بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِِ

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CHAPTER 47

Muhammad

(Revealed after Hijrah)

Title, Date of Revelation and Context

The Surah takes its title from its third verse. It is also known as قتال (war) because it devotes a large portion of its text to the subject of war—its causes, ethics and consequences. The fact that the Surah deals mainly with the fighting which took place after the Holy Prophet had Migrated to Medina and that it makes repeated mention of the hypocrites with whom the Muslims came in contact at that place, lends powerful support to the view held by Baidawi, Zamakhshari, Suyuti, and others that the Surah was revealed after the Hijrah—a large part of it having been revealed probably before the Battle of Badr, in the early days of the life at Medina.

Towards the end of the previous Surah, it was unambiguously and emphatically stated that opposition to the Divine Message, however powerful, organized, and persistent, can never succeed and that Truth must prevail. The subject assumes a certain definiteness in this Surah, and disbelievers are told that in conformity with the unalterable divine law that Truth must ultimately triumph over falsehood, the Holy Prophet and his followers, though in a weak state in the beginning and though their cause seemingly hopeless, will, after overcoming all difficulties and impediments, succeed in the long run, their weakness progressively giving place to strength.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah opens with the challenging statement that all the efforts of disbelievers to retard and arrest the progress of Islam will come to naught and the condition of the Prophet’s followers will improve day by day. It then proceeds to say that since disbelievers have drawn the sword against the Prophet they shall perish by the sword. After holding out to Muslims a definite promise of success against their enemies, it briefly lays down important rules of war, as for instance, prisoners can be taken only after regular fighting in which the enemy is decisively beaten (v. 5), but after the war is over, they are to be set free either as an act of favour, or, after taking proper ransom. Thus the Surah, in a little verse, strikes effectively at the evil practice of slavery.

It is further stated that falsehood, though in a position of strength and power against Truth in the beginning, eventually must suffer defeat. This is a lesson writ large on the pages of history, and the evil fate of peoples nearer home such as ‘Ad, Thamud, Midian and the people of Lot should open the eyes of the Meccans. Next, the Surah says a few words of comfort and good cheer to the Holy Prophet, telling him that though he is being hounded out of his native place, friendless and apparently helpless, to seek refuge in a distant place among alien people, yet this very fact will lay the foundation of a great future for his Faith and his followers. His opponents seem to be very powerful but "there have been towns, more powerful than the town which has driven thee out," and yet God destroyed them and so will He destroy the enemies of the Prophet. They are satisfied with having driven him out of Mecca and seem to have a false sense of complacency that thereby they have nipped the tender plant of Islam in the bud, but in fact they have laid the foundation of their own ruin if they could but read the writing on the wall.

Next, the Surah briefly mentions the aims and objects of war according to Islam. Since it requires very sincere and honest adherence to a cause to imperil one’s life, honour, or property for it, war, which puts to test one’s sincerity or true adherence to a cause, was enjoined upon Muslims in self-defence so that true and sincere believers might be distinguished from the hypocrites and those weak of faith. Whereas, says the Surah, the believers welcome a revelation enjoining them to fight in the way of Allah, for it is in fighting that the real mettle of a man is tested, the disbelievers, and the hypocrites feel as if they are being driven to death. Thus true believers are separated and sifted out from those who are insincere or false in the profession of their faith. The Surah closes with a further exhortation to Muslims to be prepared to spend whatever they possess for the cause they hold so dear, because to be stingy and niggardly when the cause requires its votaries to spend with both hands, is calculated not only to injure the cause but also the individual himself.

47. محمد

یہ سورت مدنی ہے اور بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی انتالیس آیات ہیں۔ 

اس سورت میں جو اگرچہ آیات کی گنتی کے لحاظ سے بہت چھوٹی ہے عملاً قرآن کی گزشتہ تمام سورتوں کا خلاصہ بیان فرما دیا گیا ہے جیسا کہ حضرت محمد رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم تمام انبیاء کے مظہر تھے۔ 

اس کی آیتِ کریمہ نمبر ۱۹ میں یہ فرمایا گیا ہے کہ آنحضور صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم جس عظیم روحانی قیامت کے لئے مبعوث فرمائے گئے اس کے قرب کی تمام علامات ظاہر ہوچکی ہیں۔ پس اُس وقت ان کا نصیحت پکڑنا کس کام آئے گا جب وہ برپا ہو جائے گی۔


