Introduction of Ad-Dukhan
This is decidedly a Meccan Surah. All authorities including Ibn ‘Abbas and Ibn Zubair agree on this point. It belongs to the Middle Meccan period. Nöldeke assigns its revelation to the sixth or seventh year of the Call. It has 60 verses including Bismillah, and takes its name from v. 11.
In the closing verses of the previous Surah had been made a pathetic reference to the agonised outpourings of the Holy Prophet’s lacerated heart, that in spite of his best efforts his Message had failed to evoke adequate response in his people. In answer to his cries of agony, the Prophet was told to overlook their faults and invoke God’s mercy on them, for thus his prayer would draw Divine grace and would make them realise their mistake and listen to him. In the present Surah we are told that the Quran which fully explains the truths and realities of life has been revealed by God, the Lord of all Honour and Praise, and that it has been revealed in a period of spiritual darkness, which nevertheless is blessed. It will lead people to the right path. The revelation of the Quran is in accordance with the invariable practice and unalterable decree of God, that when mankind gropes in the Cimmerian darkness of moral turpitude, God raises a Messenger to guide and reform them. He has now sent the Holy Prophet that he might reclaim mankind from sin and evil.
The Surah is the fifth of the Ha Mim group. Like its predecessors it opens with the subject of revelation of the Quran, though in a different form and context. It commences with the theme that whenever darkness enshrouds the face of the earth, and humanity is stuck fast in the quagmire of moral turpitude, God raises a Messenger and gives him a new Message to reclaim and regenerate the world. Prophets of God had been appearing at such decadent times, and now that moral need of humanity was the greatest and spiritual darkness was most intense and overwhelming, God has raised the greatest of His Messengers and has given him the Last and Perfect Law—the Quran. This dark period in which the Holy Prophet has made his appearance has been called the blessed night, humanity’s "Night of Destiny". In it the foundations of man’s moral and spiritual future have been laid for all time to come. The advent of the Holy Prophet is indeed a great mercy of God. God has raised the Holy Prophet to give new life to a spiritually dead world. But, alas! those for whose spiritual resurrection he has been raised, doubt and deny his Message and oppose him. The Holy Prophet is told to wait till as a punishment for their sins his people are visited with a severe famine which will overwhelm Mecca and the surrounding country. And if they did not benefit from this punishment and did not repent, they will be seized with an affliction of even greater severity.
The Surah goes on to say that the advent of the Holy Prophet is not a novel phenomenon. Divine Messengers had appeared before him in the fulness of time, most prominent among them being Moses, who was raised to deliver the Israelites from servitude under Pharaoh, who threatened to kill him. Moses prayed to God to save him from Pharaoh and his cohorts. He was commanded by God to leave Egypt with the Israelites in the stillness of night and cross the sea at a time when it was calm, going over the dunes. Pharaoh pursued the Israelites with his mighty hosts but was drowned in the sea.
The Surah then gives a pathetic description of the dreadful fate that overtook Pharaoh and his people. "How many were the gardens," it says, "and the springs that they left behind, and the cornfields, and noble places and the comforts wherein they took delight." They were made to give up all these things of which another people took possession, and they went to their doom in disgrace and ignominy. Such was the terrible end to which Pharaoh and his people came. As against this, not only were the Israelites saved but God chose them for the bestowal of His special favours and blessings, and then in order to test their faith made them pass through severe trials and tribulations. This is how God brings about great transformation in the life of a people through a Prophet. The Prophet gives them new life after they are dead, morally and spiritually; and yet these people—the Meccans—say that once they are dead they will not be raised to new life. They are warned that if, in spite of the many signs they have witnessed, they persisted in rejecting the Divine Messenger, they will meet with no better fate than that which overtook the opponents of the Prophets of yore.
Next, the Surah says, that God has not created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, in sport. It is not for nothing that man came upon this earth. The be-all and end-all of his existence is not to eat, drink and be merry. Life has a great mission. It is for the fulfilment of this great mission that God sends His Messengers to the world. They lead man to God. But the evil-minded men do not believe in them. They reject their teachings and oppose and persecute them, and at last there comes the Day of Decision, when those who reject them make themselves the object of God’s wrath and those who give their allegiance to them deserve Divine favours and blessings. The Surahproceeds to give a graphic description of the punishment that will be meted out to the sinful, and of the gifts that will be bestowed upon the righteous. The former will be given the tree of Zaqqum to eat which, like molten copper will boil in their bellies. They will be seized and dragged into the blazing fire of Hell and boiling water will be poured on their heads. On the other hand, the righteous will be made to live in places of honour and security amid gardens and springs. They will be given raiments of silk to wear, and will sit on thrones, facing each other. They will be given all sorts of fruits to eat and will enjoy the company of righteous and faithful consorts. In fact, they will achieve the supreme object of their creation, i.e. God’s love and pleasure. All this they will get through the grace of God.
