّا يَجۡمَعُونَ
511. He who fights and lays down his life in the cause of Truth should not be regarded as dead, because he gives his life for the sake of Him Who is the Controller of all life. He may be regarded as physically dead; spiritually he lives forever (2:155). (close)
a. 10:59; 43:33. (close)
512. Whereas, hypocrites are afraid of death because of the wealth and property which they have to leave behind, the believers, killed in the cause of Allah, will get what is incomparably greater than what hypocrites are greedily hoarding up, or what Muslims themselves may have collected in the form of wealth and other worldly things. (close)
a. 10:59; 43:33. (close)
The words, forgiveness from Allah and mercy shall be better than what they hoard, mean that hypocrites are afraid of death because of the wealth and property which they have to leave behind; whereas, if believers are killed in the cause of Allah, they will get what is incomparably greater than what hypocrites are greedily hoarding up, or what Muslims themselves may have collected in the form of wealth and other worldly things. There is thus no reason for true believers to be afraid of death. (close)
وَ لَئِنۡ مُّتُّمۡ اَوۡ قُتِلۡتُمۡ لَاِالَی اللّٰہِ تُحۡشَرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵۹﴾
وَلَئِن مُّتُّمۡ أَوۡ قُتِلۡتُمۡ لَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ تُحۡشَرُونَ
513. The pronoun "you" includes both hypocrites and believers; for all will be gathered unto God for reward or punishment, as the case may be. (close)
b. 5:97; 6:73; 8:25; 23:80. (close)
The pronoun "you" includes both hypocrites and believers; for all will be gathered unto God for reward or punishment as the case may be. (close)
فَبِمَا رَحۡمَۃٍ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ لِنۡتَ لَہُمۡ ۚ وَ لَوۡ کُنۡتَ فَظًّا غَلِیۡظَ الۡقَلۡبِ لَانۡفَضُّوۡا مِنۡ حَوۡلِکَ ۪ فَاعۡفُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَ اسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَہُمۡ وَ شَاوِرۡہُمۡ فِی الۡاَمۡرِ ۚ فَاِذَا عَزَمۡتَ فَتَوَکَّلۡ عَلَی اللّٰہِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یُحِبُّ الۡمُتَوَکِّلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۶۰﴾
فَبِمَا رَحۡمَةٖ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمۡۖ وَلَوۡ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ ٱلۡقَلۡبِ لَٱنفَضُّواْ مِنۡ حَوۡلِكَۖ فَٱعۡفُ عَنۡهُمۡ وَٱسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَهُمۡ وَشَاوِرۡهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَمۡرِۖ فَإِذَا عَزَمۡتَ فَتَوَكَّلۡ عَلَى ٱللَّهِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُتَوَكِّلِينَ
514. The words give an insight into the beautiful character of the Holy Prophet, of which the most effable and prominent trait was his all- comprehensive mercy. He was full of the milk of human kindness and was not only kind towards his Companions and followers but was also full of mercy and sympathy for his enemies who were always on the lookout to stab him in the back. It is on record that he took no action against those treacherous Hypocrites who had deserted him in the Battle of Uhud. He even consulted them in affairs of State. (close)
a. 42:39. (close)
515. Besides other things Islam is unique in this respect that it has included the institution of Mushawarah (consultation) in its basic principles. It has made it binding upon the Head of the Muslim State that he should consult Muslims in all important affairs of the State. The Holy Prophet used to consult his followers in all important matters, as he did before the battles of Badr, Uhud, and Ahzab, and also when a false accusation was brought against his noble wife, ‘A’ishah. Abu Hurairah says: "The Holy Prophet was most solicitous in consulting others in all matters of importance" (Manthur ii. 90). ‘Umar, the Second Successor of the Holy Prophet, is reported to have said: There is no Khilafat without consultation" (Izalatul-Khifa’ ‘an Khilafatil- Khulafa’). Thus the holding of consultation in important matters is a basic injunction of Islam and is binding on both spiritual and temporal Muslim Chiefs. The Khalifah or the Head of the Muslim State must seek the advice of representative Muslims though the final decision may rest with him. The Islamic Shura or Mushawarah is not a parliament in the sense in which the word is understood in the West. The Head of the Muslim State enjoys a certain discretion in rejecting the advice tendered to him. But he should not lightly use this discretion and should respect the advice of the majority. (close)
442. Important Words:
شاور (consult) is derived from شار which means, he gathered or extracted honey from the comb, and separated it from the wax. شار الدابة means, he rode the beast in order to ascertain its true worth. اشار الیه means, he pointed towards him or it. اشار علیه means, he gave him advice; he offered him counsel. شاورہ means, he consulted him; he sought his opinion or advice; he discussed with him in order to find out his opinion. مشورة means, good counsel or consultation. شوری means, mutual consultation (Aqrab).
