Introduction of Al-Jathiyah
(Revealed before Hijrah)
This is the sixth of the seven Surahs belonging to the Ha Mim group. Like other Surahs of this group, it was revealed at Mecca. No exact date can be assigned to its revelation, although Nöldeke places it immediately after the 41stchapter. Naturally, it differs little in its subject matter from other Surahs of this group. It derives its title from verse 29.
Towards the close of the preceding Surah it was stated that righteous believers will reside in places of security where every kind of comfort will be at their disposal and they will enjoy eternal life, immune from death or degradation. The present Surah opens with the statement that just as timely rain gives new life to the dead earth; similarly, a Divine Prophet is raised when men become morally corrupt. As men had become corrupt, God had raised the Holy Prophet Muhammad to regenerate them. He is a true Messenger of God and not a liar or a sinful forger of lies.
Like the preceding five Surahs of the Ha Mim group the present Surah also opens with the subject of Quranic revelation and Divine Unity which constitutes its main theme, and adduces the creation of man and all animal and vegetable life on earth, the coming down of timely rain from the clouds which quickens the dead earth, the marvellous creation of the universe and the complete and consummate design and order that pervade and permeate it, as great signs to establish the existence of an unerring and All-Powerful Being behind all this and proceeds to invite disbelievers to consider, how the Wise Being Who has made such wonderful provision for man’s short and temporary life on earth, could have failed to make similar provision for his eternal life. This provision for man’s spiritual sustenance has been made in the revelation that descends upon God’s Messengers to lead him to the achievement of the goal of his life. The Surah then goes on to say that God does not allow the arrangement which He has made for the moral and spiritual regeneration of man to be interfered with. He does not allow a forger of lies to prosper. Sooner or later the impostor must come to grief. But the Holy Prophet’s mission is making uniform progress. This is proof positive of the fact that he is not a liar but a true Messenger of God. If, in spite of such patent and invincible proofs, disbelievers proudly persist in their disbelief, they are warned that their rejection of truth will not go unpunished.
The Surah then gives one more very cogent argument to prove and substantiate the claim of the Holy Prophet, viz. that all the forces of nature are working to support and further his cause. It is, therefore, bound to succeed, and the day is fast approaching when the powerful persecutors of helpless Muslims will suffer defeat and will be at the mercy of their victims. This fact will then constitute another proof of the truth of the Holy Prophet. Next, the Muslims are told that in the hour of victory and triumph they should forgive and forget and be merciful and generous to their opponents. Again, a brief reference is made to the Mosaic Dispensation. It is stated that the Quran has been revealed because the Torah failed to fully satisfy the spiritual needs of man. It also fulfils the prophecies made in the Torah about the advent of a Prophet from among the brethren of the Israelites (Deut. 18:18).All these facts have been stated for the guidance of honest seekers after truth.
The Surah further tells disbelievers that God, the Author of all life, is a Wise God. He has created man to serve a very great and noble object. If man’s life had no purpose, God would not have created him, and if death were the end of all life, the Wise Creator would be regarded as having done a purposeless thing by creating this vast universe. But God is far above all this. He has created man to achieve a noble goal. A better and fuller life which knows no end awaits him in the next world. It is only in this way that the creation of man can be justified. The disbelievers labour under a serious misapprehension, if they think that with the dissolution of man’s physical habitat his soul also dies and there is an end of him.
The Surah closes with a brief but very effective description of the Day of Judgement. Every people, it says, will be summoned to render an account of their actions. Their eyes, ears and other organs of the body will bear witness for or against them. Those who believed in God’s Messengers and did good works will be admitted into God’s mercy while evil consequences of the wicked deeds of those who rejected God’s Messengers and opposed and oppressed them will be made manifest to them and they will incur God’s wrath and burn in the fire of His displeasure. That will be the last Judgement Day. But even before that day disbelievers will have to give an explanation, in this very life, as to why they disobeyed and defied the Prophets of God. They are further warned that if they did not repent and mend their ways, they will be doomed to a life of failure and frustration. But the righteous servants of God will meet with success and prosperity, and this triumph of truth over falsehood will establish that "All praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the heavens, and Lord of the earth, the Lord of all the worlds; His is the Majesty in the heavens; and He is the Mighty, the Wise."
