وَ مَنۡ یُّہَاجِرۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ یَجِدۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مُرٰغَمًا کَثِیۡرًا وَّ سَعَۃً ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّخۡرُجۡ مِنۡۢ بَیۡتِہٖ مُہَاجِرًا اِلَی اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ ثُمَّ یُدۡرِکۡہُ الۡمَوۡتُ فَقَدۡ وَقَعَ اَجۡرُہٗ عَلَی اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿۱۰۱﴾٪
۞وَمَن يُهَاجِرۡ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ يَجِدۡ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مُرَٰغَمٗا كَثِيرٗا وَسَعَةٗۚ وَمَن يَخۡرُجۡ مِنۢ بَيۡتِهِۦ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ ثُمَّ يُدۡرِكۡهُ ٱلۡمَوۡتُ فَقَدۡ وَقَعَ أَجۡرُهُۥ عَلَى ٱللَّهِۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمٗا
658. Islam accepts no excuse from believers to stay in environments hostile to their Faith if they can afford to leave such localities. (close)
569. Important Words:
مراغما (place of refuge) is derived from رغم. They say رغم أنفه meaning his nose clove to the dust, i.e. he became abased and humbled. رغمه means, he disliked it. ارغم اھله or راغم اھله means, he forsook or deserted his family against their wish. رغامmeans, earth or dust. مرغم or مراغم means, a road by travelling on which a man separates himself from his people against their wish or so as to displease them; a place to which one migrates; a place of refuge; a safe and fortified place (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse promises those sincere believers who are forced by circumstances to migrate from their homes in the cause of God abundant place of refuge and plentifulness. There is, therefore, no excuse for the people to stay at home surrounded by hostile disbelievers. But the motive must be good and the migration sincere.
The Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "Whoso migrates from his home for the sake of God and His Messenger, his migration will be regarded as having been performed for the sake of God and His Messenger and will be rewarded as such. But whoso leaves his home for the sake of a worldly gain which he wishes to get or for a woman whom he wishes to marry, will be considered to have migrated for the sake of the object for which he migrated, and his migration will not be considered as having been performed in the cause of God" (Bukhari, ch. on Bad’ul Wahy). (close)
وَ اِذَا ضَرَبۡتُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ فَلَیۡسَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ جُنَاحٌ اَنۡ تَقۡصُرُوۡا مِنَ الصَّلٰوۃِ ٭ۖ اِنۡ خِفۡتُمۡ اَنۡ یَّفۡتِنَکُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا ؕ اِنَّ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ کَانُوۡا لَکُمۡ عَدُوًّا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۱۰۲﴾
وَإِذَا ضَرَبۡتُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَلَيۡسَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقۡصُرُواْ مِنَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ إِنۡ خِفۡتُمۡ أَن يَفۡتِنَكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْۚ إِنَّ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ كَانُواْ لَكُمۡ عَدُوّٗا مُّبِينٗا
b. 2:240. (close)
659. The subject of Prayers in time of fear has been dealt with in the Qur’an in three separate verses, viz. (1) in 2:240 which deals with Prayers performed in time of extreme fear when no formal Prayer is possible; (2) in the present verse which deals with Prayers performed individually in time of ordinary fear; and (3) in the following verse which deals with Prayers performed in congregation in time of fear. The "shortening of Prayer" as mentioned in the present verse, which relates to the saying of Prayers individually, does not here signify the lessening of the number of Rak‘ats which has from the very beginning been fixed at two in a state of journey. It only signifies the saying of the prescribed Prayers quickly when there is danger of an attack from the enemy. The number of Rak‘ats to be said when a man is on a journey has ever been two; but in time of danger when one has to say one’s Prayers individually, even these two Rak‘ats may be gone through quickly (Kathir). This view is endorsed by Mujahid, Dahhak, and Bukhari (ch. on Salatul-Khauf). ‘A’ishah is reported to have said, 'At first the number of Rak‘ats enjoined was two, whether one was on a journey or at home. Later on, however, it was increased to four for those staying at home, but for those on journey it continued to be the same as before' (Bukhari, ch. on Salat). ‘Umar said, 'The Prayer to be said on a journey is two Rak‘ats; the Prayer of the two ‘Ids is also two Rak‘ats each; the Friday Prayer is also two Rak‘ats; this is the full number of Rak‘ats without having undergone any curtailment. We learnt this from the very lips of the Holy Prophet' (Musnad, Nasa’i, & Majah). Khalid bin Sa‘id once asked Ibn-e-‘Umar where was Prayer for the wayfarer mentioned in the Qur’an which prescribes only the Prayer in time of fear. To this Ibn-e-‘Umar replied that they did what they saw the Holy Prophet doing, i.e. saying two Rak‘ats of Prayer while on a journey (Jarir, v. 144; Nasa’i ch. on Salat). (close)
a. 2:240. (close)
The subject how Prayers are to be performed when one is on a journey or when there is fear of an attack from the enemy has been incidentally introduced here in connection with the subject of migration dealt with in the previous verses. At the conclusion of this subject, which has been incidentally brought in, the Quran will again refer to the main theme dealing with hypocrites and the weak of faith.
