فَاِنۡ حَآجُّوۡکَ فَقُلۡ اَسۡلَمۡتُ وَجۡہِیَ لِلّٰہِ وَ مَنِ اتَّبَعَنِ ؕ وَ قُلۡ لِّلَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡکِتٰبَ وَ الۡاُمِّیّٖنَ ءَاَسۡلَمۡتُمۡ ؕ فَاِنۡ اَسۡلَمُوۡا فَقَدِ اہۡتَدَوۡا ۚ وَ اِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاِنَّمَا عَلَیۡکَ الۡبَلٰغُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ بَصِیۡرٌۢ بِالۡعِبَادِ ﴿٪۲۱﴾
فَإِنۡ حَآجُّوكَ فَقُلۡ أَسۡلَمۡتُ وَجۡهِيَ لِلَّهِ وَمَنِ ٱتَّبَعَنِۗ وَقُل لِّلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ وَٱلۡأُمِّيِّـۧنَ ءَأَسۡلَمۡتُمۡۚ فَإِنۡ أَسۡلَمُواْ فَقَدِ ٱهۡتَدَواْۖ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡبَلَٰغُۗ وَٱللَّهُ بَصِيرُۢ بِٱلۡعِبَادِ
a. 4:126. (close)
384. People of the Book and Ummiyyin (those who follow no revealed Book) comprise the whole of mankind. (close)
385. See 113A and 1058. (close)
386. If the People of the Book and those who follow no revealed Scripture were to surrender themselves to God, they would surely accept the Holy Prophet and be rightly guided, the former because clear prophecies are found in their Scriptures regarding him and the latter because of the combined testimony of nature, human conscience and common sense. (close)
b. 5:93, 100; 13:41; 16:83. (close)
312. Important Words:
امیین (the unlearned), see 2:79.
الذین اوتوا الکتاب (those who have been given the Book), i.e. the People of the Book. The two expressions, i.e. امیین and الذین اوتوا الکتاب comprise the whole of mankind. الذین اوتوا الکتاب are those people who possess and profess to follow a revealed scripture; and امیون are those who accept and follow no such Book.
If the People of the Book and those who follow no revealed Scripture were to submit to God, they would surely accept the Holy Prophet and be rightly guided, the former because clear prophecies are found in their Scriptures regarding him and the latter because of the combined testimony of nature, human conscience and common sense. Submission to God is the source of all true guidance. One stumbles and loses the right path only when one deviates from the course of submission, bowing to authorities other than God. (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَکۡفُرُوۡنَ بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ وَ یَقۡتُلُوۡنَ النَّبِیّٖنَ بِغَیۡرِ حَقٍّ ۙ وَّ یَقۡتُلُوۡنَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَاۡمُرُوۡنَ بِالۡقِسۡطِ مِنَ النَّاسِ ۙ فَبَشِّرۡہُمۡ بِعَذَابٍ اَلِیۡمٍ ﴿۲۲﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَكۡفُرُونَ بِـَٔايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ وَيَقۡتُلُونَ ٱلنَّبِيِّـۧنَ بِغَيۡرِ حَقّٖ وَيَقۡتُلُونَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَأۡمُرُونَ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِ مِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ فَبَشِّرۡهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
c. See 2:62. (close)
387. No Prophet of God, whatever circumstances faced him, ever failed in his mission. No amount of persecution or attempts to murder the Prophets ever succeeded in arresting or retarding the progress of their Faith. The history of Religion provides a standing testimony to this fact. (close)
a. See 2:62. (close)
313. Important Words:
یقتلون (seek to kill). See 2:62.
بشرھم (announce to them). See 2:26.
