لَقَدۡ مَنَّ اللّٰہُ عَلَی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ اِذۡ بَعَثَ فِیۡہِمۡ رَسُوۡلًا مِّنۡ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ یَتۡلُوۡا عَلَیۡہِمۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ وَ یُزَکِّیۡہِمۡ وَ یُعَلِّمُہُمُ الۡکِتٰبَ وَ الۡحِکۡمَۃَ ۚ وَ اِنۡ کَانُوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ لَفِیۡ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِیۡنٍ ﴿۱۶۵﴾
لَقَدۡ مَنَّ ٱللَّهُ عَلَى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ إِذۡ بَعَثَ فِيهِمۡ رَسُولٗا مِّنۡ أَنفُسِهِمۡ يَتۡلُواْ عَلَيۡهِمۡ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ وَيُزَكِّيهِمۡ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ وَٱلۡحِكۡمَةَ وَإِن كَانُواْ مِن قَبۡلُ لَفِي ضَلَٰلٖ مُّبِينٍ
a. 2:130, 152; 9:128; 63:3; 65:12. (close)
520. The words are intended to awaken in the hearts of Muslims a desire to follow the example of the Holy Prophet, who was like them and was one of them. (close)
a. 2:130, 152; 9:128; 62:3; 65:12. (close)
The expression, by raising among them a Messenger from among themselves, is intended to awaken in the hearts of Muslims a desire to follow the example of the Holy Prophet, who was like them and one of them. The Prophet was not only a man like them but was actually one of them. If he could rise to such spiritual heights, why could not they?
All Messengers of God are raised from among human beings and they possess the same faculties and are actuated by the same desires and aspirations as other human beings, and, therefore, they can serve as true models for their fellow beings. But a so-called "Son of God" does not possess the same desires and the same faculties as we have, and cannot, therefore, be a model for us. Our model should be from our own kind. He who is not of our kind, being a divine being, free from human passions and human weaknesses, cannot be held out to us as a model for imitation.
The verse also points to the fulfilment of the prayer of Abraham contained in 2:130, in which the different functions of the Promised Prophet have been mentioned just as they are mentioned here. (close)
اَوَ لَمَّاۤ اَصَابَتۡکُمۡ مُّصِیۡبَۃٌ قَدۡ اَصَبۡتُمۡ مِّثۡلَیۡہَا ۙ قُلۡتُمۡ اَنّٰی ہٰذَا ؕ قُلۡ ہُوَ مِنۡ عِنۡدِ اَنۡفُسِکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۱۶۶﴾
أَوَلَمَّآ أَصَٰبَتۡكُم مُّصِيبَةٞ قَدۡ أَصَبۡتُم مِّثۡلَيۡهَا قُلۡتُمۡ أَنَّىٰ هَٰذَاۖ قُلۡ هُوَ مِنۡ عِندِ أَنفُسِكُمۡۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
b. 4:80. (close)
521. The words refer to the Battle of Badr, when 70 Meccans were killed and 70 taken prisoner. At Uhud, 70 Muslims were killed, none being taken prisoner. Thus the Muslims had already inflicted a double loss on the Meccans. (close)
522. As for the real cause of man’s actions, both the good and evil ones are said to emanate from him, because he is their author, but as it is God Who, as the final Judge, brings about the results of those actions, whether good or bad, they can equally be said to proceed from Him (4:79). In this sense, both the good and evil results of man’s actions would be attributed to God. (close)
The words, and you had inflicted the double of that, refer to the Battle of Badr, when 70 Meccans were killed and 70 taken captive. At Uhud, 70 Muslims were killed, none being taken prisoner. Thus the Muslims had inflicted a double loss on the Meccans.
The fact that no Muslim was taken prisoner at Uhud demonstrates their high sense of honour. They preferred death to dishonour. They would die fighting rather than lay down their arms. Some of them were found killed on the battlefield with as many as eighty wounds on their bodies. How could such men allow themselves to be taken prisoner by the enemy? It is most significant that in all the different battles that were fought by Muslims till the time of ‘Uthman—and they were many and hundreds of thousands of men took part in them—the number of Muslim prisoners did not exceed a few hundred.