The subject of Prayers in time of fear has been dealt with in the Quran in three separate verses viz. (1) in 2:240 which deals with Prayers performed in times of extreme fear when no formal prayer is possible; (2) in 4:102, i.e. the present verse which deals with Prayers performed individually in times of ordinary fear; and (3) in 4:103, i.e. the following verse which deals with Prayers performed in congregation.
The "shortening of Prayer" as mentioned in the present verse, which relates to the saying of Prayers individually, does not here signify the lessening of the number of Rak‘ats which has from the very beginning been fixed at two in a state of journey. It signifies the saying of the prescribed Prayers quickly and hurriedly when there is danger of an attack from the enemy. Ordinarily, a Muslim is enjoined to say his Prayers slowly and attentively, but he may say them quickly and hurriedly when an attack from the enemy is apprehended. The number of Rak‘ats to be said when a man is on a journey has ever been two, in the case of those Prayers which are ordinarily performed in four Rak‘ats; but in time of danger when one has to say one’s Prayers individually, even these two Rak‘ats may be gone through quickly. This is what is meant by the "shortening of Prayer" in the verse under comment. Ibn Kathir says: "Some of the learned theologians hold that by the "shortening of Prayer" here is meant not the shortening of the quantity, i.e. the number of Rak‘ats, but of the quality, i.e. time passed in Prayer, which, in other words, means saying the Prayers quickly without lessening the number of Rak‘ats or reducing the additional prayers which one ordinarily offers in the prescribed Prayers in one’s own words." This view is endorsed by Mujahid, Dahhak, and other authorities; and Imam Muhammad bin Isma‘il also expresses the same view, for in Bukhari he couples this verse with the next one, which deals with the subject of congregational Prayers in time of fear, under the common heading of Salatul-Khauf, (i.e. Prayers in time of fear).
The above view is further supported by the following traditions: ‘A’ishah is reported to have said, "At first the number of Rak‘ats enjoined was two, whether one was on a journey or at home. Later on, however, the number was increased to four for those staying at home, but the number of Rak‘ats said on a journey continued to be the same as before" (Bukhari, ch. on Salat). Again ‘Umar says, "The Prayer to be said on a journey is two Rak‘ats; the Prayer of the two ‘Ids is also two Rak‘ats each; similarly, the Friday Prayer is two Rak‘ats; this is the full number of Rak‘ats without having undergone any curtailment. We learnt this from the very lips of the Holy Prophet" (Musnad, Nasa’i, & Majah).
