قُلۡ مَا کُنۡتُ بِدۡعًا مِّنَ الرُّسُلِ وَ مَاۤ اَدۡرِیۡ مَا یُفۡعَلُ بِیۡ وَ لَا بِکُمۡ ؕ اِنۡ اَتَّبِعُ اِلَّا مَا یُوۡحٰۤی اِلَیَّ وَ مَاۤ اَنَا اِلَّا نَذِیۡرٌ مُّبِیۡنٌ ﴿۱۰﴾
قُلۡ مَا كُنتُ بِدۡعٗا مِّنَ ٱلرُّسُلِ وَمَآ أَدۡرِي مَا يُفۡعَلُ بِي وَلَا بِكُمۡۖ إِنۡ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰٓ إِلَيَّ وَمَآ أَنَا۠ إِلَّا نَذِيرٞ مُّبِينٞ
a. 6:51; 7:204. (close)
c. 6:51; 7:204; 10:16; 33:3. (close)
بدعاً (new) is derived from بدع which means, he originated a thing or brought it into existence for the first time, the thing not having existed before, and not after the similitude of anything pre-existing. They say فلان بدع فی ھذا الامر i.e. such a one is the first person to do this thing. بدع means, first; new; a first doer of a thing; novel; a thing existing for the first time; an innovator (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:118.
The Holy Prophet is here enjoined to tell his people that his being raised as a Divine Messenger was not a new thing. He was no innovator. They were already conversant with the phenomenon of prophethood. God had been raising His Messengers during the ages when people forsook the path of righteousness. He had raised Prophets in their neighbourhood, and, now, He had selected them for the bestowal of this great gift. They should, therefore, judge the Holy Prophet by the criteria by which the former Prophets were judged. The Holy Prophet is further asked to tell them that though there was no doubt that ultimately his cause would triumph, he was not vouchsafed the knowledge of the vicissitudes of circumstances through which he himself would have to pass during the intervening period, nor did he know how God would treat his opponents. His mission was confined to delivering the Divine Message to them and to warn them that if they did not behave they would come to grief. (close)
قُلۡ اَرَءَیۡتُمۡ اِنۡ کَانَ مِنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ وَ کَفَرۡتُمۡ بِہٖ وَ شَہِدَ شَاہِدٌ مِّنۡۢ بَنِیۡۤ اِسۡرَآءِیۡلَ عَلٰی مِثۡلِہٖ فَاٰمَنَ وَ اسۡتَکۡبَرۡتُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَہۡدِی الۡقَوۡمَ الظّٰلِمِیۡنَ ﴿٪۱۱﴾
قُلۡ أَرَءَيۡتُمۡ إِن كَانَ مِنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ وَكَفَرۡتُم بِهِۦ وَشَهِدَ شَاهِدٞ مِّنۢ بَنِيٓ إِسۡرَـٰٓءِيلَ عَلَىٰ مِثۡلِهِۦ فَـَٔامَنَ وَٱسۡتَكۡبَرۡتُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهۡدِي ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
b. 11:18; 61:7. (close)
2722. The witness from among the Children of Israel is Moses. It is to his prophecy concerning the advent of the Holy Prophet that reference has been made in this verse. The prophecy is to this effect: 'I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren like unto thee, and will put My words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass that whosoever will not hearken unto My words, which he shall speak in My name, I will require it of him' (Deut. 18:18, 19). (close)
a. 11:18; 61:7. (close)
The witness from among the Children of Israel is Moses. It is to his prophecy concerning the advent of the Holy Prophet that reference has been made in this verse. The prophecy is to this effect:
I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren like unto thee, and will put My words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass that whosoever will not hearken unto My words which he shall speak in My name, I will require it of him (Deut. 18:l8-19).
See also 11:18.
