ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمۡ قَالُوۡا لِلَّذِیۡنَ کَرِہُوۡا مَا نَزَّلَ اللّٰہُ سَنُطِیۡعُکُمۡ فِیۡ بَعۡضِ الۡاَمۡرِ ۚۖ وَ اللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ اِسۡرَارَہُمۡ ﴿۲۷﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَالُواْ لِلَّذِينَ كَرِهُواْ مَا نَزَّلَ ٱللَّهُ سَنُطِيعُكُمۡ فِي بَعۡضِ ٱلۡأَمۡرِۖ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ إِسۡرَارَهُمۡ
2755. The Hypocrites of Medina would not side with disbelievers openly and unreservedly. A hypocrite is too wily a person to burn his boats. He faces both ways. (close)
The reference in the words, "those who hate what Allah has revealed," is to disbelievers who never liked that any good should be sent down to the Faithful from their Lord (2:106). The hypocrites would not side with disbelievers openly and unreservedly. A hypocrite is too wily a person to burn his boats. He faces both ways. But, says the verse, God would expose their double-facedness. This is the significance of the words "Allah knows their secrets." (close)
فَکَیۡفَ اِذَا تَوَفَّتۡہُمُ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ یَضۡرِبُوۡنَ وُجُوۡہَہُمۡ وَ اَدۡبَارَہُمۡ ﴿۲۸﴾
فَكَيۡفَ إِذَا تَوَفَّتۡهُمُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ يَضۡرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمۡ وَأَدۡبَٰرَهُمۡ
c. 4:98; 8:51; 16:29. (close)
a. 4:98; 8:51; 16:29. (close)
ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمُ اتَّبَعُوۡا مَاۤ اَسۡخَطَ اللّٰہَ وَ کَرِہُوۡا رِضۡوَانَہٗ فَاَحۡبَطَ اَعۡمَالَہُمۡ ﴿٪۲۹﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ ٱتَّبَعُواْ مَآ أَسۡخَطَ ٱللَّهَ وَكَرِهُواْ رِضۡوَٰنَهُۥ فَأَحۡبَطَ أَعۡمَٰلَهُمۡ
اَمۡ حَسِبَ الَّذِیۡنَ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ مَّرَضٌ اَنۡ لَّنۡ یُّخۡرِجَ اللّٰہُ اَضۡغَانَہُمۡ ﴿۳۰﴾
أَمۡ حَسِبَ ٱلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ أَن لَّن يُخۡرِجَ ٱللَّهُ أَضۡغَٰنَهُمۡ
3810. Important Words:
أضغانھم (their malice) is the plural of ضغن (dighnun) which is inf. noun from ضغن (daghana). ضغن علیه means, he was or became affected with rancour, malice or spite against him. ضغن means, rancour, malice, spite; violent hatred, enmity; desire or yearning or longing of the soul, etc. (Lane & Aqrab). (close)
وَ لَوۡ نَشَآءُ لَاَرَیۡنٰکَہُمۡ فَلَعَرَفۡتَہُمۡ بِسِیۡمٰہُمۡ ؕ وَ لَتَعۡرِفَنَّہُمۡ فِیۡ لَحۡنِ الۡقَوۡلِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ اَعۡمَالَکُمۡ ﴿۳۱﴾
وَلَوۡ نَشَآءُ لَأَرَيۡنَٰكَهُمۡ فَلَعَرَفۡتَهُم بِسِيمَٰهُمۡۚ وَلَتَعۡرِفَنَّهُمۡ فِي لَحۡنِ ٱلۡقَوۡلِۚ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ أَعۡمَٰلَكُمۡ
2756. A hypocrite never talks straight. He always indulges in ambiguous and equivocal speech in order that it should convey one sense to one person and quite another sense to another person. It is to this crooked manner of speech of the hypocrites that reference has also been made in 2:105. (close)
3811. Important Words:
لحن (tone) is inf. noun from لحن (Lahana). They say لحن له i.e. he said to him something which he (the latter) understood but which was unintelligible to others; he intimated to him something which he alone understood; he spoke obliquely or ambiguously. لحن means, the meaning of speech; its intended sense or import; its intent (it is direct and also indirect); an oblique or ambiguous mode of speech; an inclining of speech to obliqueness, or ambiguity, and equivocal allusion (Lane & Aqrab).
A hypocrite faces both ways. He never talks straight and always indulges in ambiguous and equivocal speech so that it conveys one sense to one person and quite another sense to another person. It is to this crooked manner of speech of the hypocrites that reference has also been made in 2:105. (close)
وَ لَنَبۡلُوَنَّکُمۡ حَتّٰی نَعۡلَمَ الۡمُجٰہِدِیۡنَ مِنۡکُمۡ وَ الصّٰبِرِیۡنَ ۙ وَ نَبۡلُوَا۠ اَخۡبَارَکُمۡ ﴿۳۲﴾
وَلَنَبۡلُوَنَّكُمۡ حَتَّىٰ نَعۡلَمَ ٱلۡمُجَٰهِدِينَ مِنكُمۡ وَٱلصَّـٰبِرِينَ وَنَبۡلُوَاْ أَخۡبَارَكُمۡ
a. 3:141-143; 29:4, 12. (close)
2757. ‘Arafa is synonymous with ‘Alima, but ‘Ilm is wider and more general in signification than Ma‘rifah. The root meaning of ‘Ilm is that of a mark or sign by which one thing is distinguished from another (Lane). Knowledge or ‘Ilm is of two kinds: (a) knowledge about a thing before its occurrence; and (b) knowledge about it after it has actually happened. The knowledge referred to in the verse under comment belongs to the latter category. (close)
3812. Important Words:
نعلم (We distinguish). علمه means; he knew it; he became acquainted with it. It is syn. with عرفه but علم (‘ilm) is wider and more general in signification than عرف and means, he knew it intuitively and inferentially (i.e. تیقن). They say لأ علم عبداللّٰه من عمر i.e. that I may distinguish ‘Abdullah from ‘Umar. The root meaning of علم (‘ilm) is that of a mark or sign by which one thing is distinguished from another (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:144 and 3:141.