The expression, It is from your own selves, seems to contradict the succeeding verse where it is said, And that which befell you on the day when two parties met was by Allah’s command, and also 4:79, 80 where it is said: And if some good befalls them, they say, ‘this is from Allah’ and if evil befall them, they say, ‘this is from thee’. Say, All is from Allah. What has happened to these people that they come not near understanding anything? Whatever of good comes to thee is from Allah, and whatever of evil befalls thee is from thyself. On deeper reflection, however, no conflict or contradiction is found to exist for the different statements, apparently contradictory, have been made from different viewpoints. As for the real cause of man’s actions, both the good and evil actions are said to emanate from him, because he is their doer; but as it is God Who, as the final Judge, brings about the results of man’s actions, whether good or bad, they can equally be said to proceed from Him. In this sense, both the good and evil results of man’s actions would be attributed to God. Again, as God has created all things for our good and it is through their misuse that we suffer, therefore the evil that befalls us can legitimately be said to proceed from our ownselves. But when that evil is removed by the right use of the things provided by God and good results ensues, then that good must be attributed to God, for it is He Who had endowed things with the properties by the right use of which we benefit. In this sense, good results will be attributed to God and evil ones to man. Thus all the three assertions, though apparently contradicting one another, prove to be true. (close)
وَ مَاۤ اَصَابَکُمۡ یَوۡمَ الۡتَقَی الۡجَمۡعٰنِ فَبِاِذۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَ لِیَعۡلَمَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۶۷﴾ۙ
وَمَآ أَصَٰبَكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡتَقَى ٱلۡجَمۡعَانِ فَبِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِيَعۡلَمَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
The "meeting of the parties" refers to the Battle of Uhud which is under review here.
The clause لیعلم المؤمنین rendered as, that He might distinguish the believers, does not mean, "that He might know the believers", as generally translated. According to Quranic idiom, the expression simply means that Allah might mark out, or make known, or distinguish believers from disbelievers. See also note on 3:141. (close)
وَ لِیَعۡلَمَ الَّذِیۡنَ نَافَقُوۡا ۚۖ وَ قِیۡلَ لَہُمۡ تَعَالَوۡا قَاتِلُوۡا فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ اَوِ ادۡفَعُوۡا ؕ قَالُوۡا لَوۡ نَعۡلَمُ قِتَالًا لَّا تَّبَعۡنٰکُمۡ ؕ ہُمۡ لِلۡکُفۡرِ یَوۡمَئِذٍ اَقۡرَبُ مِنۡہُمۡ لِلۡاِیۡمَانِ ۚ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ بِاَفۡوَاہِہِمۡ مَّا لَیۡسَ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ اَعۡلَمُ بِمَا یَکۡتُمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۶۸﴾ۚ
وَلِيَعۡلَمَ ٱلَّذِينَ نَافَقُواْۚ وَقِيلَ لَهُمۡ تَعَالَوۡاْ قَٰتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَوِ ٱدۡفَعُواْۖ قَالُواْ لَوۡ نَعۡلَمُ قِتَالٗا لَّٱتَّبَعۡنَٰكُمۡۗ هُمۡ لِلۡكُفۡرِ يَوۡمَئِذٍ أَقۡرَبُ مِنۡهُمۡ لِلۡإِيمَٰنِۚ يَقُولُونَ بِأَفۡوَٰهِهِم مَّا لَيۡسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمۡۚ وَٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا يَكۡتُمُونَ
523. Trials and tribulations are intended to distinguish true believers from those weak of faith. In this way, the sufferings of the Muslims at Uhud proved a blessing in disguise. They served to distinguish the true believers from the Hypocrites who had so far remained mixed up with true believers. (close)
524. The particle au rendered as "and" literally means "or" and is equivalent to "in other words," or "what is the same thing as" etc. (close)
525. The expression, Lau Na‘lamu Qitalan, may mean: (1) If we knew that there would be fighting, i.e. we knew that there would be no fighting and that the Muslims would at once run away before their very powerful enemy without giving fight. (2) If we knew it to be a fight, i.e. it was no fight in which the Muslims were going to be engaged but rather their certain destruction in view of the appalling difference between the numbers and equipment of the opposing forces. (3) If we knew how to fight. In this case, the words may be taken to have been spoken ironically, signifying: "We are unaware of the art of war; if we had been acquainted with it, we would have fought along with you." The allusion in the verse is obviously to the defection at Uhud of a party of 300 Hypocrites under their leader ‘Abdullah b. Ubayy, who deserted the Muslims and went back to Medina. (close)
a. 48:12. (close)
Trials come to bring about a distinction between true believers and those weak of faith or insincere. In this way, the sufferings of the Muslims at Uhud proved a blessing in disguise. They served to distinguish the true believers from the hypocrites who had so far remained intermixed with the true believers. While professing to be true Muslims, they were, at heart, enemies of Islam; and their passing for Muslims was injurious to the Muslim community. The believers, taking them for true Muslims, remained unaware of the secret machinations by which they sought to injure the cause of Islam. So it was in the interests of Islam that their hypocrisy became unmasked and the Muslims became on their guard against them. On the other hand, just as the exposure of the hypocrites proved beneficial to the believers, similarly the coming to light of their own sincerity and devotion served a most useful purpose. It served not only to disappoint the enemies of Islam who came to realize that with such devoted followers they could make no headway against Islam, but it also opened their eyes to its truth; for it became clear to them that a religion which could inspire its votaries with such selfless zeal and steadfast devotion could not but be true.