Disbelievers are here warned that if they do not accept the Signs of God and persist in rejecting and fighting His Messengers and are not prepared to accept the arbitrament of divine revelation and of reason, they cannot escape Divine punishment. No Prophet of God, whatever circumstances faced him, ever failed in his mission. No amount of persecution or attempts to murder the Prophets ever succeeded in arresting or retarding the progress of their faith. The history of religion provides a standing testimony to this fact; and the Holy Prophet of Islam—the Greatest of all Prophets—was not going to be an exception.
The expression فبشرھم بعذاب الیم translated as "announce to them a painful punishment" literally means, "give them the glad tidings of a painful punishment". The word بشر (give glad tidings) has been used with a twofold purpose; (1) to signify that the promised punishment is extraordinarily great, the word بشارة literally meaning a news that changes the colour of the skin of the listener; (2) to point to the fact that the disbelievers have been deprived of a great blessing. They were invited to God’s favour which was truly glad tidings but, having rejected it, they incurred His wrath and brought punishment on their heads. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ حَبِطَتۡ اَعۡمَالُہُمۡ فِی الدُّنۡیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ۫ وَ مَا لَہُمۡ مِّنۡ نّٰصِرِیۡنَ ﴿۲۳﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ حَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَٰلُهُمۡ فِي ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن نَّـٰصِرِينَ
a. 2:218; 7:148; 18:106. (close)
388. Disbelievers have no faith in retribution of the Hereafter; so, as a proof of the fact that their deeds will not avail them at all on the Day of Resurrection, they are told that in the present life also their efforts to destroy Islam will prove futile and this will be evidence of the fact that in the life to come also their works will be of no use to them. (close)
a. 2:218; 7:148; 18:106. (close)
Disbelievers have no faith in the retribution of the life to come; so as a proof of the fact that their deeds will not avail them at all on the Day of Resurrection, they are told that in the present life also their efforts to destroy Islam will prove futile and this will be evidence of the fact that in the life to come their works will be of no use to them. Two facts have been foretold, one relating to this life and the other to the life to come. When the former turns out to be true, the latter will also have to be regarded as true. It must not, however, be thought that all the works of disbelievers will come to naught; for, elsewhere the Quran says, Whosoever does a little of good will have its reward (99:8). This shows that the present verse refers to such works only as are done to destroy or weaken Islam or such works as are opposed to the teachings of Islam. (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اِلَی الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوۡا نَصِیۡبًا مِّنَ الۡکِتٰبِ یُدۡعَوۡنَ اِلٰی کِتٰبِ اللّٰہِ لِیَحۡکُمَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ ثُمَّ یَتَوَلّٰی فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ وَ ہُمۡ مُّعۡرِضُوۡنَ ﴿۲۴﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ نَصِيبٗا مِّنَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ يُدۡعَوۡنَ إِلَىٰ كِتَٰبِ ٱللَّهِ لِيَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّىٰ فَرِيقٞ مِّنۡهُمۡ وَهُم مُّعۡرِضُونَ
