قُلۡ یٰۤاَہۡلَ الۡکِتٰبِ لِمَ تَکۡفُرُوۡنَ بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ ٭ۖ وَ اللّٰہُ شَہِیۡدٌ عَلٰی مَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۹۹﴾
قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ لِمَ تَكۡفُرُونَ بِـَٔايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱللَّهُ شَهِيدٌ عَلَىٰ مَا تَعۡمَلُونَ
a. 3:71. (close)
445. Shahid means, one who gives information of what he witnesses; one possessing much knowledge; a person slain in the way of God. When used about God the word signifies, He from Whose knowledge nothing is hidden (Lane). (close)
a. 3:71. (close)
385. Important Words:
شھید (Watchful), for which see also 2:24, is here used for the first time in connection with God. The word is derived from شھد which means, he gave information or decisive information of what he had witnessed or seen; he declared what he knew; he gave testimony or evidence; he saw or watched or witnessed or beheld a thing; he was present at a place. شھیدmeans, one who gives information of, or declares, what he knows or has seen or witnessed; one who gives decisive information; one who sees or beholds a thing; witness or an eye-witness; one possessing much know-ledge; a martyr slain in the cause of God. When used about God the word signifies, the Faithful; the Trusty in testimony; He from Whose know-ledge nothing is hidden (Lane). Other similar words used by the Quran about God are (1) وکیل meaning Guardian (e.g. 3:174); and (2) رقیب meaning Watcher (e.g. 4:2); and (3) حفیظ also meaning Guardian or Keeper (e.g. 11:58 and 4:81). See also 2:24; 4:2; 3:174 and 4:81.
The words لم تکفرون rendered as, why deny ye, may also be rendered as, why are you ungrateful respecting…
The institution of Pilgrimage and other forms of worship prescribed by Islam are all for the good of man, but in his ignorance he refuses to recognize, or be thankful for, this good. (close)
قُلۡ یٰۤاَہۡلَ الۡکِتٰبِ لِمَ تَصُدُّوۡنَ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ مَنۡ اٰمَنَ تَبۡغُوۡنَہَا عِوَجًا وَّ اَنۡتُمۡ شُہَدَآءُ ؕ وَ مَا اللّٰہُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۰﴾
قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ لِمَ تَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ مَنۡ ءَامَنَ تَبۡغُونَهَا عِوَجٗا وَأَنتُمۡ شُهَدَآءُۗ وَمَا ٱللَّهُ بِغَٰفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُونَ
b. 7:46, 87; 8:48; 9:34; 14:4; 22:26. (close)
446. The meaning is: 'You desire that there should appear crookedness in Islam;' or "you desire to pervert its tenets." (close)
a. 7:46, 87; 8:48; 9:34; 14:4; 22:26. (close)
The words تبغونھا عوجا (seeking to make it crooked) may also be translated as, you seek in it crookedness, i.e. you desire that there should appear crookedness in Islam; or you desire to turn the truths of this religion from their real import and to pervert its tenets. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِنۡ تُطِیۡعُوۡا فَرِیۡقًا مِّنَ الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡکِتٰبَ یَرُدُّوۡکُمۡ بَعۡدَ اِیۡمَانِکُمۡ کٰفِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۰۱﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِن تُطِيعُواْ فَرِيقٗا مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ يَرُدُّوكُم بَعۡدَ إِيمَٰنِكُمۡ كَٰفِرِينَ
c. 2:110; 3:150. (close)
b. 2:110; 3:150. (close)
The words, any party of those who have been given the Book, refer to that party of the People of the Book who were most hostile to Islam, there being a section of them who had turned believers and others who were indifferent. Muslims have already been warned of this danger in 2:110. (close)
وَ کَیۡفَ تَکۡفُرُوۡنَ وَ اَنۡتُمۡ تُتۡلٰی عَلَیۡکُمۡ اٰیٰتُ اللّٰہِ وَ فِیۡکُمۡ رَسُوۡلُہٗ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّعۡتَصِمۡ بِاللّٰہِ فَقَدۡ ہُدِیَ اِلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسۡتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۰۲﴾٪
وَكَيۡفَ تَكۡفُرُونَ وَأَنتُمۡ تُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡكُمۡ ءَايَٰتُ ٱللَّهِ وَفِيكُمۡ رَسُولُهُۥۗ وَمَن يَعۡتَصِم بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدۡ هُدِيَ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٖ مُّسۡتَقِيمٖ
a. 4:147, 176. (close)
447. (1) Whoever preserves himself from sin by acting upon God’s commandments; (2) whoever establishes a connection with Allah and cleaves firmly to Him. (close)
a. 4:147, 176. (close)
The words, who holds fast to Allah, have two meanings: (1) whoever preserves himself from sin by acting on God’s commandments; (2) whoever connects himself with Allah and cleaves firmly to Him, thereby securing for himself an everlasting source of rise and progress. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ حَقَّ تُقٰتِہٖ وَ لَا تَمُوۡتُنَّ اِلَّا وَ اَنۡتُمۡ مُّسۡلِمُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۳﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِۦ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنتُم مُّسۡلِمُونَ