فتوکل (then put thy trust). For the meaning of توکل see 3:123.
The verse gives an insight into the beautiful character of the Holy Prophet, of which the most effable and prominent trait was his all-comprehensive mercy. He was full of the milk of human kindness and was not only kind towards his Companions and followers, but was also full of mercy for his enemies who were always on the lookout to stab him in the back. It is on record that he took no action even against those treacherous hypocrites who had deserted him in the Battle of Uhud. He even consulted them in affairs of the State.
The verse also constitutes an effective answer to the charge of the hypocrites that the Holy Prophet attached no importance to their advice and did what he liked. The Quran refutes this charge by saying that if the Holy Prophet had not been kind and gentle towards them, they would have left him long ago. Thus their continuing to remain with him falsified their accusation and proved that the Prophet’s treatment of them was very kind and that in conformity with the divine command (see also 42:39) he used to consult them regarding affairs of State, with the result that many of them afterwards repented of their deeds and became sincere Muslims. The injunction about consultation contained in the present verse, although general in application, refers to the hypocrites of Medina in particular.
It may be noted that Islam stands alone in including the institution of مشورة (consultation) among its fundamental principles. It lays down as a rule that both the Prophet and his Successors should, whenever necessary, consult their followers in important affairs of the State. A religion claiming to be universal is bound to contain such a teaching; for persons of different classes and different communities continue to enter its fold, and if they are consulted in matters of moment, it is calculated not only to add to their experience and practical wisdom, but also to increase and keep alive their interest in the affairs of the State. This is why the Holy Prophet used to consult his followers on all important matters, as he did before the Battles of Badr, Uhud, and Ahzab, and also when a false accusation was brought against his wife, ‘A’ishah. Baihaqi reports: "Certainly Allah and His Messenger did not stand in need of the advice of anybody, but God has made it (the seeking of advice) a source of mercy for men. Those who hold consultation will not stray away from the path of rectitude, while those who do not are liable to do so." Abu Hurairah says: "The Holy Prophet was most solicitous in consulting others in all matters of importance" (Manthur, ii. 90).
‘Umar, the Second Successor of the Holy Prophet is reported to have said: لا خلافة الا بالمشورة i.e. "There is no Khilafat without consultation" (Izalatul-Khifa’ ‘an Khilafatul-Khulafa’). Thus the holding of consultation in matters of consequence is an important injunction of Islam and is binding on both spiritual and temporal chiefs, though they are not bound to accept that consultation as the words, when thou art determined, then put thy trust in Allah, show. The Khalifah must seek the advice of leading Muslims, but the final decision always rests with him. He is not bound to accept, in full or in part, the advice tendered to him by a majority of them. This view has ever been held by the main body of Muslims throughout the centuries and finds ample support in the sayings of the Holy Prophet as well as in his practice and in that of his rightly-guided successors.
The objection, that if the Khalifah is not bound to act upon the advice of the majority what is the use of his seeking advice, or of others offering it, is unwise and beside the point. The verse gives to the Khalifah the right to reject advice if he is convinced that it is in the interest of religion or the community to do so. Normally, he respects the view of the majority, but the Islamic شوری or مشاورة (Shura or Mushawarat) is not parliament in the sense in which the word is generally understood in the west. Islam enjoins only consultation and not decision by votes, which are two different things. Consultation is meant to help the Khalifah to know the views of his followers and to enable him to respect them as far as possible. It is not at all intended to tie his hands. It is on record that the Holy Prophet rejected the advice of the majority of his followers on certain occasions, and on others he even refused to accept their unanimous opinion. For instance, regarding the treatment of the prisoners of Badr he accepted the advice of Abu Bakr and rejected that of ‘Umar, ‘Abdullah bin Rawahah and Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh (Musnad, i. 283). At Hudaibiyyah, he signed the treaty in clear opposition to the advice of his Companions (Bukhari, ch. on Shurut). Similarly, Abu Bakr discarded the almost unanimous advice of the Muslims by sending the expedition to Syria under Usamah, immediately after the death of the Holy Prophet (Athir, ii. 139). In contrast to this, it is also on record that the Holy Prophet sometimes sacrificed his own view to that of his followers as he did in marching out of Medina for the Battle of Uhud.
