ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمُ اتَّبَعُوۡا مَاۤ اَسۡخَطَ اللّٰہَ وَ کَرِہُوۡا رِضۡوَانَہٗ فَاَحۡبَطَ اَعۡمَالَہُمۡ ﴿٪۲۹﴾
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ ٱتَّبَعُواْ مَآ أَسۡخَطَ ٱللَّهَ وَكَرِهُواْ رِضۡوَٰنَهُۥ فَأَحۡبَطَ أَعۡمَٰلَهُمۡ
اَمۡ حَسِبَ الَّذِیۡنَ فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ مَّرَضٌ اَنۡ لَّنۡ یُّخۡرِجَ اللّٰہُ اَضۡغَانَہُمۡ ﴿۳۰﴾
أَمۡ حَسِبَ ٱلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ أَن لَّن يُخۡرِجَ ٱللَّهُ أَضۡغَٰنَهُمۡ
3810. Important Words:
أضغانھم (their malice) is the plural of ضغن (dighnun) which is inf. noun from ضغن (daghana). ضغن علیه means, he was or became affected with rancour, malice or spite against him. ضغن means, rancour, malice, spite; violent hatred, enmity; desire or yearning or longing of the soul, etc. (Lane & Aqrab). (close)
وَ لَوۡ نَشَآءُ لَاَرَیۡنٰکَہُمۡ فَلَعَرَفۡتَہُمۡ بِسِیۡمٰہُمۡ ؕ وَ لَتَعۡرِفَنَّہُمۡ فِیۡ لَحۡنِ الۡقَوۡلِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَعۡلَمُ اَعۡمَالَکُمۡ ﴿۳۱﴾
وَلَوۡ نَشَآءُ لَأَرَيۡنَٰكَهُمۡ فَلَعَرَفۡتَهُم بِسِيمَٰهُمۡۚ وَلَتَعۡرِفَنَّهُمۡ فِي لَحۡنِ ٱلۡقَوۡلِۚ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ أَعۡمَٰلَكُمۡ
2756. A hypocrite never talks straight. He always indulges in ambiguous and equivocal speech in order that it should convey one sense to one person and quite another sense to another person. It is to this crooked manner of speech of the hypocrites that reference has also been made in 2:105. (close)
3811. Important Words:
لحن (tone) is inf. noun from لحن (Lahana). They say لحن له i.e. he said to him something which he (the latter) understood but which was unintelligible to others; he intimated to him something which he alone understood; he spoke obliquely or ambiguously. لحن means, the meaning of speech; its intended sense or import; its intent (it is direct and also indirect); an oblique or ambiguous mode of speech; an inclining of speech to obliqueness, or ambiguity, and equivocal allusion (Lane & Aqrab).
A hypocrite faces both ways. He never talks straight and always indulges in ambiguous and equivocal speech so that it conveys one sense to one person and quite another sense to another person. It is to this crooked manner of speech of the hypocrites that reference has also been made in 2:105. (close)
وَ لَنَبۡلُوَنَّکُمۡ حَتّٰی نَعۡلَمَ الۡمُجٰہِدِیۡنَ مِنۡکُمۡ وَ الصّٰبِرِیۡنَ ۙ وَ نَبۡلُوَا۠ اَخۡبَارَکُمۡ ﴿۳۲﴾
وَلَنَبۡلُوَنَّكُمۡ حَتَّىٰ نَعۡلَمَ ٱلۡمُجَٰهِدِينَ مِنكُمۡ وَٱلصَّـٰبِرِينَ وَنَبۡلُوَاْ أَخۡبَارَكُمۡ
a. 3:141-143; 29:4, 12. (close)
2757. ‘Arafa is synonymous with ‘Alima, but ‘Ilm is wider and more general in signification than Ma‘rifah. The root meaning of ‘Ilm is that of a mark or sign by which one thing is distinguished from another (Lane). Knowledge or ‘Ilm is of two kinds: (a) knowledge about a thing before its occurrence; and (b) knowledge about it after it has actually happened. The knowledge referred to in the verse under comment belongs to the latter category. (close)
3812. Important Words:
نعلم (We distinguish). علمه means; he knew it; he became acquainted with it. It is syn. with عرفه but علم (‘ilm) is wider and more general in signification than عرف and means, he knew it intuitively and inferentially (i.e. تیقن). They say لأ علم عبداللّٰه من عمر i.e. that I may distinguish ‘Abdullah from ‘Umar. The root meaning of علم (‘ilm) is that of a mark or sign by which one thing is distinguished from another (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:144 and 3:141.
نبلو (make known) is derived from بلا. They say ابتلاہ or أبلاہ or بلاہ i.e. He (God) tested him with good or evil; he knew it or became acquainted with it; he informed him or acquainted him with it; he manifested it; he revealed it (Lane & Aqrab).
أخبارکم (facts about you), أخبار is the plural of خبر which means, a piece of information; an announcement; an account; a man’s case or state, etc. The difference between خبر and نبأ is that while the former word means, an ordinary news, the latter signifies a news or announcement or information of great import and significance (Lane & Aqrab).
Taking into consideration the root-meanings of the words بلا and خبر and علم the verse would signify that God makes believers pass through travails, trials and tribulations and He has enjoined fighting on them that sincere believers may become distinguished from the hypocrites and that the qualities of head and heart of believers and also the results of their steadfastness and fortitude amidst hardships and privations may have an opportunity to come into actual play.