The particle او rendered as "and" in the clause, fight in the cause of Allah and repel the attack of the enemy, literally means "or" and is equivalent to "in other words", or "what is the same thing," etc. It is used here: (1) to explain the meaning of the preceding clause, i.e. fight in the cause of Allah. So the whole sentence would read something like this: "It was said to them (the hypocrites): Come ye, fight in the cause of Allah, which was the same thing as repelling the attack of the enemy." This rendering would go to prove that the Companions of the Holy Prophet waged no aggressive war and all their fighting was undertaken in self-defence. (2) Or the word او (and) is used here in the sense of "at least". According to this rendering, the sentence would mean: "Fight in the cause of Allah; and if you cannot fight in the cause of Allah, at least fight in defence of your own homes and hearths," i.e. your own interests require that you should defend Medina against the attack of the enemy. (3) Or as rendered in the text the word is used in the sense of "and". With this meaning of او, the whole sentence would mean, "fight in the cause of Allah and repel the attack of the enemy."
The expression لو نعلم قتالا translated in the text as, If we knew how to fight, may have three meanings: (1) If we knew that there would be fighting, i.e. we thought there would be no fighting. By using this expression the hypocrites meant that seeing the strength of the enemy, the Muslims would at once run away and there will be no fighting. (2) If we knew it to be a fight, i.e. it was no fight in which the Muslims were going to be engaged, but certain destruction in view of the appalling difference between the numbers and equipment of the opposing forces. (3) Or, as rendered in the text, the expression may mean, if we knew how to fight. In this case, it must be taken to have been used ironically, signifying: "We are unaware of the art of war; if we had been acquainted with it, we would have fought along with you."
The allusion in the verse is obviously to the defection at Uhud of a party of 300 hypocrites under their leader ‘Abdullah bin Ubayy, who, at a crucial moment, deserted the Muslims and went back to Medina, saying, "He (the Prophet) has disregarded my advice and has followed the advice of mere lads". Seeing this, ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr, father of Jabir, approached him and asked him not to desert the Prophet in that manner, upon which ‘Abdullah replied in the very words quoted by the Quran, i.e. لو نعلم قتالا لا تبعنا کم meaning, "If we knew there would be fighting, we would have surely followed you." At this ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr exclaimed, saying: "God’s curse be upon you. Surely, He Himself will help His Messenger" (Jarir, iii. 104). (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ قَالُوۡا لِاِخۡوَانِہِمۡ وَ قَعَدُوۡا لَوۡ اَطَاعُوۡنَا مَا قُتِلُوۡا ؕ قُلۡ فَادۡرَءُوۡا عَنۡ اَنۡفُسِکُمُ الۡمَوۡتَ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ صٰدِقِیۡنَ ﴿۱۶۹﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُواْ لِإِخۡوَٰنِهِمۡ وَقَعَدُواْ لَوۡ أَطَاعُونَا مَا قُتِلُواْۗ قُلۡ فَٱدۡرَءُواْ عَنۡ أَنفُسِكُمُ ٱلۡمَوۡتَ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَٰدِقِينَ
526. The words "said of their brethren" may mean "said concerning their brethren," i.e. Muslims; or "talked among themselves about the Muslims." (close)
a. 3:155. (close)
b. 4:79. (close)
The word اخوان (brethren) may refer to both the Muslims and the hypocrites. If taken to refer to the Muslims, the expression قالوا لاخوانھم (said of their brethren) would either mean, "said concerning their brethren, the Muslims", or it would mean, "said to their brethren, the Muslims." If, however, it is taken to refer to the hypocrites, the expression would mean, "said to their own brethren", i.e. talked among themselves.