نبلو (make known) is derived from بلا. They say ابتلاہ or أبلاہ or بلاہ i.e. He (God) tested him with good or evil; he knew it or became acquainted with it; he informed him or acquainted him with it; he manifested it; he revealed it (Lane & Aqrab).
أخبارکم (facts about you), أخبار is the plural of خبر which means, a piece of information; an announcement; an account; a man’s case or state, etc. The difference between خبر and نبأ is that while the former word means, an ordinary news, the latter signifies a news or announcement or information of great import and significance (Lane & Aqrab).
Taking into consideration the root-meanings of the words بلا and خبر and علم the verse would signify that God makes believers pass through travails, trials and tribulations and He has enjoined fighting on them that sincere believers may become distinguished from the hypocrites and that the qualities of head and heart of believers and also the results of their steadfastness and fortitude amidst hardships and privations may have an opportunity to come into actual play.
It may also be noted that knowledge (علم) is of two kinds: (a) knowledge about a thing before its occurrence; and (b) knowledge about it after it has actually happened. Knowledge referred to in the verse under comment belongs to the latter category. (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ صَدُّوۡا عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ شَآقُّوا الرَّسُوۡلَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَا تَبَیَّنَ لَہُمُ الۡہُدٰی ۙ لَنۡ یَّضُرُّوا اللّٰہَ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ سَیُحۡبِطُ اَعۡمَالَہُمۡ ﴿۳۳﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَشَآقُّواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلۡهُدَىٰ لَن يَضُرُّواْ ٱللَّهَ شَيۡـٔٗا وَسَيُحۡبِطُ أَعۡمَٰلَهُمۡ
a. 8:14; 59:5. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اَطِیۡعُوا الرَّسُوۡلَ وَ لَا تُبۡطِلُوۡۤا اَعۡمَالَکُمۡ ﴿۳۴﴾
۞يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبۡطِلُوٓاْ أَعۡمَٰلَكُمۡ
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ صَدُّوۡا عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ثُمَّ مَاتُوۡا وَ ہُمۡ کُفَّارٌ فَلَنۡ یَّغۡفِرَ اللّٰہُ لَہُمۡ ﴿۳۵﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ مَاتُواْ وَهُمۡ كُفَّارٞ فَلَن يَغۡفِرَ ٱللَّهُ لَهُمۡ
a. 3:92; 4:19. (close)
b. 3:92; 4:19. (close)
فَلَا تَہِنُوۡا وَ تَدۡعُوۡۤا اِلَی السَّلۡمِ ٭ۖ وَ اَنۡتُمُ الۡاَعۡلَوۡنَ ٭ۖ وَ اللّٰہُ مَعَکُمۡ وَ لَنۡ یَّتِرَکُمۡ اَعۡمَالَکُمۡ ﴿۳۶﴾
فَلَا تَهِنُواْ وَتَدۡعُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلسَّلۡمِ وَأَنتُمُ ٱلۡأَعۡلَوۡنَ وَٱللَّهُ مَعَكُمۡ وَلَن يَتِرَكُمۡ أَعۡمَٰلَكُمۡ
b. 3:140. (close)
2758. Muslims are enjoined here that once fighting has started, they should never sue for peace, whatever form or shape the fortunes of war may take. They are to win either victory or martyrdom. No other choice is left to them. (close)
c. 3:140. (close)
3813. Important Words:
لن یترکم (will not deprive you). یتر is derived from وتر. They say وترہ حقه i.e. he made him to suffer loss or detriment in respect of his right; or he deprived him or defrauded him of it partially or wholly (Aqrab).
As the Surah primarily deals with the subject of war, the Muslims are enjoined here that when once the fighting has started, they are not to sue for peace, whatever form or shape the fortunes of war may take. They are to win either victory or martyrdom. The verse, besides laying this heavy responsibility on Muslims, makes to them an unequivocal promise of victory in the words "You will certainly have the upper hand as Allah is with you." But whereas, on the one hand, Muslims are not to sue for peace under any circumstances, on the other, they are not to reject overtures of peace made by the enemy even if by doing so he seeks to deceive Muslims or to gain time (8:62). Islam is a religion of peace. It has certainly permitted its followers to take up arms in self-defence, or, when refusal to fight means sure destruction. But it has also enjoined them to cease fighting, whatever the circumstances, when an offer of peace is made by the opposite side. (close)