The Surah ends on the note that the principles and ideals of Islam have been taught in a most clear and convincing manner and yet if disbelievers refuse to accept the new Faith, let them wait till God gives His decision and the matter is settled.
یہ سورت مکی ہے اور بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی ساٹھ آیات ہیں۔
سورۃ الدّخان کا ابتدائی مضمون قرآن کریم کی ایک چھوٹی سی سورت’’ القدر‘‘ کے مضمون کی طرف اشارہ کر رہا ہے جو ان ابتدائی آیات کریمہ سے ظاہر ہے کہ ہم نے اس کتاب کو ایک ایسی اندھیری رات میں اتارا ہے جو بہت مبارک تھی کیونکہ اس اندھیرے کے بعد ہمیشہ کے اُجالے پھوٹنے والے تھے۔ اس رات ہر حکمت والی بات کا فیصلہ کیا جائے گا۔ گزشتہ سورت کے آخر پر یہ مضمون بیان فرمایا گیا تھا کہ مخالفوں کو لہو و لعب میں بھٹکنے دے اور ان سے اِعراض کر۔ وہ وقت قریب ہے جب واضح طور پر حق و باطل میں تفریق کردی جائے گی۔ چنانچہ اس سورت کے آغاز کی آیتوں میں اس بات کا ذکر فرما دیا گیا ہے۔ اس سورت کا نام ’’دُخان‘‘ رکھنے کی ایک بڑی وجہ یہ ہے کہ جن اندھیروں کا وہ شکارہیں ان کے بعد تو کوئی رحمت کی صبح نہیں پھوٹے گی بلکہ وہ اندھیرے ان کے لئے دخان کی طرح ان کا عذاب بڑھانے کا موجب بنیں گے۔ اس جگہ دخان سے ایٹمی دھوئیں کی طرف بھی اشارہ مراد ہوسکتا ہے جس کے سائے کے نیچے کوئی چیز بھی محفوظ نہیں رہ سکتی بلکہ طرح طرح کی ہلاکتوں کا شکار ہو جاتی ہے۔ چنانچہ جدید سائنسدانوں کی طرف سے یہ تنبیہ ہے کہ ایٹمی دھوئیں کے سائے کے نیچے زندگی کی ہرقسم مٹ جائے گی یہاں تک کہ زمین کے اندر د فن جراثیم بھی ہلاک ہو جائیں گے۔ اللہ تعالیٰ فرماتا ہے کہ جب ایسا ہوگا تب یہ اللہ تعالیٰ کی طرف متوجہ ہوں گے کہ اے اللہ! اس نہایت دردناک عذاب کو ہم سے ٹال دے۔ یہاں یہ پیشگوئی بھی فرمائی کہ اس قسم کا عذاب وقفہ وقفہ سے آئے گا۔ یعنی ایک عالمی جنگ کی ہلاکت خیزیوں کے بعد کچھ عرصہ مہلت دی جائے گی، اس کے بعد پھر اگلی عالمی جنگ نئی ہلاکتیں لے کر آئے گی۔ سورۃ الدّخان کے متعلق آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کو یہ علم دیا گیا تھا کہ اس کی پیشگوئیوں کے ظہور کا زمانہ دَجَّال کے ظہور سے تعلق رکھتا ہے۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. 1:1. (close)
a. See1:1. (close)
See. 1:1. (close)
b. 40:2. (close)
2691A. See 2592 and 2643. (close)
b. 40:2. (close)
See 40:2. (close)
وَ الۡکِتٰبِ الۡمُبِیۡنِ ۙ﴿ۛ۳﴾
See 26:3; 27:2 and 28:3. (close)
اِنَّاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنٰہُ فِیۡ لَیۡلَۃٍ مُّبٰرَکَۃٍ اِنَّا کُنَّا مُنۡذِرِیۡنَ ﴿۴﴾
إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَٰهُ فِي لَيۡلَةٖ مُّبَٰرَكَةٍۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُنذِرِينَ
c. 97:2. (close)
2692. Elsewhere in the Qur’an, it is called the "Night of Destiny" (97:2). According to authentic traditions of the Holy Prophet, the "Night of Destiny" generally falls in the last ten nights of Ramadan, the month in which the Qur’an began to be revealed (2:186), to be exact, on its 24th night (Musnad & Jarir). The blessed night, or the "Night of Destiny," is the Quranic metaphor for a period of time when spiritual darkness enshrouds the entire face of the earth and a Divine Reformer is raised to reclaim and regenerate corrupt humanity. The night which gave to humanity its greatest Teacher and the last and most perfect Divine Law was, indeed the "Night of Destiny" for it. This night may also be taken as covering the whole period in which the Qur’an continued to be revealed. (close)