The reference in the words 'a witness from among the Children of Israel' could not be, as generally misunderstood, to ‘Abdullah bin Salam, a learned Jew, because ‘Abdullah had accepted Islam in Medina while this Surah was revealed at Mecca. (close)
وَ قَالَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا لِلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَوۡ کَانَ خَیۡرًا مَّا سَبَقُوۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡہِ ؕ وَ اِذۡ لَمۡ یَہۡتَدُوۡا بِہٖ فَسَیَقُوۡلُوۡنَ ہٰذَاۤ اِفۡکٌ قَدِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۲﴾
وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَوۡ كَانَ خَيۡرٗا مَّا سَبَقُونَآ إِلَيۡهِۚ وَإِذۡ لَمۡ يَهۡتَدُواْ بِهِۦ فَسَيَقُولُونَ هَٰذَآ إِفۡكٞ قَدِيمٞ
c. 11:28. (close)
a. 11:28. (close)
One of the great impediments that stand in the way of truth being accepted by disbelievers is conceit and arrogance. Since it is the poor people and those not high placed in life and generally not conversant with current material sciences, who first accept the Divine Message, the so-called learned and wealthy people regard it beneath their dignity to associate themselves with the humble and lowly believers. It is to this proud attitude of disbelievers that the verse refers. It depicts conceited and arrogant disbelievers as saying to believers, that if there had been any good in the new Teaching, they (disbelievers), who were better placed in life and possessed better knowledge, could not have been outstripped by the former in accepting it, and that, as it was an old, old lie, they could not accept it. (close)
وَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہٖ کِتٰبُ مُوۡسٰۤی اِمَامًا وَّ رَحۡمَۃً ؕ وَ ہٰذَا کِتٰبٌ مُّصَدِّقٌ لِّسَانًا عَرَبِیًّا لِّیُنۡذِرَ الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوۡا ٭ۖ وَ بُشۡرٰی لِلۡمُحۡسِنِیۡنَ ﴿ۚ۱۳﴾
وَمِن قَبۡلِهِۦ كِتَٰبُ مُوسَىٰٓ إِمَامٗا وَرَحۡمَةٗۚ وَهَٰذَا كِتَٰبٞ مُّصَدِّقٞ لِّسَانًا عَرَبِيّٗا لِّيُنذِرَ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ وَبُشۡرَىٰ لِلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ
a. 28:44. (close)
b. 20:114; 42:8; 43:4. (close)
2723. Verse 11 supported by Deut. 18:18 referred to the appearance of a Prophet among the Ishmaelites. The present verse refers to Arabia as the scene of the advent of the Prophet who was to be the like of Moses and also to the Book (the Qur’an) which was to fulfil the prophecies contained in the Book of Moses and which also was to supersede it. The relevant prophecy is as follows: 'The burden upon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye travelling companies of Dedanim. The inhabitants of the land of Tema brought water to him that was thirsty, they presented with their bread him that fled' (Isa. 21:13-15). (close)
b. 28:44. (close)
c. 20:114; 42:8; 43:4. (close)
Verse 11 above referred to the appearance of a Prophet among the Ishmaelites. The present verse refers to Arabia as the scene of the advent of the Prophet who was to be the like of Moses and to the Book (the Quran) which was to fulfil the prophecies contained in the Book of Moses and which also was to supersede it. The relevant prophecy is as follows:
The burden upon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye travelling companies of Dedanim. The inhabitants of the land of Tema brought water to him that was thirsty, they presented with their bread him that fled (Isaiah 21:13-15).
