بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِِ

Al Islam

The Official Website of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
Muslims who believe in the Messiah,
Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani(as)Muslims who believe in the Messiah, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani (as), Love for All, Hatred for None.

CHAPTER 4

An-Nisa'

(Revealed after Hijrah)

Date and Place of Revelation

This Surah consists of 177 verses including Bismillah. ‘A’ishah is reported by Bukhari to have said that this chapter was revealed when, after her marriage to the Holy Prophet, she had come into his house; and as ‘A’ishah came into the Holy Prophet’s house sometime after the Hijrah, the chapter proves to be wholly of Medinite origin. Qurtubisays that the verse, Verily Allah commands you to give over the trusts to those entitled to them (4:58), belongs to Meccan revelations and was revealed at the time of the Fall of Mecca. This is a case of faulty nomenclature, for everything revealed after Hijrah is Medinite, even though it may have been revealed at Mecca. The Rev. E. M. Wherry, Nöldeke and some other European scholars are agreed on its being of the Medinite period and regard it as having been revealed between the fourth and fifth years of the Hijrah. Nöldeke, however, is inclined to place some of its verses among the Meccan revelations because in them, "Jews are referred to in a friendly spirit." Wherry thinks that the words, "O people" occurring in verse 134 of this Surah show that it was revealed at Mecca because this form of address has been exclusively used in the Meccan Surahs.

The fact, however, remains that this is a Medinite Surah and some of its parts were revealed very late in the Holy Prophet’s ministry. European scholars are wrong in inferring from the form of address, viz. "O people", used in this Surah that some of its verses belong to the Meccan period. Similarly, their inference that, because in some of its verses Jews are referred to in a friendly spirit, therefore, those verses must belong to the Meccan period, carries no weight. The inference that the above-mentioned form of address was used only at Mecca has no basis in as much as this form of address has also been used in Surahs, which by the consensus of the opinion of scholars belong to the Medinite period, viz. chapters Al-Baqarah and 
Al-Hajj (e.g. 2:22; 22:2), though because this form of address has been used in these Surahs, these European scholars regard some of their verses also as having been revealed at Mecca. But to say that because a certain verse uses the expression: "O people" it must, in spite of all contrary evidence belong to the Meccan period is anything but reasonable.

The truth, however, is that as long as the Holy Prophet was at Mecca, very few of the commandments of the Shari‘ah had been revealed and the people of Mecca were the principal addressees. Therefore, in the Meccan Surahs,the words: "O people" were frequently employed as a form of address. But with the Holy Prophet’s coming to Medina, Muslims became welded into an organised community; therefore, at Medina the form of address: "O people" generally became changed into: "O ye who believe". This change was quite natural. But with the Prophet’s advent to Medina, disbelievers were not altogether ignored. At Medina also they used to enquire of the Holy Prophet about many things and their questions were answered and those answers are recorded in the Quran. So whenever in Medina an answer to a certain question was revealed in which along with Muslims, disbelievers were also addressed, the form of address consisted of the words: "O people." But when the revealed answer or commandment concerned only Muslims, the words: "O ye who believe" were used. So there was no reason for the words: "O people" to be definitely given up at Medina; and to fix Mecca as the place of revelation of a specific Surah because of these words having been used in it is simply arbitrary.

Similarly, the inference of Nöldeke that because Jews have been referred to in some of the verses of this Surahin a friendly spirit, therefore these verses must belong to the Meccan period, is ill-based. In the verses which deal with Jews, the Quran maintains an attitude of uniform fairness to them whether those verses belong to the Meccan or the Medinite period. For instance, it is in a Medinite Surah, i.e. Al-Baqarah, that occurs the verse, And the Jews say, 'the Christians stand on nothing,' and the Christians say, 'the Jews stand on nothing' while they both read the same Book (2:114). In this verse the Quran has been scrupulously fair towards both Jews and Christians. So the argument that because in a certain verse Jews have been referred to in a friendly spirit, therefore that verse must necessarily belong to the Meccan period, carries no weight.

Subject Matter

As in Al-e-‘Imran, the Christian faith constitutes the main theme of this Surah. But in this Surah greater space has been assigned to a comparison of the detailed teachings of the two religions, Islam and Christianity, with special reference to the progress and domination of Christianity in the Latter Days. As in the Latter Days, Christianity was loudly to profess and proclaim its superiority over Islam on the basis of its teachings regarding women, this chapter largely deals with them, and even a cursory glance over these teachings establishes the fact that even in this respect, Islamic teachings are infinitely superior to those of Christianity. And as the subject of orphans is intimately connected with that of women, it has also received special mention here. The Surah is the first among Divine revelations to safeguard the rights of women. They are not only given the right of inheritance along with men, but have also been declared to be the masters and arbiters of their property.