389. (1) Prophecies contained in the Bible concerning the Holy Prophet which formed a portion of the Book; or (2) the genuine portion of the Bible, because only a portion of it had remained safe from interpolation and this alone could be called a part of the true Book; or (3) the Bible is but a portion of the Book as compared with the Qur’an which is the Book par excellence. (close)
b. 24:49. (close)
The expression, portion of the Book, may refer to (1) the prophecies contained in the Bible concerning the Holy Prophet which formed a portion of the Book; or (2) the genuine portion of the Bible, because only a part of it had remained safe from interpolation and this alone could be called a part of the true Book; or (3) the expression may also mean that as compared with the Quran, which is the Book par excellence, being the eternal and perfect Divine Book, the Bible is but a portion and a part. In view of these different explanations, the verse would give different meanings: (a) that when the attention of Jews and Christians is drawn to the prophecies embodied in their Scriptures, they refuse to be guided by them. Or (b) that if the People of the Book had adhered to the genuine portion of their own Scriptures, the criteria laid down therein for testing the truth of a claimant to prophethood would have surely led them to accept the Holy Prophet. Or (c) that if they had faithfully acted on the teachings of their own Scriptures, which was in fact a part of the perfect and eternal teachings contained in the Quran, they would have certainly recognised the truth of the new Faith. (close)
ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ قَالُوۡا لَنۡ تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ اِلَّاۤ اَیَّامًا مَّعۡدُوۡدٰتٍ ۪ وَ غَرَّہُمۡ فِیۡ دِیۡنِہِمۡ مَّا کَانُوۡا یَفۡتَرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۵﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَالُواْ لَن تَمَسَّنَا ٱلنَّارُ إِلَّآ أَيَّامٗا مَّعۡدُودَٰتٖۖ وَغَرَّهُمۡ فِي دِينِهِم مَّا كَانُواْ يَفۡتَرُونَ
c. 2:81; 5:19. (close)
390. Both Jews and Christians persuaded themselves into believing that they would be safe against the punishment of the Hereafter, the Jews thinking themselves immune owing to their being the "Favoured Ones" of God and the Christians deluding themselves with the idea that Jesus, the so-called son of God, had washed away all their sins with his supposed death on the Cross. (close)
a. 2:81; 5:19. (close)
Both Jews and Christians persuaded themselves to believe that they would be safe against the punishment of the Hereafter, the Jews thinking themselves immune owing to their being the favoured ones of God on account of their being the descendants of His Prophets, and the Christians deluding themselves with the idea that Jesus, "the son of God", had washed away their sins with his supposed death on the cross. The false notion of each proved their ruin. (close)
فَکَیۡفَ اِذَا جَمَعۡنٰہُمۡ لِیَوۡمٍ لَّا رَیۡبَ فِیۡہِ ۟ وَ وُفِّیَتۡ کُلُّ نَفۡسٍ مَّا کَسَبَتۡ وَ ہُمۡ لَا یُظۡلَمُوۡنَ ﴿۲۶﴾
فَكَيۡفَ إِذَا جَمَعۡنَٰهُمۡ لِيَوۡمٖ لَّا رَيۡبَ فِيهِ وَوُفِّيَتۡ كُلُّ نَفۡسٖ مَّا كَسَبَتۡ وَهُمۡ لَا يُظۡلَمُونَ
a. 3:10; 4:88; 45:27. (close)
391. The verse constitutes an emphatic contradiction of the doctrine that the blood of any person, and not one’s own good works, can bring about salvation. (close)
b. 3:10; 4:88; 45:27. (close)
The People of the Book are here called upon to imagine how they will fare when they will have to render an account of their deeds before God on the Day of Judgement and will find to their mortification that the fact of their being descendants of God’s Prophets or their belief in the crucifixion of Jesus will not save them from the punishment of Hell.