The expression, Then avert death from yourselves, embodies a prophecy about the destruction of the hypocrites. The clause would thus signify, "You stayed in your homes in order to save yourselves. Now, the time of your destruction has arrived. So protect yourselves if you can." (close)
وَ لَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ قُتِلُوۡا فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ اَمۡوَاتًا ؕ بَلۡ اَحۡیَآءٌ عِنۡدَ رَبِّہِمۡ یُرۡزَقُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷۰﴾ۙ
وَلَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمۡوَٰتَۢاۚ بَلۡ أَحۡيَآءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡ يُرۡزَقُونَ
c. 2:155. (close)
527. Amwat is the plural of Mayyit which, besides meaning a dead person, signifies, (1) one whose blood has not been avenged; (2) one who leaves behind no successors; (3) one stricken with sorrow and grief. (close)
452. Important Words:
اموات (dead) is the plural of میت which besides meaning a dead person, also means: (1) one whose blood has not been avenged; (2) one who leaves behind no successors; (3) one stricken with sorrow and grief. See also 2:29.
According to the above three significations of the word امواتا (dead) the verse would mean: (1) that the blood of Muslim martyrs shall certainly be avenged; (2) that their place shall be taken by others equally zealous; (3) that these martyrs, though apparently dead, are leading happy lives in the presence of their Lord.
As martyrs lay down their lives for the sake of God, therefore they are granted in the next world a special kind of life which is different from, and superior to, that of ordinary believers. (close)
فَرِحِیۡنَ بِمَاۤ اٰتٰہُمُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ۙ وَ یَسۡتَبۡشِرُوۡنَ بِالَّذِیۡنَ لَمۡ یَلۡحَقُوۡا بِہِمۡ مِّنۡ خَلۡفِہِمۡ ۙ اَلَّا خَوۡفٌ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یَحۡزَنُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷۱﴾ۘ
فَرِحِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَىٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ وَيَسۡتَبۡشِرُونَ بِٱلَّذِينَ لَمۡ يَلۡحَقُواْ بِهِم مِّنۡ خَلۡفِهِمۡ أَلَّا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ
528. The martyrs are glad that their brethren, who are left behind in the world and will follow them later, will soon triumph over their enemies, i.e. after death the veils are removed and the martyrs are given the knowledge of the victories in store for the Muslims. They receive good tidings concerning their brethren, i.e. the angels of God keep them informed of the later successes and victories of Islam. (close)
d. 2:63; 6:49; 7:50; 46:14. (close)
a. 2:63; 6:49; 7:50; 46:14. (close)
453. Important Words:
فرحین (jubilant) is the plural of فرح which is the verbal adjective from the verb فرح (Fariha) meaning, he rejoiced; he was glad and jubilant; he exulted and behaved proudly. فرحین therefore, means, (1) exultant and proud; (2) glad and jubilant, being well-pleased and satisfied (Lane & Aqrab). The word is used here in the latter sense.
یستبشرون (they rejoice) is derived from بشر. The word استبشر means, (1) he rejoiced or became rejoiced by receiving good and happy news; (2) he gave or conveyed good news so as to make the hearer rejoice at it (Aqrab & Lane). See also 2:26.
Taking the word یستبشرون (they rejoice) in the first-mentioned sense (see Important Words above), the verse would mean, they (the martyrs are glad that their brethren, who are left behind in the world and will follow them later, will soon be victorious and will triumph over their enemies, i.e. after death the veils have been removed and the martyrs have become definitely aware of the victories in store for Muslims. According to the second signification of the word, the verse would mean, they give good tidings to their brethren by appearing to them in dreams. The verse may also mean, they receive good tidings concerning their brethren, i.e. the angels of God keep them informed of the later successes and victories of Islam. (close)
یَسۡتَبۡشِرُوۡنَ بِنِعۡمَۃٍ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ وَ فَضۡلٍ ۙ وَّ اَنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یُضِیۡعُ اَجۡرَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۷۲﴾ۚ٪ۛ
۞يَسۡتَبۡشِرُونَ بِنِعۡمَةٖ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَفَضۡلٖ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجۡرَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
a. 7:171; 9:129; 11:116. (close)
b. 7:171; 9:120; 11:116. (close)
The expression, Allah suffers not the reward of the believers to be lost, means that the works of the believers will not go in vain. They will certainly bring their due reward. (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ اسۡتَجَابُوۡا لِلّٰہِ وَ الرَّسُوۡلِ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَاۤ اَصَابَہُمُ الۡقَرۡحُ ؕۛ لِلَّذِیۡنَ اَحۡسَنُوۡا مِنۡہُمۡ وَ اتَّقَوۡا اَجۡرٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۷۳﴾ۚ
ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَجَابُواْ لِلَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَآ أَصَابَهُمُ ٱلۡقَرۡحُۚ لِلَّذِينَ أَحۡسَنُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ وَٱتَّقَوۡاْ أَجۡرٌ عَظِيمٌ