b. 2:133. (close)
448. As the hour of death is not known, one can be sure of dying in a state of resignation to God only when one remains continually in that condition; hence the expression signifies that one should always remain obedient to God. (close)
b. 2:133. (close)
As the spiritual degradation of the Jews was due to lack of تقوی or God-fearingness, Muslims are warned to be ever-watchful in this respect. The words rendered as, Fear Allah as He should be feared, embody a strong appeal in favour of تقوی (righteousness) and signify that on the one hand we should have a firm conviction that if we are remiss, God will visit our sins with His punishment; and on the other we should also have a firm faith in His mercy and forgiveness. There is a tradition related by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas which explains the above words as meaning: "God should be obeyed, and should not be disobeyed. We should be grateful to Him, and should not show ingratitude to Him. We should remember Him and not forget Him" (Kathir). The words also mean that one should not fear any reproach with respect to God, and should observe equity for God’s sake even if by doing so one may have to injure one’s own self or one’s parents or children or other near relatives.
The words, let not death overtake you except when you are in a state of submission, mean that we should be ever resigned to the will of God, so that when death overtakes us, it should find us obedient and resigned to His will. As the hour of death is not known, one can be sure of dying in a state of resignation to God only if one is continually in that condition, hence the expression means that one should always remain obedient to God. It may also mean that our love of obedience to God should be such that He out of regard for our feelings, may not let death come upon us at a time when we are not perfectly resigned to Him. (close)
وَ اعۡتَصِمُوۡا بِحَبۡلِ اللّٰہِ جَمِیۡعًا وَّ لَا تَفَرَّقُوۡا ۪ وَ اذۡکُرُوۡا نِعۡمَتَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اِذۡ کُنۡتُمۡ اَعۡدَآءً فَاَلَّفَ بَیۡنَ قُلُوۡبِکُمۡ فَاَصۡبَحۡتُمۡ بِنِعۡمَتِہٖۤ اِخۡوَانًا ۚ وَ کُنۡتُمۡ عَلٰی شَفَا حُفۡرَۃٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَاَنۡقَذَکُمۡ مِّنۡہَا ؕ کَذٰلِکَ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ اٰیٰتِہٖ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تَہۡتَدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۴﴾
وَٱعۡتَصِمُواْ بِحَبۡلِ ٱللَّهِ جَمِيعٗا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُواْۚ وَٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَتَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ إِذۡ كُنتُمۡ أَعۡدَآءٗ فَأَلَّفَ بَيۡنَ قُلُوبِكُمۡ فَأَصۡبَحۡتُم بِنِعۡمَتِهِۦٓ إِخۡوَٰنٗا وَكُنتُمۡ عَلَىٰ شَفَا حُفۡرَةٖ مِّنَ ٱلنَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُم مِّنۡهَاۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَهۡتَدُونَ
c. 3:106; 6:160; 8:47. (close)
449. Habl means, a rope or cord with which a thing is tied or made fast; a bond; a covenant or compact; an obligation by which one becomes responsible for the safety of a person or thing; alliance and protection (Lane). The Holy Prophet is reported to have said, 'The Book of God is the rope of Allah which has been extended from the heavens to the earth' (Jarir, iv. 30). (close)
d. 2:232. (close)
e. 8:64. (close)
450. It will be hard to find a more disunited people than the Arabs before the Holy Prophet appeared among them, but, at the same time, human history fails to provide any example of the bond of loving brotherhood into which the Arabs were united by the noble teaching and example of their great Master. (close)
451. The words "on the brink of a pit of fire" signify the internecine warfare in which the Arabs were constantly engaged and which was consuming their manpower. (close)
a. 3:106; 6:160; 8:47. (close)
b. 2:232. (close)
c. 8:64. (close)
390. Important Words:
حبل (rope). They say حبله i.e. he bound or tied him with a rope or cord. حبل الصید means, he caught the game with a snare or net. حبلت المرأة means, the woman became pregnant. حبل means, a rope or cord or anything with which a thing is tied or made fast; a bond or cause of union or link of connection, such as a bond of love or friendship; mutual connection by such a bond; a covenant or compact; an obligation by which one becomes responsible for the safety of a person or thing; a promise or assurance of security or safety; an artery, vein or nerve (Lane). It also means alliance and protection (Aqrab).