یہ سورت مکی ہے اور بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی اڑتیس آیات ہیں۔
اس سورت میں آیت نمبر۱۴ ایک ایسی آیت ہے جو زمین و آسمان میں مخفی اسرار سے اس رنگ میں پردہ اٹھا رہی ہے کہ پہلی کسی کتاب میں اس سے ملتی جلتی آیت نازل نہیں ہوئی۔ فرمایا کہ تمام تر جو زمین و آسمان میں ہے وہ انسان کے لئے مسخر کیا گیا ہے۔ پس وہ لوگ جو تفکّر کرتے ہیں یہ معلوم کرلیں گے کہ تمام اجرام سماوی کے اثرات انسان پر مترتب ہورہے ہیں۔ گویا کہ انسان ایک مائیکرو یونیورس (Micro Universe) ہے اور اس وسیع کائنات کا خلاصہ ہے۔ پھر اس ذکر کے بعد کہ قیامت ضرور قائم ہونے والی ہے، فرمایا کہ قیامت کے ہیبت ناک نشان کو دیکھ کر اور اپنے بدانجام کو اپنی آنکھوں کے سامنے پاتے ہوئے وہ گھٹنوں کے بل زمین پر جاپڑیں گے یعنی اللہ تعالیٰ کے جلال کے سامنے سجدہ ریز ہوکر یہ تمنا کریں گے کہ کاش وہ اس عذاب عظیم سے بچائے جاسکتے۔ پھر فرمایا کہ ہر امّت کا فیصلہ اس کی اپنی کتاب یعنی شریعت کے مطابق کیا جائے گا۔ اس سورت کی آخری آیت انسان کی نظر کو پھر اس امر کی طرف متوجہ کرتی ہے کہ ساری کائنات زبانِ حال سے اللہ کی حمد کر رہی ہے اور یہ کہ اسی کی تمام بڑائی ہے اور وہی کامل غلبہ والا اور صاحب حکمت ہے۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. 1:1. (close)
a. See1:1. (close)
See 1:1. (close)
b. 41:2. (close)
2705A. See 2592. (close)
b. 41:2. (close)
See 40:2. (close)
تَنۡزِیۡلُ الۡکِتٰبِ مِنَ اللّٰہِ الۡعَزِیۡزِ الۡحَکِیۡمِ ﴿۳﴾
تَنزِيلُ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡحَكِيمِ
c. 32:3; 36:6; 40:3; 41:3. (close)
See 42:4. (close)
اِنَّ فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ لَاٰیٰتٍ لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ؕ﴿۴﴾
إِنَّ فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ لَأٓيَٰتٖ لِّلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ
d. 2:165; 42:30. (close)
d. 2:165; 42:30. (close)
Like the preceding five chapters which have the abbreviated letters Ha Mim placed in their beginning, the present Surahopens with the subject of Quranic revelation and with its principal theme—the Unity of God. In this and the next two verses the creation of heavens and the earth, the beautiful and perfect design and order that exist in the universe, the creation of man and all the creatures that have been created on earth for his use and service, and that of the whole solar system, have been adduced as arguments to prove that there must be, and actually is, an All-Powerful and All-Knowing Being Who has created this universe and Who is controlling it. And then in the words, and the provision that Allah sends down from the heaven, whereby He quickens the earth after its death, the Surah proceeds to dwell upon the need and necessity of Divine revelation. The verse purports to say that when God has made such ample and complete provision for the physical needs and requirements of man as to have created heavens and earth and the whole universe for his benefit. He could not have neglected to make similar provision for his spiritual needs, and just as rain is sent down from the clouds to give new life to dead earth; similarly, Divine revelation is sent down from heaven for the spiritual regeneration and resuscitation of mankind. (close)
وَ فِیۡ خَلۡقِکُمۡ وَ مَا یَبُثُّ مِنۡ دَآبَّۃٍ اٰیٰتٌ لِّقَوۡمٍ یُّوۡقِنُوۡنَ ۙ﴿۵﴾
وَفِي خَلۡقِكُمۡ وَمَا يَبُثُّ مِن دَآبَّةٍ ءَايَٰتٞ لِّقَوۡمٖ يُوقِنُونَ
See preceding verse. (close)
وَ اخۡتِلَافِ الَّیۡلِ وَ النَّہَارِ وَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مِنۡ رِّزۡقٍ فَاَحۡیَا بِہِ الۡاَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِہَا وَ تَصۡرِیۡفِ الرِّیٰحِ اٰیٰتٌ لِّقَوۡمٍ یَّعۡقِلُوۡنَ ﴿۶﴾