b. 8:25. (close)
529. The reference here and in the next verse is to the two expeditions which the Holy Prophet led against the Meccans after the Battle of Uhud. The first was undertaken on the day immediately following the battle. When the Meccans withdrew from Uhud, they were taunted by some Arab tribes for having brought no booty and no prisoners of war from a battle in which they claimed to have won a victory. They, therefore, thought of returning to Medina with a view to re- attacking the Muslims and completing their victory. The Holy Prophet had anticipated their return; so he called upon those of his Companions who had taken part in the Battle of Uhud to join him in the expedition against them and on the following day he left Medina with 250 men. When the Meccans heard of this, they lost heart and fled. The Holy Prophet went as far as Hamra’ul-Asad, a distance of about eight miles from Medina on the route to Mecca and seeing that the enemy had fled, returned to Medina. The second expedition came a year later. Before leaving the battlefield of Uhud, Abu Sufyan, commander of the Meccan army, had promised the Muslims another engagement next year at Badr. But the ensuing year being a year of famine, he could not carry out his boast. But he sent Nu‘aim b. Mas‘ud to Medina to intimidate the Muslims by spreading false rumours of great preparations having been made by the Meccans. This clumsy ruse, however, completely failed to frighten the Muslims, who came to Badr at the appointed time, only to find that the Meccans had not come. This expedition is known as the expedition of Badrus-Sughra (the Smaller Badr) to distinguish it from the great Battle of Badr which had taken place about two years earlier. (close)
a. 8:25. (close)
The reference in this and the next verse is to the two expeditions led by the Holy Prophet against the Meccans as a result of the Battle of Uhud. The first was undertaken on the day immediately following that battle. When the Meccans withdrew from Uhud, and took their way back to Mecca, they were, as narrated above, taunted by the Arab tribes for having brought no booty and no prisoners of war from a battle in which they claimed to have won a victory. The Meccans, thereupon, thought of returning to Medina with a view to re-attacking the Muslims and completing their victory. The Holy Prophet, who had also anticipated the return of the Meccans, at once called upon his Companions to join him in the pursuit of the enemy and most wisely restricted the call to only such able-bodied Muslims as had taken part in the Battle of Uhud. So on the following day, he left Medina with 250 men. When the Meccans heard of the Muslims advancing towards them, they lost heart and fled. The Holy Prophet went as far as Hamra’ul-Asad, a distance of about eight miles from Medina on the route to Mecca, and seeing that the enemy had fled, returned to Medina.
The second expedition came a year later. Before leaving the battlefield of Uhud, Abu Sufyan, commander of the Meccan army, had promised the Muslims another engagement next year at Badr. But the ensuing year being a year of famine, he could not keep his appointment. So he sent Nu‘aim bin Mas‘ud to Medina to terrify the Muslims by spreading false rumours of great preparations having been made by the Meccans. This clumsy ruse completely failed to frighten the Muslims, who came to Badr at the appointed time only to find that the Meccans had not appeared. The Muslims profited by this opportunity by taking part in trafficking at the great annual fair that used to be held there every year and returned prosperous as well as triumphant to Medina. This expedition is known in history as the expedition of Badras-Sughra, (i.e. the smaller Badr), to distinguish it from the great Battle of Badr which had taken place about two years earlier. (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ قَالَ لَہُمُ النَّاسُ اِنَّ النَّاسَ قَدۡ جَمَعُوۡا لَکُمۡ فَاخۡشَوۡہُمۡ فَزَادَہُمۡ اِیۡمَانًا ٭ۖ وَّ قَالُوۡا حَسۡبُنَا اللّٰہُ وَ نِعۡمَ الۡوَکِیۡلُ ﴿۱۷۴﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ قَالَ لَهُمُ ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّ ٱلنَّاسَ قَدۡ جَمَعُواْ لَكُمۡ فَٱخۡشَوۡهُمۡ فَزَادَهُمۡ إِيمَٰنٗا وَقَالُواْ حَسۡبُنَا ٱللَّهُ وَنِعۡمَ ٱلۡوَكِيلُ
530. The reference is to the false rumours spread by Nu‘aim b. Mas‘ud. (close)
456. Important Words:
الوکیل (guardian). وکیل is derived from وکل. They say وکل الیه الامر he left the matter to him and did not interfere in it. کلنی الی کذاmeans, leave thou me to manage this thing as I may deem proper. وکیل means, one to whom the management of an affair is left or consigned; guardian; agent or deputy. الوکیل is one of the names of God meaning, Guardian; One Who watches or looks after the affairs of the Faithful; One sufficing for His servants (Aqrab & Lane).
The reference here is to the false rumours spread by Nu‘aim bin Mas‘ud that the Meccans had made great preparations against the Muslims and were about to attack them. See also the preceding verse. (close)