قُلۡ صَدَقَ اللّٰہُ ۟ فَاتَّبِعُوۡا مِلَّۃَ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ حَنِیۡفًا ؕ وَ مَا کَانَ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ ﴿۹۶﴾
قُلۡ صَدَقَ ٱللَّهُۗ فَٱتَّبِعُواْ مِلَّةَ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ حَنِيفٗاۖ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
a. See 3:68. (close)
442. By saying that Abraham was ever obedient to God, the verse hints that he did not prohibit the eating of any particular food of his own accord, as the Israelites have done. It purports to say that by differing from the Israelites in this matter, Islam does not go against the way and the practice of the Prophets of God, particularly that of Abraham. (close)
By saying that Abraham was ever obedient to God, the verse hints that he did not prohibit the eating of any particular meat of his own accord, as the Israelites have done. So by differing from the Israelites in this matter, Islam does not go against the way and the practice of the Prophets of God, particularly that of Abraham.
By saying that Abraham did not associate gods with Allah, the Jews are reminded that it is they themselves who set up gods with God and go against the religion of Abraham, to whom the will of his Master was all in all. (close)
اِنَّ اَوَّلَ بَیۡتٍ وُّضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِیۡ بِبَکَّۃَ مُبٰرَکًا وَّ ہُدًی لِّلۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۹۷﴾
إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيۡتٖ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكٗا وَهُدٗى لِّلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
b. 5:98; 27:92; 28:58; 29:68; 106:4, 5. (close)
443. Becca is the name given to the Valley of Mecca, the mim of Mecca being changed into ba’. These two letters are interchangeable as in Lazim and Lazib. The Qur’an here draws the attention of the People of the Book to the remote antiquity of the Ka‘bah in order to point out that it is the real and original centre of God’s religion; those adopted by Jews and Christians being of later origin. See also 2:128. (close)
a. 5:98; 27:92; 28:58; 29:68; 106:4, 5. (close)
383. Important Words:
بکة (Becca) is the name given to the valley of Mecca. The word is probably derived from بك. They say بکه i.e. he pushed him into a narrow and crowded place. بك عنقه means, he dealt blows on his neck and broke it. تباك القوم علی الشیء means, the people crowded round the thing. The valley of مکة (Mecca) is called بکة (Becca) probably on account of the crowding of the people there, or because it used to break the necks of the tyrants (Aqrab). The word بکة (Becca) is also considered by some to be the same as Mecca, its م having been changed into ب. These two letters are interchangeable as in لازم and لازب.
See note on 2:128 with regard to the antiquity of the Ka‘bah.
In this verse, the Quran draws the attention of the People of the Book to the antiquity of the Ka‘bah in order to point out that the real and original centre of God’s religion is the Ka‘bah, those adopted by Jews and Christians being of later origin. Just as certain foods which Jews abstained from were not originally forbidden but came subsequently to be held unlawful, similarly their Qiblah was not the original Qiblah but was adopted as such at a subsequent time. (close)
فِیۡہِ اٰیٰتٌۢ بَیِّنٰتٌ مَّقَامُ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ ۬ۚ وَ مَنۡ دَخَلَہٗ کَانَ اٰمِنًا ؕ وَ لِلّٰہِ عَلَی النَّاسِ حِجُّ الۡبَیۡتِ مَنِ اسۡتَطَاعَ اِلَیۡہِ سَبِیۡلًا ؕ وَ مَنۡ کَفَرَ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَنِیٌّ عَنِ الۡعٰلَمِیۡنَ ﴿۹۸﴾
فِيهِ ءَايَٰتُۢ بَيِّنَٰتٞ مَّقَامُ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَۖ وَمَن دَخَلَهُۥ كَانَ ءَامِنٗاۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ حِجُّ ٱلۡبَيۡتِ مَنِ ٱسۡتَطَاعَ إِلَيۡهِ سَبِيلٗاۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ
c. 2:126. (close)
d. 14:36; 28:58; 29:68. (close)
e. 22:28. (close)
444. After alluding to the historical evidence in favour of the Ka‘bah, the Qur’an proceeds to adduce three reasons to show that the Ka‘bah is entitled to be adopted as the Qiblah or the Centre of God’s religion for all times: (a) Abraham, the great Patriarch prayed here; (b) it gives peace and security; (c) it shall ever remain the Centre to which men from different countries and diverse nations will resort for Pilgrimage. (close)
b. 2:126. (close)
c. 14:36; 28:58; 29:68. (close)
d. 22:28. (close)
After alluding to the historical evidence in favour of the Ka‘bah, the Quran proceeds to state that reason also demands that the Ka‘bah should be adopted as the Qiblah. The verse gives reasons to show that the Ka‘bah is entitled to be adopted as the Qiblah or the centre of God’s religion.