The clause, When every soul shall be paid in full what it has earned, shows that the reference to forgers of lies mentioned in the previous verse is particularly to Christians. This verse is an emphatic contradiction of the doctrine that the blood of anyone, and not one’s own good works, can be a means of salvation. (close)
قُلِ اللّٰہُمَّ مٰلِکَ الۡمُلۡکِ تُؤۡتِی الۡمُلۡکَ مَنۡ تَشَآءُ وَ تَنۡزِعُ الۡمُلۡکَ مِمَّنۡ تَشَآءُ ۫ وَ تُعِزُّ مَنۡ تَشَآءُ وَ تُذِلُّ مَنۡ تَشَآءُ ؕ بِیَدِکَ الۡخَیۡرُ ؕ اِنَّکَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۲۷﴾
قُلِ ٱللَّهُمَّ مَٰلِكَ ٱلۡمُلۡكِ تُؤۡتِي ٱلۡمُلۡكَ مَن تَشَآءُ وَتَنزِعُ ٱلۡمُلۡكَ مِمَّن تَشَآءُ وَتُعِزُّ مَن تَشَآءُ وَتُذِلُّ مَن تَشَآءُۖ بِيَدِكَ ٱلۡخَيۡرُۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
b. 2:285; 5:19, 41; 35:14; 40:17; 48:15. (close)
392. See next verse for explanation of this verse. (close)
a. 2:285; 5:19, 41; 35:14; 40:17; 48:15. (close)
317A. See under next verse. (close)
تُوۡلِجُ الَّیۡلَ فِی النَّہَارِ وَ تُوۡلِجُ النَّہَارَ فِی الَّیۡلِ ۫ وَ تُخۡرِجُ الۡحَیَّ مِنَ الۡمَیِّتِ وَ تُخۡرِجُ الۡمَیِّتَ مِنَ الۡحَیِّ ۫ وَ تَرۡزُقُ مَنۡ تَشَآءُ بِغَیۡرِ حِسَابٍ ﴿۲۸﴾
تُولِجُ ٱلَّيۡلَ فِي ٱلنَّهَارِ وَتُولِجُ ٱلنَّهَارَ فِي ٱلَّيۡلِۖ وَتُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡحَيَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ وَتُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَيِّتَ مِنَ ٱلۡحَيِّۖ وَتَرۡزُقُ مَن تَشَآءُ بِغَيۡرِ حِسَابٖ
c. 7:55; 13:4; 22:62; 35:14; 39:6; 57:7. (close)
393. "The day" may here represent the prosperity and power of a people and "the night" their decline and degradation. (close)
d. 6:96; 10:32; 30:20. (close)
394. This and the preceding verse point to the immutable Divine law that nations rise and fall as they conform to, or defy, the Will of God, Who is the Source of all power and glory. (close)
b. 7:55; 13:4; 22:62; 35:14; 39:6; 57:7. (close)
c. 6:96; 10:32; 30:20. (close)
This and the preceding verse point to the immutable divine law that nations rise and fall as they conform to, or defy, the will of God, Who is the source of all power and glory. They also refer to the fulfilment of a great prophecy. A nation which had enjoyed temporal and spiritual sovereignty for a long time was going to be abased, because it had persistently violated the divine law and had become spiritually dead; and in place of it another nation, till now very low in the scale of humanity, was going to be raised to the highest pinnacle of temporal and spiritual power. The sovereignty or kingdom mentioned in the preceding verse refers to both the temporal and spiritual kingdom which was promised to the progeny of Abraham and which the Israelites had enjoyed for a long time. That kingdom was now going to be transferred to the House of Ishmael to find its completest manifestation in Islam. A living nation had suffered death and another, as good as dead, had arisen into life.
The word النھار (day) represents prosperity and power, and اللیل (night) signifies the loss of power combined with decline and decadence. By using this simile, the Quran draws attention to the fact that a people who wish that the night of woes and miseries should never overtake them and that they should ever continue to enjoy the day of prosperity and glory, should so place themselves in front of the Divine Sun as to continue to be illuminated by its ever-effulgent light. In this connection it may also be noted that the Quranic expression, Thou makest the night pass into the day and makest the day pass into the night, does not merely signify "the" alternate ending and beginning of day and: night, but also the conversion of part of the day into night and vice versa, thus hinting at the lengthening of the one at the cost of the other.