The second main topic dealt with in this chapter is that of hypocrisy. As in the latter days Christianity was to gain worldwide predominance and a large number of Muslims were to live under Christian governments and, as a result of their subservience to Christian rulers and their fear of Christian criticism of Islam, they were to adopt a hypocritical attitude towards their own faith, the subject of hypocrisy has been particularly treated in this chapter along with that of women, and light is thrown on the depths to which a hypocrite sinks spiritually and temporally. Pointed reference has also been made to the ultimate success of Islam, when shame and abasement will seize these weak-hearted and hypocritical Muslims who feared men more than their Creator.

Towards the end of the Surah a somewhat detailed mention is made of the crucifixion of Jesus, and it is declared that the religious predominance of Christianity is due to the belief that Jesus is not dead but living. This belief is shown to be utterly unfounded because as Jesus is proved not to have died on the cross, but to have died a natural death, the question of his resurrection simply does not arise. In the concluding verses of this Surah, it is declared that this false doctrine will in the end be obliterated and the doctrine of the Oneness of God will reign supreme in the world.

4. النساء

یہ سورت ہجرت کے تیسرے اور پانچویں سال کے درمیان نازل ہوئی۔ بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی ایک سو ستتر آیات ہیں۔ اس سورت کا آغاز ایک ایسی آیت سے ہوتا ہے جس میں نفسِ واحدہ سے انسانی پیدائش کے معجزانہ آغاز کا ذکر ملتا ہے۔ گویا لفظ آدم کی ایک اَور تفسیر پیش فرمائی گئی ہے۔ 

 اس سورت کا اس سے پہلی سورت کے اختتام سے گہرا تعلق ہے۔ گزشتہ سورت کے اختتام پر صبر کی تعلیم کے علاوہ یہ تعلیم دی گئی تھی کہ ایک دوسرے کو صبر کی تلقین بھی کرتے رہو اور اپنی سرحدوں کی بھی حفاظت کرو۔ یہاں سورۃ النساء میں دشمن کے ساتھ ہولناک جنگوں کا ذکر ہے جس کے نتیجہ میں کثرت سے عورتیں بیوہ اور بچے یتیم رہ جائیں گے۔ جنگوں کے نتیجہ میں پیدا ہونے والی مشکلات اور بیواؤں اور یتیموں کے حقوق کے تعلق میں اس کا ایک حل ایک سے زیادہ شادیاں کرنے کی صورت میں پیش فرمایا گیا ہے بشرطیکہ مومن انصاف پر قائم رہ سکے۔ اگر انصاف پر قائم نہیں رہ سکتا تو صرف ایک شادی پر ہی اکتفا کرنی ہوگی۔ 

اس سورت میں اسلامی نظام وراثت کے بنیادی اصول اور ان کی تفصیل بیان ہوئی ہے۔ اسی سورت میں یہودیت اور عیسائیت کے باہمی رشتے کا ذکر اور حضرت عیسیٰ علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کی بعثت کا ذکر اس طرح ملتا ہے کہ جب یہودنے اپنے سب عہدوں کو توڑ دیا اور سخت دل ہوگئے اور حضرت عیسیٰ علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کو صلیب پر چڑھا کر مارنے کی کوشش کی تو کس طرح اللہ تعالیٰ نے صلیب کے ذریعہ حضرت عیسیٰ علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کو قتل کرنے کی اُن کی کوشش کو ناکام و نامراد فرما دیا اور حضرت عیسیٰ علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کا ان تمام الزامات سے بری ہونا ثابت فرمایا جو آپ پر اور آپ کی پاکدامن والدہ پر یہود کی طرف سے لگائے گئے تھے۔ 

اس سورت میں حضرت عیسیٰ علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کی ہجرت کا بھی ذکر ملتا ہے اور یہ پیشگوئی مذکور ہے کہ اہلِ کتاب میں سے کوئی فریق بھی ایسا نہیں رہے گا جو حضرت عیسیٰ علیہ الصلوٰۃ والسلام کی صداقت اور آپؑ کی طبعی وفات پر ایمان نہ لے آیا ہو۔ یہ پیشگوئی افغانستان کے رستے کشمیر میں آپ کی ہجرت کے ذریعہ من و عن پوری ہوگئی۔


[4:1]   
English
In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.
اُردو
اللہ کے نام کے ساتھ جو بے انتہا رحم کرنے والا، بِن مانگے دینے والا (اور) بار بار رحم کرنے والا ہے۔

[4:2]   
English
O ye people! fear your Lord, Who created you from a single soul and created therefrom its mate, and from them twain spread many men and women; and fear Allah, in Whose name you appeal to one another, and fear Him particularly respecting ties of relationship. Verily, Allah watches over you.
اُردو
اے لوگو! اپنے ربّ کا تقویٰ اختیار کرو جس نے تمہیں ایک جان سے پیدا کیا اور اسی سے اس کا جوڑا بنایا اور پھر ان دونوں میں سے مَردوں اور عورتوں کو بکثرت پھیلا دیا۔ اور اللہ سے ڈرو جس کے نام کے واسطے دے کر تم ایک دوسرے سے مانگتے ہو اور رِحموں (کے تقاضوں) کا بھی خیال رکھو۔ یقیناً اللہ تم پر نگران ہے۔