The first reason, as hinted in the words, the place of Abraham, is that Abraham came and prayed here. Jews and Christians, to both of whom Abraham is worthy of great reverence, have to admit that Abraham visited the place. Therefore, it cannot be denied that it is a blessed place.
The second reason, referred to in the words whoso enters it enters peace, is that the Ka‘bah not only promises but also affords peace and security to those who enter it. This promise has been literally fulfilled. Temporally, God has ever protected it against wars and invasions both in ancient and modern times. The way in which Abrahah, ruler of Yemen, and his hosts were destroyed when they tried to invade the Ka‘bah and the way in which this territory, which then formed a part of the dominion of Turkey, was kept outside the conflict during the First World War (1914-18) afford remarkable instances of how miraculously God protects the Ka‘bah. Unlike the sacred places of other nations, it has never fallen into the hands of a people who would not revere it. Even in the Days of Ignorance when the different tribes of pagan Arabia were constantly at war with one another, the territory of the Ka‘bah was held to be sacred and no fighting was allowed therein. Spiritually, also, it is a place of security for those who enter it in the spiritual sense, i.e.embrace the religion of Islam. They become recipients of divine favours and enjoy security from the punishment of God.
The third reason which entitles the Ka‘bah to be adopted as the Qiblah is hinted at in the words, pilgrimage to the House is a duty which men…owe to God. The verse contains an implied promise on the part of God that the Ka‘bah shall ever continue to be the centre to which men of different countries and diverse nations will resort for Pilgrimage. The fulfilment of this promise is proof of the fact that the Ka‘bah has indeed been designed by God to be the Qiblah of all nations.
Every Muslim who can find a way to Mecca is bound to perform Pilgrimage to the Ka‘bah once in his lifetime. If he performs it more than once, it is regarded as a supererogatory act of devotion.
The words, who can find a way thither, embody three conditions: (1) one should have the necessary conveyance for performing the journey; (2) one should have the necessary money to bear the expenses; and (3) there should be peace and security on the way (Dawud). If a person is sick, he is supposed to have no "way" and Pilgrimage does not become obligatory on him.
The words, and whoever disbelieves (let him remember) that Allah is surely independent of all creatures, signify that whoever refuses to accept the Ka‘bah as the Qiblah, in spite of the arguments given in its favour, should remember that these commandments have been given for the good of man himself; so if he does not act upon them, he only harms himself and does no harm to God, Who is "Independent of all creatures".
The object of Pilgrimage is to accustom men to leave their home and country and suffer separation from relatives and friends for the sake of God. The Pilgrimage to Mecca is also a symbol of the respect shown to places where the will of God was specially manifested and a reminder of the incidents connected with that manifestation. It reminds believers of the long and hazardous journey of Abraham and Ishmael to the desert valley of Mecca and of Ishmael’s being left in that desert by Abraham; it tells them in speechless eloquence how those who make sacrifices in the way of God are protected and honoured by him; and it fosters their faith in the power and might of God. Again, the pilgrim, on finding himself near the place which has, from the beginning of the world, been dedicated to the worship of God, is sure to experience a peculiar spiritual association with those who have, through centuries, been bound together by the love and remembrance of God.