In this verse the Quran is stated to have been revealed in the blessed night which elsewhere is called لیلة القدر i.e. the "Night of Destiny" (97:2). According to authentic traditions of the Holy Prophet, the "Night of Destiny" falls in the last ten nights of Ramadan, the month in which the Quran began to be revealed (2:186), to be exact, on its 24th night (Masnad & Jarir). The blessed night, or the "Night of Destiny", is the Quranic metaphor for a period of time when spiritual darkness enshrouds the entire face of the earth and mankind wallows in the quagmire of sin and iniquity. It is then that a Divine Reformer is raised to reclaim and regenerate corrupt humanity. The night which gave to humanity its greatest Teacher and the last and most perfect Divine Law, was indeed a "Night of Destiny" for it. The blessed night or the "Night of Destiny" may also be taken as covering the whole period in which the Quran continued to be revealed. (close)
فِیۡہَا یُفۡرَقُ کُلُّ اَمۡرٍ حَکِیۡمٍ ۙ﴿۵﴾
فِيهَا يُفۡرَقُ كُلُّ أَمۡرٍ حَكِيمٍ
d. 97:5. (close)
2693. The "Night of Destiny" or the time of the advent of a great Reformer heralds a new era, a new order of things, when, in fact, the future of humanity is decreed and decided. The time when the Qur’an was revealed was humanity’s greatest "Night of Destiny," for it was then that the foundations were laid of man’s destiny for all time to come. (close)
The "Night of Destiny" or the time of the advent of a great Divine Reformer heralds a new era, a new order of things, when, in fact, the future of humanity is decreed and decided. The time when the Quran was revealed was humanity’s greatest "Night of Destiny", for it was then that the foundations were laid of man’s destiny for all time to come. (close)
اَمۡرًا مِّنۡ عِنۡدِنَا ؕ اِنَّا کُنَّا مُرۡسِلِیۡنَ ۚ﴿۶﴾
أَمۡرٗا مِّنۡ عِندِنَآۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُرۡسِلِينَ
رَحۡمَۃً مِّنۡ رَّبِّکَ ؕ اِنَّہٗ ہُوَ السَّمِیۡعُ الۡعَلِیۡمُ ۙ﴿۷﴾
رَحۡمَةٗ مِّن رَّبِّكَۚ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ
The advent of a Divine Reformer or of a new revelation is indeed a great mercy of God to mankind. It seems that a Prophet or a Divine Reformer comes in response to the agonised cries of the righteous men of the time that God might raise one who should call and lead erring humanity to the way of righteousness; and God does raise a Prophet or a Divine Reformer in the fulness of time. Being All-Knowing, He knows full well when the spiritual needs of mankind call for the appearance of a Prophet. (close)
رَبِّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ وَ مَا بَیۡنَہُمَا ۘ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مُّوۡقِنِیۡنَ ﴿۸﴾
رَبِّ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَآۖ إِن كُنتُم مُّوقِنِينَ
a. 19:66; 37:6; 44:8. (close)
a. 19:66; 37:6; 44:8; 78:38. (close)
The verse points to the object of the appearance of a Divine Reformer which is to call men to God, the Lord of the heavens and the earth, Who gives life and causes death. (close)
لَاۤ اِلٰہَ اِلَّا ہُوَ یُحۡیٖ وَ یُمِیۡتُ ؕ رَبُّکُمۡ وَ رَبُّ اٰبَآئِکُمُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ ﴿۹﴾
لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحۡيِۦ وَيُمِيتُۖ رَبُّكُمۡ وَرَبُّ ءَابَآئِكُمُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ
b. 10:57; 57:3. (close)
b. 7:159; 10:57; 57:3. (close)
بَلۡ ہُمۡ فِیۡ شَکٍّ یَّلۡعَبُوۡنَ ﴿۱۰﴾
بَلۡ هُمۡ فِي شَكّٖ يَلۡعَبُونَ