[4:3]   
English
And give to the orphans their property and exchange not the bad for the good, and devour not their property with your own. Surely, it is a great sin.
اُردو
اور یتامیٰ کو اُن کے اموال دو اور خبیث چیزیں پاک چیزوں کے تبادلہ میں نہ لیا کرو اور ان کے اموال اپنے اموال سے ملا کر نہ کھا جایا کرو۔ یقیناً یہ بہت بڑا گناہ ہے۔

[4:4]   
English
And if you fear that you will not be fair in dealing with the orphans, then marry of women as may be agreeable to you, two, or three, or four; and if you fear you will not deal justly, then marry only one or what your right hands possess. That is the nearest way for you to avoid injustice.
اُردو
اور اگر تم ڈرو کہ تم یتامیٰ کے بارے میں انصاف نہیں کرسکو گے تو عورتوں میں سے جو تمہیں پسند آئیں ان سے نکاح کرو۔ دو دو اور تین تین اور چار چار۔ لیکن اگر تمہیں خوف ہو کہ تم انصاف نہیں کر سکو گے تو پھر صرف ایک (کافی ہے) یا وہ جن کے تمہارے داہنے ہاتھ مالک ہوئے۔ یہ (طریق) قریب تر ہے کہ تم ناانصافی سے بچو۔

[4:5]   
English
And give the women their dowries willingly. But if they, of their own pleasure, remit to you a part thereof, then enjoy it as something pleasant and wholesome.
اُردو
اور عورتوں کو ان کے مہر دِلی خوشی سے ادا کرو۔ پھر اگر وہ اپنی دِلی خوشی سے اس میں سے کچھ تمہیں دینے پر راضی ہوں تو اُسے بلا تردّد شوق سے کھاؤ۔

[4:6]   
English
And give not to the foolish your property which Allah has made for you a means of support; but feed them therewith and clothe them and speak to them words of kind advice.
اُردو
اور بے عقلوں کے سپرد اپنے وہ اموال نہ کیا کرو جن کو اللہ نے تمہارے لئے (اقتصادی) قیام کا ذریعہ بنایا ہے۔ اور انہیں ان (اموال) میں سے کھلاؤ اور انہیں پہناؤ۔ اور ان سے اچھی بات کہا کرو۔

[4:7]   
English
And prove the orphans until they attain the age of marriage; then, if you find in them sound judgment, deliver to them their property; and devour it not in extravagance and haste against their growing up. And whoso is rich, let him abstain; and whoso is poor, let him eat thereof with equity. And when you deliver to them their property, then call witnesses in their presence. And Allah is sufficient as a Reckoner.
اُردو
اور یتیموں کو آزماتے رہو یہاں تک کہ وہ نکاح (کی عمر) کو پہنچ جائیں۔ پس اگر تم ان میں عقل (کے آثار) محسوس کرو تو ان کے اموال ان کو واپس کر دو۔ اور اس ڈر سے اِسراف اور تیزی کے ساتھ اُن کو نہ کھاؤ کہ کہیں وہ بڑے نہ ہو جائیں۔ اور جو امیر ہو تو چاہئے کہ وہ (ان کا مال کھانے سے) کلیۃً احتراز کرے۔ ہاں جو غریب ہو تو وہ مناسب طریق پر کھائے۔ پھر جب تم ان کی طرف اُن کے اموال لوٹاؤ تو اُن پر گواہ ٹھہرا لیا کرو۔ اور اللہ حساب لینے کے لئے کافی ہے۔

[4:8]   
English
For men is a share of that which parents and near relations leave; and for women is a share of that which parents and near relations leave, whether it be little or much — a determined share.
اُردو
مَردوں کےلئے اس ترکہ میں سے ایک حصّہ ہے جو والدین اور اقرباءنے چھوڑا۔ اور عورتوں کےلئے بھی اس ترکہ میں ایک حصّہ ہے جو والدین اور اقرباءنے چھوڑا۔ خواہ وہ تھوڑا ہو یا زیادہ۔ (یہ ایک) فرض کیا گیا حصّہ (ہے)۔

[4:9]   
English
And when other relations and orphans and the poor are present at the division of heritage, give them something therefrom and speak to them words of kindness.
اُردو
اور جب (ترکہ کی) تقسیم پر (ایسے) اقرباء(جن کو قواعد کے مطابق حصہ نہیں پہنچتا) اور یتیم اور مسکین بھی آجائیں تو کچھ اس میں سے ان کو بھی دو۔ اور ان سے اچھی بات کہا کرو۔

[4:10]   
English
And let those fear God who, if they should leave behind them their own weak offspring, would be anxious for them. Let them, therefore, fear Allah and let them say the right word.
اُردو
اور وہ لوگ اس بات سے ڈریں کہ اگر وہ اپنے پیچھے کمزور اولاد چھوڑ جاتے تو اُن کے بارہ میں خوف کھاتے۔ پس چاہئے کہ وہ اللہ سے ڈریں اور صاف سیدھی بات کہیں۔