[47:1]   
English
In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.
اُردو
اللہ کے نام کے ساتھ جو بے انتہا رحم کرنے والا، بِن مانگے دینے والا (اور) بار بار رحم کرنے والا ہے۔

[47:2]   
English
Those who disbelieve and hinder men from the way of Allah — He renders their works vain.
اُردو
وہ لوگ جنہوں نے کفر کیا اور اللہ کی راہ سے روکا اس نے ان کے اعمال ضائع کردئیے۔

[47:3]   
English
But as for those who believe and do good works and believe in that which has been revealed to Muhammad — and it is the truth from their Lord — He removes from them their sins and improves their condition.
اُردو
اور وہ لوگ جو ایمان لائے اور نیک اعمال بجالائے اور اس پر ایمان لائے جو محمد پر اتارا گیا، اور وہی ان کے رب کی طرف سے کامل سچائی ہے، اُن کے عیوب کو وہ دور کردے گا اور ان کا حال درست کر دے گا۔

[47:4]   
English
That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood while those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus does Allah set forth for men their similitudes.
اُردو
یہ اس لئے ہو گا کہ وہ جنہوں نے کفر کیا انہوں نے جھوٹ کی پیروی کی اور وہ جو ایمان لائے انہوں نے اپنے ربّ کی طرف سے آنے والے حق کی پیروی کی۔ اسی طرح اللہ لوگوں کے سامنے ان کی مثالیں بیان کرتا ہے۔

[47:5]   
English
And when you meet in regular battle those who disbelieve, smite their necks; and, when you have overcome them, bind fast the fetters — then afterwards either release them as a favour or by taking ransom — until the war lays down its burdens. That is the ordinance. And if Allah had so pleased, He could have punished them Himself, but He has willed that He may try some of you by others. And those who are killed in the way of Allah — He will never render their works vain.
اُردو
پس جب تم ان لوگوں سے بِھڑ جاؤ جنہوں نے کفر کیا تو گردنوں پر وار کرنا یہاں تک کہ جب تم ان کا بکثرت خون بہالو تو مضبوطی سے بندھن کسو۔ پھر بعد ازاں احسان کے طور پر یا فدیہ لے کر آزاد کرنا یہاں تک کہ جنگ اپنے ہتھیار ڈال دے۔ ایسا ہی ہونا چاہیے۔ اور اگر اللہ چاہتا تو خود ان سے انتقام لیتا لیکن غرض یہ ہے کہ وہ تم میں سے بعض کو بعض کے ذریعہ آزمائے۔ اور وہ لوگ جنہیں اللہ کی راہ میں سخت تکلیف پہنچائی گئی، ان کے اعمال وہ ہرگز ضائع نہیں کرے گا۔

[47:6]   
English
He will guide them and improve their condition,
اُردو
وہ انہیں ہدایت دے گا اور ان کے حال درست کردے گا۔

[47:7]   
English
And admit them into the Garden which He has made known to them.
اُردو
اور انہیں اس جنت میں داخل کرے گا جسے ان کی خاطر اُس نے بہت اعلیٰ بنایا ہے ۔

[47:8]   
English
O ye who believe! if you help the cause of Allah, He will help you and will make your steps firm.
اُردو
اے و ہ لوگو جو ایمان لائے ہو! اگر تم اللہ کی مدد کرو تو وہ تمہاری مدد کرے گا اور تمہارے قدموں کو ثبات بخشے گا۔

[47:9]   
English
But as for those who disbelieve, perdition is their lot; and He will make their works vain.
اُردو
اور وہ لوگ جنہوں نے کفر کیا پس ہلاکت ہو اُن پر اور (اللہ نے) اُن کے اعمال کو ضائع کر دیا۔

[47:10]   
English
That is because they hate what Allah has revealed; so He has made their works futile.
اُردو
یہ اس وجہ سے تھا کہ جو کچھ اللہ نے اتارا انہوں نے اسے ناپسند کیا۔ پس اُس نے ان کے اعمال ضائع کردئیے۔