Another cause of the spiritual degradation of the Israelites was that they did not remain united but split up into sections, finding fault with one another. The verse warns Muslims against that danger. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "The Book of God is the rope of Allah which has been extended from the heavens to the earth" (Jarir, iv. 30). Broadly speaking, there are three things which may be taken to have been here meant by the rope of God, by holding fast to which Muslims may remain united and be safe against disunion and disruption: (1) the Quran; (2) the Messenger of God; (3) the Successors to the Messenger of God.
The similitude may have reference to sea life. Ropes are thrown to save the life of a drowning man. When a man falls into the sea or when a boat is wrecked by a storm, people in the boat or those standing on the shore throw out ropes to those who are struggling for their lives in the sea. The similitude is thus incidentally a refutation of the objection that the Quran restricts its similitudes to such objects only as were known to the desert dwellers of Arabia.
It may be noted here that whenever the Quran speaks of the open or secret hostility of the enemies of Islam, it exhorts Muslims to be strong of faith; for it is at such times that one is likely to waver and show weakness in resolution. Thus, after referring to the hostility of the People of the Book (3:100, 101) the Quran exhorts Muslims: (1) to fear God as He should be feared (3:103); (2) to be constant in obedience to God (3:103); and (3) to hold fast to the rope of God and preserve themselves from disunion (3:104).
The words, remember the favour of Allah, signify that as one can properly appreciate a boon of God only when one experiences the disadvantages that result from its absence, so the Quran reminds Muslims of the discord and enmity that existed between them before they became united in Islam.
The words, He united your hearts in love, show that according to Islam it is no great virtue to bear no malice or hatred to others. Nor does Islam inculcate a life of seclusion and detachment. What it requires is positive love for, and active sympathy with, fellow beings. One who is devoid of this is really devoid of true faith. (close)
وَلۡتَکُنۡ مِّنۡکُمۡ اُمَّۃٌ یَّدۡعُوۡنَ اِلَی الۡخَیۡرِ وَ یَاۡمُرُوۡنَ بِالۡمَعۡرُوۡفِ وَ یَنۡہَوۡنَ عَنِ الۡمُنۡکَرِ ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۵﴾
وَلۡتَكُن مِّنكُمۡ أُمَّةٞ يَدۡعُونَ إِلَى ٱلۡخَيۡرِ وَيَأۡمُرُونَ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَيَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡمُنكَرِۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ
a. 3:111, 115; 7:158; 9:71; 31:18. (close)
452. Al-Khair here signifies Islam, because goodness in general is included in the word Ma‘ruf occurring immediately after it. (close)
453. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said, 'If anyone of you sees anything evil, let him remove it with his hand. If he cannot do so with his hand, then let him forbid it with his tongue. If he cannot do even that, then let him at least hate it in his heart, and that is the weakest kind of faith' (Muslim). (close)
The word خیر (goodness) here signifies Islam, because goodness in general is included in the word معروف (equity) used immediately after it. In fact, the true Faith (Islam) is the only goodness in the true sense of the word. The verse purports to say that as by making you enter the fold of Islam God has delivered you from a pit of fire, you should also try to deliver others from the fire of disbelief.
The words, And let there be among you a body of men who should invite to goodness, do not mean that the duty of preaching is only confined to a few. What is meant is that, whereas all should try to preach and propagate the truth of Islam, there should be a party of men among Muslims who should be wholly and solely devoted to this work.
As for the method of preaching, the Quran says elsewhere, Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation and argue with them (the disbelievers) in a way that is best (16:126). And the Holy Prophet is reported to have said, "If anyone of you sees anything evil, let him remove it with his hand. If he cannot do it with his hand, then let him forbid it with his tongue. If he cannot do even that, then let him at least detest it in his mind, and that is the weakest kind of faith" (Muslim).
The verse also suggests a way by following which Muslims can maintain their unity. So long as a Muslim people have their attention concentrated on the preaching of Islam and doing good, they will live in peace among themselves, for disunion is mostly born of idleness and a false sense of security.