وَٱخۡتِلَٰفِ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِ وَمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن رِّزۡقٖ فَأَحۡيَا بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِهَا وَتَصۡرِيفِ ٱلرِّيَٰحِ ءَايَٰتٞ لِّقَوۡمٖ يَعۡقِلُونَ
f. 16:66; 30:51. (close)
2706. Just as light follows darkness, similarly when spiritual darkness spreads over the entire earth, God creates a new light in the form of a Prophet or Divine Reformer to whom He reveals Himself. And just as winds carry pollen from male to female trees in order to fecundate them, in the same way the spiritually elevating ideas that emanate from a Divine Reformer impregnate the minds of believers and bring about spiritual revolution in them. (close)
a. 2:165; 3:191; 10:7. (close)
b. 16:66; 22:6; 30:51; 35:28; 39:22. (close)
This verse further says that as light follows darkness, similarly when spiritual darkness spreads over the entire earth, God creates new light in the form of a Prophet or Divine Reformer to whom He reveals Himself. And just as winds carry pollen from male to female trees in order to fecundate them, in the same way the spiritually elevating ideas that emanate from a Divine Reformer impregnate the minds of men and bring about spiritual revolution in them. (close)
تِلۡکَ اٰیٰتُ اللّٰہِ نَتۡلُوۡہَا عَلَیۡکَ بِالۡحَقِّ ۚ فَبِاَیِّ حَدِیۡثٍۭ بَعۡدَ اللّٰہِ وَ اٰیٰتِہٖ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ ﴿۷﴾
تِلۡكَ ءَايَٰتُ ٱللَّهِ نَتۡلُوهَا عَلَيۡكَ بِٱلۡحَقِّۖ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثِۭ بَعۡدَ ٱللَّهِ وَءَايَٰتِهِۦ يُؤۡمِنُونَ
2707. Ba‘d means, after; in spite of; contrary to or against; in addition to (Lane). (close)
3736. Important Words:
بعد (after) has a variety of meanings, some of which are: after or afterwards; behind; before; yet; now; in spite of; contrary to or against; in addition to, or furthermore (Lane & Aqrab).
حدیث (word) means, a piece of information; an announcement; an important news; an account; a narration; a tradition; a thing or matter that is talked of; any discourse that one hears (Lane & Aqrab). See also 4:43.
In view of different meanings of the words بعد and حدیث given above under Important Words, the expression فبأی حدیث بعدہ یؤمنون would mean:
(i) In what word or discourse, after rejecting the Word of Allah and after rejecting His signs, will they believe?
(ii) In what word, contrary to the Word of Allah and His signs, will they believe?
(iii) In what word, after the Word of Allah and His signs have come, will they believe?
(iv) In spite of the fact that the Word of God and His signs have come to them, they do not believe in them. Then in what else would they believe? (close)
وَیۡلٌ لِّکُلِّ اَفَّاکٍ اَثِیۡمٍ ۙ﴿۸﴾
وَيۡلٞ لِّكُلِّ أَفَّاكٍ أَثِيمٖ
Evidently a man who rejects clear signs of God is a forger and teller of lies and a committer of abominations and, therefore, legitimately deserves a painful punishment. (close)
یَّسۡمَعُ اٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ تُتۡلٰی عَلَیۡہِ ثُمَّ یُصِرُّ مُسۡتَکۡبِرًا کَاَنۡ لَّمۡ یَسۡمَعۡہَا ۚ فَبَشِّرۡہُ بِعَذَابٍ اَلِیۡمٍ ﴿۹﴾
يَسۡمَعُ ءَايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ تُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡهِ ثُمَّ يُصِرُّ مُسۡتَكۡبِرٗا كَأَن لَّمۡ يَسۡمَعۡهَاۖ فَبَشِّرۡهُ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٖ
وَ اِذَا عَلِمَ مِنۡ اٰیٰتِنَا شَیۡئَاۨ اتَّخَذَہَا ہُزُوًا ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمۡ عَذَابٌ مُّہِیۡنٌ ؕ﴿۱۰﴾
وَإِذَا عَلِمَ مِنۡ ءَايَٰتِنَا شَيۡـًٔا ٱتَّخَذَهَا هُزُوًاۚ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٞ مُّهِينٞ
a. 31:7. (close)
a. 2:232; 31:7. (close)