Beside this, the Pilgrimage to Mecca has great social and political significance; for Muslims from all parts of the world who meet here once a year can exchange views and establish and renew relations of love and brotherhood. They have opportunities of acquainting themselves with the problems that confront Muslims in different countries, of copying one another’s good points, profiting by one another’s experience and of cooperating with one another. It is, however, a matter of great regret that at present little advantage is being taken of this aspect of the Pilgrimage. (close)
قُلۡ یٰۤاَہۡلَ الۡکِتٰبِ لِمَ تَکۡفُرُوۡنَ بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ ٭ۖ وَ اللّٰہُ شَہِیۡدٌ عَلٰی مَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۹﴾
قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ لِمَ تَكۡفُرُونَ بِـَٔايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱللَّهُ شَهِيدٌ عَلَىٰ مَا تَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 3:71. (close)
445. Shahid means, one who gives information of what he witnesses; one possessing much knowledge; a person slain in the way of God. When used about God the word signifies, He from Whose knowledge nothing is hidden (Lane). (close)
a. 3:71. (close)
385. Important Words:
شھید (Watchful), for which see also 2:24, is here used for the first time in connection with God. The word is derived from شھد which means, he gave information or decisive information of what he had witnessed or seen; he declared what he knew; he gave testimony or evidence; he saw or watched or witnessed or beheld a thing; he was present at a place. شھیدmeans, one who gives information of, or declares, what he knows or has seen or witnessed; one who gives decisive information; one who sees or beholds a thing; witness or an eye-witness; one possessing much know-ledge; a martyr slain in the cause of God. When used about God the word signifies, the Faithful; the Trusty in testimony; He from Whose know-ledge nothing is hidden (Lane). Other similar words used by the Quran about God are (1) وکیل meaning Guardian (e.g. 3:174); and (2) رقیب meaning Watcher (e.g. 4:2); and (3) حفیظ also meaning Guardian or Keeper (e.g. 11:58 and 4:81). See also 2:24; 4:2; 3:174 and 4:81.
The words لم تکفرون rendered as, why deny ye, may also be rendered as, why are you ungrateful respecting…
The institution of Pilgrimage and other forms of worship prescribed by Islam are all for the good of man, but in his ignorance he refuses to recognize, or be thankful for, this good. (close)
قُلۡ یٰۤاَہۡلَ الۡکِتٰبِ لِمَ تَصُدُّوۡنَ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ مَنۡ اٰمَنَ تَبۡغُوۡنَہَا عِوَجًا وَّ اَنۡتُمۡ شُہَدَآءُ ؕ وَ مَا اللّٰہُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۰﴾
قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ لِمَ تَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ مَنۡ ءَامَنَ تَبۡغُونَهَا عِوَجٗا وَأَنتُمۡ شُهَدَآءُۗ وَمَا ٱللَّهُ بِغَٰفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُونَ
b. 7:46, 87; 8:48; 9:34; 14:4; 22:26. (close)
446. The meaning is: 'You desire that there should appear crookedness in Islam;' or "you desire to pervert its tenets." (close)
a. 7:46, 87; 8:48; 9:34; 14:4; 22:26. (close)
The words تبغونھا عوجا (seeking to make it crooked) may also be translated as, you seek in it crookedness, i.e. you desire that there should appear crookedness in Islam; or you desire to turn the truths of this religion from their real import and to pervert its tenets. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِنۡ تُطِیۡعُوۡا فَرِیۡقًا مِّنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡکِتٰبَ یَرُدُّوۡکُمۡ بَعۡدَ اِیۡمَانِکُمۡ کٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۱﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِن تُطِيعُواْ فَرِيقٗا مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ يَرُدُّوكُم بَعۡدَ إِيمَٰنِكُمۡ كَٰفِرِينَ
c. 2:110; 3:150. (close)
b. 2:110; 3:150. (close)
The words, any party of those who have been given the Book, refer to that party of the People of the Book who were most hostile to Islam, there being a section of them who had turned believers and others who were indifferent. Muslims have already been warned of this danger in 2:110. (close)
وَ کَیۡفَ تَکۡفُرُوۡنَ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ تُتۡلٰی عَلَیۡکُمۡ اٰیٰتُ اللّٰہِ وَ فِیۡکُمۡ رَسُوۡلُہٗ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّعۡتَصِمۡ بِاللّٰہِ فَقَدۡ ہُدِیَ اِلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۰۲﴾٪
وَكَيۡفَ تَكۡفُرُونَ وَأَنتُمۡ تُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡكُمۡ ءَايَٰتُ ٱللَّهِ وَفِيكُمۡ رَسُولُهُۥۗ وَمَن يَعۡتَصِم بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدۡ هُدِيَ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٖ مُّسۡتَقِيمٖ
a. 4:147, 176. (close)
447. (1) Whoever preserves himself from sin by acting upon God’s commandments; (2) whoever establishes a connection with Allah and cleaves firmly to Him. (close)
a. 4:147, 176. (close)
The words, who holds fast to Allah, have two meanings: (1) whoever preserves himself from sin by acting on God’s commandments; (2) whoever connects himself with Allah and cleaves firmly to Him, thereby securing for himself an everlasting source of rise and progress. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ حَقَّ تُقٰتِہٖ وَ لَا تَمُوۡتُنَّ اِلَّا وَ اَنۡتُمۡ مُّسۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۳﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِۦ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنتُم مُّسۡلِمُونَ
b. 2:133. (close)
448. As the hour of death is not known, one can be sure of dying in a state of resignation to God only when one remains continually in that condition; hence the expression signifies that one should always remain obedient to God. (close)
b. 2:133. (close)
As the spiritual degradation of the Jews was due to lack of تقوی or God-fearingness, Muslims are warned to be ever-watchful in this respect. The words rendered as, Fear Allah as He should be feared, embody a strong appeal in favour of تقوی (righteousness) and signify that on the one hand we should have a firm conviction that if we are remiss, God will visit our sins with His punishment; and on the other we should also have a firm faith in His mercy and forgiveness. There is a tradition related by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas which explains the above words as meaning: "God should be obeyed, and should not be disobeyed. We should be grateful to Him, and should not show ingratitude to Him. We should remember Him and not forget Him" (Kathir). The words also mean that one should not fear any reproach with respect to God, and should observe equity for God’s sake even if by doing so one may have to injure one’s own self or one’s parents or children or other near relatives.