The clause, And Thou givest to whomsoever thou pleasest without measure, holds out a promise to Muslims that the glory of Islam will be unparalleled and will last forever. Islam will never be displaced as a religion and Muslims will always continue to be one of the most exalted peoples of the earth till the end of time. The appearance of Ahmad, the Promised Messiah, at a time when the temporal power of Islam was at its lowest ebb and Muslims had also become morally and spiritually degenerate, was in fulfilment of this very promise. Through him Islam has found a new life. It will now bloom and blossom till whole nations shall come under its spiritual sway, and Muslims shall regain their pristine glory and shall become the most dominant people on the face of the earth. (close)
لَا یَتَّخِذِ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ اَوۡلِیَآءَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ۚ وَ مَنۡ یَّفۡعَلۡ ذٰلِکَ فَلَیۡسَ مِنَ اللّٰہِ فِیۡ شَیۡءٍ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ تَتَّقُوۡا مِنۡہُمۡ تُقٰٮۃً ؕ وَ یُحَذِّرُکُمُ اللّٰہُ نَفۡسَہٗ ؕ وَ اِلَی اللّٰہِ الۡمَصِیۡرُ ﴿۲۹﴾
لَّا يَتَّخِذِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَۖ وَمَن يَفۡعَلۡ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَيۡسَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ فِي شَيۡءٍ إِلَّآ أَن تَتَّقُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ تُقَىٰةٗۗ وَيُحَذِّرُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ نَفۡسَهُۥۗ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ
a. 3:119; 4:140, 145. (close)
395. With the accession of political power to Islam, as promised in the preceding verses, forging of political alliances became necessary for the Muslim State. The verse under comment embodies the guiding principle that no Muslim State should enter into treaty or alliance with a non-Muslim State which should in any way injure, or conflict with, the interests of other Muslim States. The interests of Islam should transcend all other interests. (close)
396. Muslims are warned to be on their guard against the plots and machinations of disbelievers. The expression, except that you guard yourselves fully against them, refers not to the power of the enemy but to his cunning of which Muslims should always be on their guard. (close)
397. Nafs means, a person’s self; purpose; will or desire; punishment, etc. (Aqrab). (close)
319. Important Words:
نفسه (His punishment). نفس is the noun-infinitive from نفس (nafusa) which literally means, it was or became loved and highly esteemed. نفس به (nafisa) means, he was tenacious or niggardly of it. نفس means, the soul; the spirit; the mind; the body; a person or being; a person’s or being’s self; brother or relative, or one belonging to one’s own religion; purpose, will or desire; punishment, etc. (Aqrab & Lane).
With the advent of political power to Islam, as promised in the preceding verses, the contracting of political alliances became necessary for the Muslim State. The verse under comment embodies the guiding principle that no Muslim state should enter into any treaty or alliance with a non-Muslim state which should in any way injure, or conflict with, the interests of other Muslim states. The interests of Islam should transcend all other interests.
The phrase, in preference to believers, means: (1) that Muslims should not form friendly relations with disbelievers in preference to believers, shunning the latter and seeking the former; (2) that they should not form any connection with disbelievers in a way that may harm the interests of Muslims. They are, however, free to contract friendly relations with such non-Muslims as are friendly to them, according to the exigencies of time and circumstances (60:9, 10).
The verse also instructs Muslims to be on their guard against the plots and machinations of disbelievers. The expression, except that you cautiously guard against them, refers not to the power of the enemy but to his cunning against which Muslims should always be on their guard.
The clause ویحذرکم الله نفسه rendered as And Allah cautions you against His punishment, may also be translated as "and Allah cautions or warns you concerning Himself", meaning that if you do not faithfully accept the guidance of God, and make friends with disbelievers in preference to believers, you will lose God, Who will in that case have no connection with you. (close)
قُلۡ اِنۡ تُخۡفُوۡا مَا فِیۡ صُدُوۡرِکُمۡ اَوۡ تُبۡدُوۡہُ یَعۡلَمۡہُ اللّٰہُ ؕ وَ یَعۡلَمُ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ قَدِیۡرٌ ﴿۳۰﴾
قُلۡ إِن تُخۡفُواْ مَا فِي صُدُورِكُمۡ أَوۡ تُبۡدُوهُ يَعۡلَمۡهُ ٱللَّهُۗ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٞ
b. 27:75; 28:70. (close)
a. 27:75; 28:70. (close)
This and the succeeding verse are addressed to the enemies of Islam. They are warned that all their open or secret machinations against Islam shall come to naught, for the obvious reason that the Almighty and the All-Knowing God had promised to protect it. (close)