The context of the verse, however, shows that here the injunction was primarily meant with regard to the hypocrites, and nobody could say that the Holy Prophet was bound to do what the hypocrites advised him.
The advantages of consultation are: (1) The Khalifah or Amir comes to know the views of his followers. (2) He is helped in arriving at a correct decision. (3) Representative Muslims get an opportunity to think about, and take personal interest in, important state affairs, thus receiving most useful training in matters of administration. (4) The Khalifah is enabled to judge the mental and administrative capabilities of different individuals, which help him to assign the right work to the right man. (5) It enables him to know the aptitudes, aspirations and tendencies as well as the moral and spiritual condition of the different members of his community, and thus he becomes able to effect an improvement, wherever necessary, in his people.
The meaning of expressions like, put thy trust in Allah, is generally misunderstood. In the language of the Quran, توکل(trusting in God) does not consist in disregarding the material means of doing a thing. On the contrary, توکل as taught by Islam means that a person should first make use of all the resources at his command and then place his trust in God to bless his efforts with success, believing all the time that the means can be successful only if and when God wills it and that the true cause and the real source of all success is God alone.
The words, put thy trust in Allah, as used in the present context, also hint that if the Prophet or the Khalifah were to be bound to accept the counsel of his followers, it would be against the spirit of توکل (trusting in God). In fact, one who is bound to act in accordance with the advice of another cannot be said to be trusting in God so far as acting on that advice is concerned. (close)
اِنۡ یَّنۡصُرۡکُمُ اللّٰہُ فَلَا غَالِبَ لَکُمۡ ۚ وَ اِنۡ یَّخۡذُلۡکُمۡ فَمَنۡ ذَا الَّذِیۡ یَنۡصُرُکُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ ؕ وَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ فَلۡیَتَوَکَّلِ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۶۱﴾
إِن يَنصُرۡكُمُ ٱللَّهُ فَلَا غَالِبَ لَكُمۡۖ وَإِن يَخۡذُلۡكُمۡ فَمَن ذَا ٱلَّذِي يَنصُرُكُم مِّنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦۗ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَكَّلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ
516. The expression, Min Ba‘dihi, translated as, "beside Him," literally means, "after Him" and may be rendered as "in opposition to Him." (close)
The words من بعدہ translated as, beside Him, literally mean "after Him" and may also be rendered as "in opposition to Him". The verse throws further light on the philosophy of توکل (trust in God). In spite of making use of the necessary means, a true believer should, and in fact does, put his trust in God alone. (close)
وَ مَا کَانَ لِنَبِیٍّ اَنۡ یَّغُلَّ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّغۡلُلۡ یَاۡتِ بِمَا غَلَّ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ ۚ ثُمَّ تُوَفّٰی کُلُّ نَفۡسٍ مَّا کَسَبَتۡ وَ ہُمۡ لَا یُظۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۶۲﴾
وَمَا كَانَ لِنَبِيٍّ أَن يَغُلَّۚ وَمَن يَغۡلُلۡ يَأۡتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِۚ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفۡسٖ مَّا كَسَبَتۡ وَهُمۡ لَا يُظۡلَمُونَ
517. The archers stationed by the Holy Prophet at the hill of Uhud to protect the rear of the Muslim army left their posts (not all of them) when they saw the Meccan army in full flight. They thought that by leaving the hill at that stage they were not contravening the spirit of the Prophet’s orders, which were to the effect that they were not to leave their posts in any circumstances. They further thought that as, according to Arab custom a soldier was entitled to the possession of the booty he laid his hand on during the fight they might be deprived of their share of the spoils of war if they stuck to their posts. This precipitate action of the archers implied an apprehension on their part that the Holy Prophet might ignore their right to the booty. It is this apprehension that is condemned here. But no imputation of actual faithlessness to the Holy Prophet is implied. The verse simply purports to say that it was far from the Holy Prophet to ignore the rights to the booty of those whom he himself had stationed at a certain place. (close)
a. 3:26; 14:52; 40:18. (close)
a. 3:26; 14:52; 40:18. (close)
The verse can be interpreted in two ways. The archers stationed by the Holy Prophet at the mount of Uhud to protect the rear of the Muslim army left their post when they saw the Meccan army in full flight. They thought that by leaving the mount at that stage they would not be contravening the spirit of the Prophet’s orders, which were to the effect that they were not to leave their post in any circumstances. They further thought that as, according to Arab custom, a soldier was entitled to the possession of the booty he laid his hand on during the fight, they might be deprived of their share of the spoils of war if they stuck to their post. This precipitate action of the archers implied an apprehension on their part that the Prophet might ignore their right to the booty and might thus prove faithless to them. It is this apprehension that the verse condemns in the words, And it is not possible for a Prophet to act dishonestly. But no imputation of actual faithlessness to the Holy Prophet is implied. The verse simply purports to say that it was far from the Prophet to ignore the rights to the booty of those whom he himself had stationed at a certain place.