The words, let not death overtake you except when you are in a state of submission, mean that we should be ever resigned to the will of God, so that when death overtakes us, it should find us obedient and resigned to His will. As the hour of death is not known, one can be sure of dying in a state of resignation to God only if one is continually in that condition, hence the expression means that one should always remain obedient to God. It may also mean that our love of obedience to God should be such that He out of regard for our feelings, may not let death come upon us at a time when we are not perfectly resigned to Him. (close)
وَ اعۡتَصِمُوۡا بِحَبۡلِ اللّٰہِ جَمِیۡعًا وَّ لَا تَفَرَّقُوۡا ۪ وَ اذۡکُرُوۡا نِعۡمَتَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اِذۡ کُنۡتُمۡ اَعۡدَآءً فَاَلَّفَ بَیۡنَ قُلُوۡبِکُمۡ فَاَصۡبَحۡتُمۡ بِنِعۡمَتِہٖۤ اِخۡوَانًا ۚ وَ کُنۡتُمۡ عَلٰی شَفَا حُفۡرَۃٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَاَنۡقَذَکُمۡ مِّنۡہَا ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَہۡتَدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۴﴾
وَٱعۡتَصِمُواْ بِحَبۡلِ ٱللَّهِ جَمِيعٗا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُواْۚ وَٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَتَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ إِذۡ كُنتُمۡ أَعۡدَآءٗ فَأَلَّفَ بَيۡنَ قُلُوبِكُمۡ فَأَصۡبَحۡتُم بِنِعۡمَتِهِۦٓ إِخۡوَٰنٗا وَكُنتُمۡ عَلَىٰ شَفَا حُفۡرَةٖ مِّنَ ٱلنَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُم مِّنۡهَاۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَهۡتَدُونَ
c. 3:106; 6:160; 8:47. (close)
449. Habl means, a rope or cord with which a thing is tied or made fast; a bond; a covenant or compact; an obligation by which one becomes responsible for the safety of a person or thing; alliance and protection (Lane). The Holy Prophet is reported to have said, 'The Book of God is the rope of Allah which has been extended from the heavens to the earth' (Jarir, iv. 30). (close)
d. 2:232. (close)
e. 8:64. (close)
450. It will be hard to find a more disunited people than the Arabs before the Holy Prophet appeared among them, but, at the same time, human history fails to provide any example of the bond of loving brotherhood into which the Arabs were united by the noble teaching and example of their great Master. (close)
451. The words "on the brink of a pit of fire" signify the internecine warfare in which the Arabs were constantly engaged and which was consuming their manpower. (close)
a. 3:106; 6:160; 8:47. (close)
b. 2:232. (close)
c. 8:64. (close)
390. Important Words:
حبل (rope). They say حبله i.e. he bound or tied him with a rope or cord. حبل الصید means, he caught the game with a snare or net. حبلت المرأة means, the woman became pregnant. حبل means, a rope or cord or anything with which a thing is tied or made fast; a bond or cause of union or link of connection, such as a bond of love or friendship; mutual connection by such a bond; a covenant or compact; an obligation by which one becomes responsible for the safety of a person or thing; a promise or assurance of security or safety; an artery, vein or nerve (Lane). It also means alliance and protection (Aqrab).