See also 26:198. (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ قَالُوۡا رَبُّنَا اللّٰہُ ثُمَّ اسۡتَقَامُوۡا فَلَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یَحۡزَنُوۡنَ ﴿ۚ۱۴﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُواْ رَبُّنَا ٱللَّهُ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَقَٰمُواْ فَلَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ
c. 29:70; 41:31. (close)
2724. What fear or grief, even under the severest trial, can possibly disturb the equanimity and mental poise of a true believer, who possesses an invincible faith that Allah, the Creator and Lord of the whole universe, is at his back? (close)
a. 41:31. (close)
What fear or grief, even under the severest trial, can possibly disturb the equanimity and mental poise of a true believer, who possesses an invincible faith that Allah, the Creator and Lord of the whole universe, is at his back? It is this certain faith that has caused the Faithful in all ages to lay down their lives smilingly in the cause of Truth. Such believers have been called محسنین (doers of good) in verse 13 above. They abide in the Garden of heavenly bliss and bask in the sun of God’s love. See also 41:31. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ اَصۡحٰبُ الۡجَنَّۃِ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَا ۚ جَزَآءًۢ بِمَا کَانُوۡا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ ﴿۱۵﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ أَصۡحَٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا جَزَآءَۢ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ
وَ وَصَّیۡنَا الۡاِنۡسَانَ بِوَالِدَیۡہِ اِحۡسٰنًا ؕ حَمَلَتۡہُ اُمُّہٗ کُرۡہًا وَّ وَضَعَتۡہُ کُرۡہًا ؕ وَ حَمۡلُہٗ وَ فِصٰلُہٗ ثَلٰثُوۡنَ شَہۡرًا ؕ حَتّٰۤی اِذَا بَلَغَ اَشُدَّہٗ وَ بَلَغَ اَرۡبَعِیۡنَ سَنَۃً ۙ قَالَ رَبِّ اَوۡزِعۡنِیۡۤ اَنۡ اَشۡکُرَ نِعۡمَتَکَ الَّتِیۡۤ اَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَیَّ وَ عَلٰی وَالِدَیَّ وَ اَنۡ اَعۡمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرۡضٰہُ وَ اَصۡلِحۡ لِیۡ فِیۡ ذُرِّیَّتِیۡ ۚؕ اِنِّیۡ تُبۡتُ اِلَیۡکَ وَ اِنِّیۡ مِنَ الۡمُسۡلِمِیۡنَ ﴿۱۶﴾
وَوَصَّيۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَٰنَ بِوَٰلِدَيۡهِ إِحۡسَٰنًاۖ حَمَلَتۡهُ أُمُّهُۥ كُرۡهٗا وَوَضَعَتۡهُ كُرۡهٗاۖ وَحَمۡلُهُۥ وَفِصَٰلُهُۥ ثَلَٰثُونَ شَهۡرًاۚ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُۥ وَبَلَغَ أَرۡبَعِينَ سَنَةٗ قَالَ رَبِّ أَوۡزِعۡنِيٓ أَنۡ أَشۡكُرَ نِعۡمَتَكَ ٱلَّتِيٓ أَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَٰلِدَيَّ وَأَنۡ أَعۡمَلَ صَٰلِحٗا تَرۡضَىٰهُ وَأَصۡلِحۡ لِي فِي ذُرِّيَّتِيٓۖ إِنِّي تُبۡتُ إِلَيۡكَ وَإِنِّي مِنَ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ
d. 6:152; 17:24; 29:9. (close)
2725. In 31:15, it was stated that the weaning of a child takes two years, but in this verse the combined period of pregnancy and suckling is given as thirty months which leaves six months as the period of gestation; and that seems to be the period during which a pregnant woman feels the burden of pregnancy, the fourth month being the time from which she begins to have such a feeling. (close)
2726. The word Ashudd seems to have been used in the sense of spiritual maturity here and in 12:23, and in the sense of intellectual and physical maturity in 6:153 and 18:83. (close)
a. 27:20. (close)
b. 6:152; 19:33; 29:9. (close)
c. 27:20. (close)
3770. Important Words:
أشد (full maturity) is derived from شد. They say شد الشیء i.e. he made the thing hard, firm, compact, strong, or he bound it fast. أشد (ashudd) means, physical and intellectual and also spiritual maturity as gives evidence of rectitude of conduct or course of life; firmness or soundness of judgement produced by experience. (Lane).
The word seems to have been used in the sense of spiritual maturity in the present verse and in 12:23; and in the sense of intellectual and physical maturity in 6:153 and 18:83. Generally, Divine Messengers are invested with their divine mission at the age of forty. The belief that Jesus was made a Prophet at the age of 33 seems to be an historical anachronism, as recent research into Christian history has proved his birth to have taken place about six years earlier than generally understood (Enc. Brit. under "Chronicle").
أوزعنی (grant me the power) is derived from وزع. They say وزع فلاناً او بفلان i.e. he hindered or led or drove forth such a one and restrained him; he urged or incited such a one. أوزع اللّٰه فلانا means, God inspired or granted such a one the power to do a thing. See also 27:18.