The verse may also be taken as a rebuke to the hypocrites who deserted the Holy Prophet in the Battle of Uhud. In this case, the implication would be that while the hypocrites had proved faithless to the Prophet by leaving him in the lurch, the Prophet would not prove faithless to God by refusing to fight in His cause even when weak and deserted. This meaning is also supported by the context. (close)
اَفَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ رِضۡوَانَ اللّٰہِ کَمَنۡۢ بَآءَ بِسَخَطٍ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ وَ مَاۡوٰٮہُ جَہَنَّمُ ؕ وَ بِئۡسَ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿۱۶۳﴾
أَفَمَنِ ٱتَّبَعَ رِضۡوَٰنَ ٱللَّهِ كَمَنۢ بَآءَ بِسَخَطٖ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَمَأۡوَىٰهُ جَهَنَّمُۖ وَبِئۡسَ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ
b. 2:208, 266; 3:16; 5:3, 17; 9:72. (close)
518. Undaunted by the defection of the Hypocrites at Uhud, which considerably weakened the ranks of Muslims, the Holy Prophet proceeded to fight the enemies of Islam. The Hypocrites, on the other hand, by their act of desertion, drew upon themselves the wrath of God. (close)
a. 2:208, 266; 3:16; 5:3, 17; 9:72. (close)
The words, who follows the pleasure of Allah, apply to the Holy Prophet and his true followers who, undaunted by the defection of the hypocrites at Uhud, which considerably weakened their ranks, proceeded to fight the enemies of Islam. The hypocrites, on the other hand, by their act of desertion, drew upon themselves the wrath of God. They turned away from the fire of war, but a much worse fire awaited them in Hell. They retreated from the battlefield in order to seek security, but their retreat proved to be the gate of Gehenna for them.
The expression کمن باء بسخط من الله rendered as, like him who draws on himself the wrath of Allah, may also be translated as "like him who turns (or returns) with the wrath of Allah". The latter rendering would help further to clarify the explanation given above. (close)
ہُمۡ دَرَجٰتٌ عِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ بَصِیۡرٌۢ بِمَا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۶۴﴾
هُمۡ دَرَجَٰتٌ عِندَ ٱللَّهِۗ وَٱللَّهُ بَصِيرُۢ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُونَ
519. The words, Hum Darajatun, mean "they are possessors of ranks;" the word, ’ulu, is understood before the word Darajat. (close)
The words ھم درجات literally mean, they are different grades. Actually, however, they mean, they are the possessors of different grades of grace, the word اولوا (possessors) being understood before the word درجات. The word اولوا has been dropped to intensify the meaning, as if the holders of these grades of grace were the very grades personified. (close)
لَقَدۡ مَنَّ اللّٰہُ عَلَی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ اِذۡ بَعَثَ فِیۡہِمۡ رَسُوۡلًا مِّنۡ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ یَتۡلُوۡا عَلَیۡہِمۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ وَ یُزَکِّیۡہِمۡ وَ یُعَلِّمُہُمُ الۡکِتٰبَ وَ الۡحِکۡمَۃَ ۚ وَ اِنۡ کَانُوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ لَفِیۡ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۱۶۵﴾
لَقَدۡ مَنَّ ٱللَّهُ عَلَى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ إِذۡ بَعَثَ فِيهِمۡ رَسُولٗا مِّنۡ أَنفُسِهِمۡ يَتۡلُواْ عَلَيۡهِمۡ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ وَيُزَكِّيهِمۡ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ وَٱلۡحِكۡمَةَ وَإِن كَانُواْ مِن قَبۡلُ لَفِي ضَلَٰلٖ مُّبِينٍ
a. 2:130, 152; 9:128; 63:3; 65:12. (close)
520. The words are intended to awaken in the hearts of Muslims a desire to follow the example of the Holy Prophet, who was like them and was one of them. (close)
a. 2:130, 152; 9:128; 62:3; 65:12. (close)
The expression, by raising among them a Messenger from among themselves, is intended to awaken in the hearts of Muslims a desire to follow the example of the Holy Prophet, who was like them and one of them. The Prophet was not only a man like them but was actually one of them. If he could rise to such spiritual heights, why could not they?