Another cause of the spiritual degradation of the Israelites was that they did not remain united but split up into sections, finding fault with one another. The verse warns Muslims against that danger. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "The Book of God is the rope of Allah which has been extended from the heavens to the earth" (Jarir, iv. 30). Broadly speaking, there are three things which may be taken to have been here meant by the rope of God, by holding fast to which Muslims may remain united and be safe against disunion and disruption: (1) the Quran; (2) the Messenger of God; (3) the Successors to the Messenger of God.
The similitude may have reference to sea life. Ropes are thrown to save the life of a drowning man. When a man falls into the sea or when a boat is wrecked by a storm, people in the boat or those standing on the shore throw out ropes to those who are struggling for their lives in the sea. The similitude is thus incidentally a refutation of the objection that the Quran restricts its similitudes to such objects only as were known to the desert dwellers of Arabia.
It may be noted here that whenever the Quran speaks of the open or secret hostility of the enemies of Islam, it exhorts Muslims to be strong of faith; for it is at such times that one is likely to waver and show weakness in resolution. Thus, after referring to the hostility of the People of the Book (3:100, 101) the Quran exhorts Muslims: (1) to fear God as He should be feared (3:103); (2) to be constant in obedience to God (3:103); and (3) to hold fast to the rope of God and preserve themselves from disunion (3:104).
The words, remember the favour of Allah, signify that as one can properly appreciate a boon of God only when one experiences the disadvantages that result from its absence, so the Quran reminds Muslims of the discord and enmity that existed between them before they became united in Islam.
The words, He united your hearts in love, show that according to Islam it is no great virtue to bear no malice or hatred to others. Nor does Islam inculcate a life of seclusion and detachment. What it requires is positive love for, and active sympathy with, fellow beings. One who is devoid of this is really devoid of true faith. (close)
وَلۡتَکُنۡ مِّنۡکُمۡ اُمَّۃٌ یَّدۡعُوۡنَ اِلَی الۡخَیۡرِ وَ یَاۡمُرُوۡنَ بِالۡمَعۡرُوۡفِ وَ یَنۡہَوۡنَ عَنِ الۡمُنۡکَرِ ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۵﴾
وَلۡتَكُن مِّنكُمۡ أُمَّةٞ يَدۡعُونَ إِلَى ٱلۡخَيۡرِ وَيَأۡمُرُونَ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَيَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡمُنكَرِۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ
a. 3:111, 115; 7:158; 9:71; 31:18. (close)
452. Al-Khair here signifies Islam, because goodness in general is included in the word Ma‘ruf occurring immediately after it. (close)
453. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said, 'If anyone of you sees anything evil, let him remove it with his hand. If he cannot do so with his hand, then let him forbid it with his tongue. If he cannot do even that, then let him at least hate it in his heart, and that is the weakest kind of faith' (Muslim). (close)
The word خیر (goodness) here signifies Islam, because goodness in general is included in the word معروف (equity) used immediately after it. In fact, the true Faith (Islam) is the only goodness in the true sense of the word. The verse purports to say that as by making you enter the fold of Islam God has delivered you from a pit of fire, you should also try to deliver others from the fire of disbelief.
The words, And let there be among you a body of men who should invite to goodness, do not mean that the duty of preaching is only confined to a few. What is meant is that, whereas all should try to preach and propagate the truth of Islam, there should be a party of men among Muslims who should be wholly and solely devoted to this work.
As for the method of preaching, the Quran says elsewhere, Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation and argue with them (the disbelievers) in a way that is best (16:126). And the Holy Prophet is reported to have said, "If anyone of you sees anything evil, let him remove it with his hand. If he cannot do it with his hand, then let him forbid it with his tongue. If he cannot do even that, then let him at least detest it in his mind, and that is the weakest kind of faith" (Muslim).
The verse also suggests a way by following which Muslims can maintain their unity. So long as a Muslim people have their attention concentrated on the preaching of Islam and doing good, they will live in peace among themselves, for disunion is mostly born of idleness and a false sense of security.
Each and every individual Muslim is not enjoined here to devote himself wholly to the preaching of Islam; for if it were so, Muslims could not earn their livelihood nor take part in other healthy pursuits of life. So, though all must contribute their quota, only a section of the community is required to devote itself exclusively to the work of preaching. (close)