In verse 13 above a brief reference has been made to محسنین (doers of good). The present verse enjoins a believer to do good (احسان) to all his fellow beings, irrespective of caste, colour or clime, starting, however, with his parents, the mother having secured a special mention, as also in 31:15 because "she bears him with pain, and brings him forth with pain".
In 31:15, it was stated that the weaning of a child takes two years, but in the verse under comment the combined period of pregnancy and suckling is given as thirty months which leaves six months as the period of gestation, and that seems to be the period during which a pregnant woman feels the burden of pregnancy, the fourth month being the time when she begins to have such a feeling. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ نَتَقَبَّلُ عَنۡہُمۡ اَحۡسَنَ مَا عَمِلُوۡا وَ نَتَجَاوَزُ عَنۡ سَیِّاٰتِہِمۡ فِیۡۤ اَصۡحٰبِ الۡجَنَّۃِ ؕ وَعۡدَ الصِّدۡقِ الَّذِیۡ کَانُوۡا یُوۡعَدُوۡنَ ﴿۱۷﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ نَتَقَبَّلُ عَنۡهُمۡ أَحۡسَنَ مَا عَمِلُواْ وَنَتَجَاوَزُ عَن سَيِّـَٔاتِهِمۡ فِيٓ أَصۡحَٰبِ ٱلۡجَنَّةِۖ وَعۡدَ ٱلصِّدۡقِ ٱلَّذِي كَانُواْ يُوعَدُونَ
b. 17:109; 19:62; 73:19. (close)
a. 17:109; 19:62; 73:19. (close)
3771. Important Words:
نتجاوز (We shall overlook) is derived from جاز.They say جاز المکان او جاوزہ i.e. he passed along the place and left it behind. جاوز الحدmeans, he exceeded the proper limit or became extravagant or exorbitant. تجاوز عن ذنبه means, he overlooked sin; he forgave him. (Lane). (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡ قَالَ لِوَالِدَیۡہِ اُفٍّ لَّکُمَاۤ اَتَعِدٰنِنِیۡۤ اَنۡ اُخۡرَجَ وَ قَدۡ خَلَتِ الۡقُرُوۡنُ مِنۡ قَبۡلِیۡ ۚ وَ ہُمَا یَسۡتَغِیۡثٰنِ اللّٰہَ وَیۡلَکَ اٰمِنۡ ٭ۖ اِنَّ وَعۡدَ اللّٰہِ حَقٌّ ۚۖ فَیَقُوۡلُ مَا ہٰذَاۤ اِلَّاۤ اَسَاطِیۡرُ الۡاَوَّلِیۡنَ ﴿۱۸﴾
وَٱلَّذِي قَالَ لِوَٰلِدَيۡهِ أُفّٖ لَّكُمَآ أَتَعِدَانِنِيٓ أَنۡ أُخۡرَجَ وَقَدۡ خَلَتِ ٱلۡقُرُونُ مِن قَبۡلِي وَهُمَا يَسۡتَغِيثَانِ ٱللَّهَ وَيۡلَكَ ءَامِنۡ إِنَّ وَعۡدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقّٞ فَيَقُولُ مَا هَٰذَآ إِلَّآ أَسَٰطِيرُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ
In verse 16, reference was made to a class of men who spend their God-given gifts in the service of noble causes in order to win the pleasure of God, and who are anxious that they might be succeeded by a generation who should carry on their noble work. The verse under comment speaks of those unfortunate people who are born of good and righteous parents and are brought up in very healthy environments and yet lead a life of disbelief and sin. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ حَقَّ عَلَیۡہِمُ الۡقَوۡلُ فِیۡۤ اُمَمٍ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِمۡ مِّنَ الۡجِنِّ وَ الۡاِنۡسِ ؕ اِنَّہُمۡ کَانُوۡا خٰسِرِیۡنَ ﴿۱۹﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ حَقَّ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلۡقَوۡلُ فِيٓ أُمَمٖ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِن قَبۡلِهِم مِّنَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِۖ إِنَّهُمۡ كَانُواْ خَٰسِرِينَ
a. 7:39; 41:26. (close)
a. 3:138; 7:39; 13:31; 41:26. (close)