Each and every individual Muslim is not enjoined here to devote himself wholly to the preaching of Islam; for if it were so, Muslims could not earn their livelihood nor take part in other healthy pursuits of life. So, though all must contribute their quota, only a section of the community is required to devote itself exclusively to the work of preaching. (close)
وَ لَا تَکُوۡنُوۡا کَالَّذِیۡنَ تَفَرَّقُوۡا وَ اخۡتَلَفُوۡا مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَا جَآءَہُمُ الۡبَیِّنٰتُ ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۰۶﴾ۙ
وَلَا تَكُونُواْ كَٱلَّذِينَ تَفَرَّقُواْ وَٱخۡتَلَفُواْ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا جَآءَهُمُ ٱلۡبَيِّنَٰتُۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٞ
b. 3:104; 6:160; 8:47. (close)
454. The verse refers to disunity and dissensions among the People of the Book in order to bring home to Muslims the dangers of discord and disagreement. (close)
a. 3:104; 6:160; 8:47. (close)
The Quran does not merely give general philosophic teachings but actually refers to historical facts to bring home to the Faithful the gravity of the dangers that proved the ruin of peoples gone by. The verse, therefore, aptly refers to the dissensions of the People of the Book, and Muslims are enjoined to avoid them. The Holy Prophet says: "Whoso separates himself from the body of the Muslims even by the space of a span, throws off from his neck the rope of Muslim brotherhood (Dawud). Again, "whoso severs his connection (with the community of the Muslims) will be cast into the Fire" (Tirmidhi, ch. on Fitan). (close)
یَّوۡمَ تَبۡیَضُّ وُجُوۡہٌ وَّ تَسۡوَدُّ وُجُوۡہٌ ۚ فَاَمَّا الَّذِیۡنَ اسۡوَدَّتۡ وُجُوۡہُہُمۡ ۟ اَکَفَرۡتُمۡ بَعۡدَ اِیۡمَانِکُمۡ فَذُوۡقُوا الۡعَذَابَ بِمَا کُنۡتُمۡ تَکۡفُرُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۷﴾
يَوۡمَ تَبۡيَضُّ وُجُوهٞ وَتَسۡوَدُّ وُجُوهٞۚ فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡوَدَّتۡ وُجُوهُهُمۡ أَكَفَرۡتُم بَعۡدَ إِيمَٰنِكُمۡ فَذُوقُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَكۡفُرُونَ
c. 10:27, 28; 39:61; 80:39-43. (close)
455. The Qur’an has explained "whiteness" and "blackness" as emblematic of "happiness" and "sorrow" respectively (3:107, 108; 75:23-25; 80:39-41). When a person does a deed for which he is praised, the Arabs say of him: Ibyadda Wajhu-hu, i.e. the face of such a one has become white. And when he does a deed for which he is reproached, it is said of him Iswadda Wajhu-hu, i.e. his face has become black. (close)
a. 10:27, 28; 39:61; 80:39-43. (close)
393. Important Words:
تبیض (shall be white) is derived from باض. They say باض فلانا i.e. he exceeded him in whiteness. ابیض means, he or it turned white. بیاض signifies whiteness, and ابیض means white (Aqrab). The expression ابیض وجھه means, his face became white, meaning, his face became expressive of joy, i.e. he became joyful (Lane).
تسود (will turn black) is derived from ساد. They say ساد فلانا i.e. he exceeded him in blackness. اسود means, he or it turned black. سواد means, blackness, and اسود means, black (Aqrab). اسود وجھه means, his face became black, meaning, his face became expressive of grief or sorrow (Lane). Whiteness is sometimes used to denote a good and happy condition; while blackness is a token of a bad condition and failure (Aqrab under بیاض).
The Quran itself explains "whiteness" and "blackness" as emb-lematic of "happiness" and "sorrow", respectively (see 3:108 and 16:59 and also compare 75:23 and 80:39, 40). Similarly, when a person does a deed for which he is praised, the Arabs say of him ابیض وجه فلان i.e. the face of such a one has become white or قد بیض الله وجه فلان i.e. God has made the face of such a one white. On the contrary, if a person does a deed for which he is reproached, it is said of him اسود وجھه i.e. his face has become black, or سود الله وجھه i.e. Allah has blackened his face. Thus, the words یوم تبیض وجوہ و تسود وجوہ (lit. when some faces shall turn white and some faces shall turn black) mean, when some will be praised for their deeds, and some will be reproached; or they mean, when some will rejoice and some will grieve.
The present verse speaks of discord and disagreement mentioned in the preceding verse as disbelief; for the ultimate end of such disagreement and dissension is nothing but disbelief. (close)
وَ اَمَّا الَّذِیۡنَ ابۡیَضَّتۡ وُجُوۡہُہُمۡ فَفِیۡ رَحۡمَۃِ اللّٰہِ ؕ ہُمۡ فِیۡہَا خٰلِدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰۸﴾
وَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ٱبۡيَضَّتۡ وُجُوهُهُمۡ فَفِي رَحۡمَةِ ٱللَّهِۖ هُمۡ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ
a. 10:27. (close)
b. 10:27. (close)