It may also be noted that knowledge (علم) is of two kinds: (a) knowledge about a thing before its occurrence; and (b) knowledge about it after it has actually happened. Knowledge referred to in the verse under comment belongs to the latter category. (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ صَدُّوۡا عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ شَآقُّوا الرَّسُوۡلَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَا تَبَیَّنَ لَہُمُ الۡہُدٰی ۙ لَنۡ یَّضُرُّوا اللّٰہَ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ سَیُحۡبِطُ اَعۡمَالَہُمۡ ﴿۳۳﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَشَآقُّواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلۡهُدَىٰ لَن يَضُرُّواْ ٱللَّهَ شَيۡـٔٗا وَسَيُحۡبِطُ أَعۡمَٰلَهُمۡ
a. 8:14; 59:5. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اَطِیۡعُوا الرَّسُوۡلَ وَ لَا تُبۡطِلُوۡۤا اَعۡمَالَکُمۡ ﴿۳۴﴾
۞يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبۡطِلُوٓاْ أَعۡمَٰلَكُمۡ
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا وَ صَدُّوۡا عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ثُمَّ مَاتُوۡا وَ ہُمۡ کُفَّارٌ فَلَنۡ یَّغۡفِرَ اللّٰہُ لَہُمۡ ﴿۳۵﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ مَاتُواْ وَهُمۡ كُفَّارٞ فَلَن يَغۡفِرَ ٱللَّهُ لَهُمۡ
a. 3:92; 4:19. (close)
b. 3:92; 4:19. (close)
فَلَا تَہِنُوۡا وَ تَدۡعُوۡۤا اِلَی السَّلۡمِ ٭ۖ وَ اَنۡتُمُ الۡاَعۡلَوۡنَ ٭ۖ وَ اللّٰہُ مَعَکُمۡ وَ لَنۡ یَّتِرَکُمۡ اَعۡمَالَکُمۡ ﴿۳۶﴾
فَلَا تَهِنُواْ وَتَدۡعُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلسَّلۡمِ وَأَنتُمُ ٱلۡأَعۡلَوۡنَ وَٱللَّهُ مَعَكُمۡ وَلَن يَتِرَكُمۡ أَعۡمَٰلَكُمۡ
b. 3:140. (close)
2758. Muslims are enjoined here that once fighting has started, they should never sue for peace, whatever form or shape the fortunes of war may take. They are to win either victory or martyrdom. No other choice is left to them. (close)
c. 3:140. (close)
3813. Important Words:
لن یترکم (will not deprive you). یتر is derived from وتر. They say وترہ حقه i.e. he made him to suffer loss or detriment in respect of his right; or he deprived him or defrauded him of it partially or wholly (Aqrab).
As the Surah primarily deals with the subject of war, the Muslims are enjoined here that when once the fighting has started, they are not to sue for peace, whatever form or shape the fortunes of war may take. They are to win either victory or martyrdom. The verse, besides laying this heavy responsibility on Muslims, makes to them an unequivocal promise of victory in the words "You will certainly have the upper hand as Allah is with you." But whereas, on the one hand, Muslims are not to sue for peace under any circumstances, on the other, they are not to reject overtures of peace made by the enemy even if by doing so he seeks to deceive Muslims or to gain time (8:62). Islam is a religion of peace. It has certainly permitted its followers to take up arms in self-defence, or, when refusal to fight means sure destruction. But it has also enjoined them to cease fighting, whatever the circumstances, when an offer of peace is made by the opposite side. (close)
اِنَّمَا الۡحَیٰوۃُ الدُّنۡیَا لَعِبٌ وَّ لَہۡوٌ ؕ وَ اِنۡ تُؤۡمِنُوۡا وَ تَتَّقُوۡا یُؤۡتِکُمۡ اُجُوۡرَکُمۡ وَ لَا یَسۡـَٔلۡکُمۡ اَمۡوَالَکُمۡ ﴿۳۷﴾
إِنَّمَا ٱلۡحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنۡيَا لَعِبٞ وَلَهۡوٞۚ وَإِن تُؤۡمِنُواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ يُؤۡتِكُمۡ أُجُورَكُمۡ وَلَا يَسۡـَٔلۡكُمۡ أَمۡوَٰلَكُمۡ
c. 6:33; 29:65; 57:21. (close)
2759. The verse purports to say that as Muslims have been enjoined to fight in the cause of Allah, they will have to bear the expenses of war also and for that purpose they will have to make sacrifice of money. But Allah does not need their money. It is for their own benefit that sacrifice of life and money is demanded of them because no success is possible without such sacrifice. True believers must understand and realize this supreme lesson. (close)
a. 6:33; 29:65; 57:21. (close)
The verse purports to say that as Muslims have been enjoined to fight in the cause of God, they will have to bear the expenses of war and for this purpose they will have to make sacrifices of life and money. But God does not need their money. It is for their own benefit that sacrifices of life and money are demanded of them because no success is possible without such sacrifices. True believers must understand and realise this supreme lesson. (close)
اِنۡ یَّسۡـَٔلۡکُمُوۡہَا فَیُحۡفِکُمۡ تَبۡخَلُوۡا وَ یُخۡرِجۡ اَضۡغَانَکُمۡ ﴿۳۸﴾
إِن يَسۡـَٔلۡكُمُوهَا فَيُحۡفِكُمۡ تَبۡخَلُواْ وَيُخۡرِجۡ أَضۡغَٰنَكُمۡ
2760. The verse particularly applies to the hypocrites. (close)
The verse applies to hypocrites. Though professing to be Muslims, they will not spend their money in the cause of Islam, however pressing its need might be, because their hearts are full of rancour, malice and spite against it. But whatever they may or may not do, Islam will be victorious and their rancour and malevolence would be exposed. (close)