All Messengers of God are raised from among human beings and they possess the same faculties and are actuated by the same desires and aspirations as other human beings, and, therefore, they can serve as true models for their fellow beings. But a so-called "Son of God" does not possess the same desires and the same faculties as we have, and cannot, therefore, be a model for us. Our model should be from our own kind. He who is not of our kind, being a divine being, free from human passions and human weaknesses, cannot be held out to us as a model for imitation.
The verse also points to the fulfilment of the prayer of Abraham contained in 2:130, in which the different functions of the Promised Prophet have been mentioned just as they are mentioned here. (close)
اَوَ لَمَّاۤ اَصَابَتۡکُمۡ مُّصِیۡبَۃٌ قَدۡ اَصَبۡتُمۡ مِّثۡلَیۡہَا ۙ قُلۡتُمۡ اَنّٰی ہٰذَا ؕ قُلۡ ہُوَ مِنۡ عِنۡدِ اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۱۶۶﴾
أَوَلَمَّآ أَصَٰبَتۡكُم مُّصِيبَةٞ قَدۡ أَصَبۡتُم مِّثۡلَيۡهَا قُلۡتُمۡ أَنَّىٰ هَٰذَاۖ قُلۡ هُوَ مِنۡ عِندِ أَنفُسِكُمۡۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
b. 4:80. (close)
521. The words refer to the Battle of Badr, when 70 Meccans were killed and 70 taken prisoner. At Uhud, 70 Muslims were killed, none being taken prisoner. Thus the Muslims had already inflicted a double loss on the Meccans. (close)
522. As for the real cause of man’s actions, both the good and evil ones are said to emanate from him, because he is their author, but as it is God Who, as the final Judge, brings about the results of those actions, whether good or bad, they can equally be said to proceed from Him (4:79). In this sense, both the good and evil results of man’s actions would be attributed to God. (close)
The words, and you had inflicted the double of that, refer to the Battle of Badr, when 70 Meccans were killed and 70 taken captive. At Uhud, 70 Muslims were killed, none being taken prisoner. Thus the Muslims had inflicted a double loss on the Meccans.
The fact that no Muslim was taken prisoner at Uhud demonstrates their high sense of honour. They preferred death to dishonour. They would die fighting rather than lay down their arms. Some of them were found killed on the battlefield with as many as eighty wounds on their bodies. How could such men allow themselves to be taken prisoner by the enemy? It is most significant that in all the different battles that were fought by Muslims till the time of ‘Uthman—and they were many and hundreds of thousands of men took part in them—the number of Muslim prisoners did not exceed a few hundred.
The expression, It is from your own selves, seems to contradict the succeeding verse where it is said, And that which befell you on the day when two parties met was by Allah’s command, and also 4:79, 80 where it is said: And if some good befalls them, they say, ‘this is from Allah’ and if evil befall them, they say, ‘this is from thee’. Say, All is from Allah. What has happened to these people that they come not near understanding anything? Whatever of good comes to thee is from Allah, and whatever of evil befalls thee is from thyself. On deeper reflection, however, no conflict or contradiction is found to exist for the different statements, apparently contradictory, have been made from different viewpoints. As for the real cause of man’s actions, both the good and evil actions are said to emanate from him, because he is their doer; but as it is God Who, as the final Judge, brings about the results of man’s actions, whether good or bad, they can equally be said to proceed from Him. In this sense, both the good and evil results of man’s actions would be attributed to God. Again, as God has created all things for our good and it is through their misuse that we suffer, therefore the evil that befalls us can legitimately be said to proceed from our ownselves. But when that evil is removed by the right use of the things provided by God and good results ensues, then that good must be attributed to God, for it is He Who had endowed things with the properties by the right use of which we benefit. In this sense, good results will be attributed to God and evil ones to man. Thus all the three assertions, though apparently contradicting one another, prove to be true. (close)
وَ مَاۤ اَصَابَکُمۡ یَوۡمَ الۡتَقَی الۡجَمۡعٰنِ فَبِاِذۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ لِیَعۡلَمَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۶۷﴾ۙ
وَمَآ أَصَٰبَكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡتَقَى ٱلۡجَمۡعَانِ فَبِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِيَعۡلَمَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
The "meeting of the parties" refers to the Battle of Uhud which is under review here.
The clause لیعلم المؤمنین rendered as, that He might distinguish the believers, does not mean, "that He might know the believers", as generally translated. According to Quranic idiom, the expression simply means that Allah might mark out, or make known, or distinguish believers from disbelievers. See also note on 3:141. (close)