The number of Rak‘ats whether the Prayer is performed in a state of fear or when one is on a journey is not expressly dealt with in the Quran. It is found detailed in Sunnah or Hadith, which confine the number of Rak‘ats to two in the case of those Prayers which ordinarily have four Rak‘ats. For instance, there is a saying to the effect that Khalid bin Sa‘id once asked Ibn ‘Umar where was صلوة المسافر (Prayer of the wayfarer) mentioned in the Quran, which prescribes only the صلوة الخوف (Prayer in time of fear). To this Ibn ‘Umar replied that in this respect they did what they saw the Holy Prophet doing, i.e. saying two Rak‘ats of Prayer while on a journey (Jarir, v. 144, also see Nasa’i, ch. on Salat). (close)
وَ اِذَا کُنۡتَ فِیۡہِمۡ فَاَقَمۡتَ لَہُمُ الصَّلٰوۃَ فَلۡتَقُمۡ طَآئِفَۃٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ مَّعَکَ وَ لۡیَاۡخُذُوۡۤا اَسۡلِحَتَہُمۡ ۟ فَاِذَا سَجَدُوۡا فَلۡیَکُوۡنُوۡا مِنۡ وَّرَآئِکُمۡ ۪ وَ لۡتَاۡتِ طَآئِفَۃٌ اُخۡرٰی لَمۡ یُصَلُّوۡا فَلۡیُصَلُّوۡا مَعَکَ وَ لۡیَاۡخُذُوۡا حِذۡرَہُمۡ وَ اَسۡلِحَتَہُمۡ ۚ وَدَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا لَوۡ تَغۡفُلُوۡنَ عَنۡ اَسۡلِحَتِکُمۡ وَ اَمۡتِعَتِکُمۡ فَیَمِیۡلُوۡنَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ مَّیۡلَۃً وَّاحِدَۃً ؕ وَ لَا جُنَاحَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اِنۡ کَانَ بِکُمۡ اَذًی مِّنۡ مَّطَرٍ اَوۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مَّرۡضٰۤی اَنۡ تَضَعُوۡۤا اَسۡلِحَتَکُمۡ ۚ وَ خُذُوۡا حِذۡرَکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ اَعَدَّ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَذَابًا مُّہِیۡنًا ﴿۱۰۳﴾
وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمۡ فَأَقَمۡتَ لَهُمُ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ فَلۡتَقُمۡ طَآئِفَةٞ مِّنۡهُم مَّعَكَ وَلۡيَأۡخُذُوٓاْ أَسۡلِحَتَهُمۡۖ فَإِذَا سَجَدُواْ فَلۡيَكُونُواْ مِن وَرَآئِكُمۡ وَلۡتَأۡتِ طَآئِفَةٌ أُخۡرَىٰ لَمۡ يُصَلُّواْ فَلۡيُصَلُّواْ مَعَكَ وَلۡيَأۡخُذُواْ حِذۡرَهُمۡ وَأَسۡلِحَتَهُمۡۗ وَدَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَوۡ تَغۡفُلُونَ عَنۡ أَسۡلِحَتِكُمۡ وَأَمۡتِعَتِكُمۡ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيۡكُم مَّيۡلَةٗ وَٰحِدَةٗۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ إِن كَانَ بِكُمۡ أَذٗى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوۡ كُنتُم مَّرۡضَىٰٓ أَن تَضَعُوٓاْ أَسۡلِحَتَكُمۡۖ وَخُذُواْ حِذۡرَكُمۡۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٗا مُّهِينٗا
660. Whereas the preceding verse spoke of Prayer in time of fear in the case of individuals, the present one gives the details of the manner of its performance when the Faithful are in the form of a company or group and the Prayer is to be performed in congregation. As many as eleven different forms in which the Prayer was said on different occasions are described in the Hadith (Muhit). (close)
661. The verse observes a difference between Aslihah (arms) and Hidhr (precautions). Whereas the former may be put aside in moments of comparative security, the latter should never be neglected. See also 4:72. (close)
Whereas the preceding verse spoke of the Prayer in time of fear in the case of individuals, the present one gives the details of the manner of its performance when the Faithful are in the form of a company or group and the Prayer is to be performed in congregation. Apparently the Holy Prophet alone seems to have been addressed here, but really the verse possesses general application. When a Muslim army is about to say their Prayer in congregation, half of them should say the Prayer with the Imam, carrying their arms, and the other half should stand facing the enemy, to fight him or repulse his attack, as the case may be. When the first half have finished one Rak‘at, they should retire to take the place of those who are facing the enemy. The latter should then come forward and say one Rak‘at with the Imam.
As many as eleven different ways in which these Prayers were said on different occasions are described in the Hadith(for details see Al-Bahrul-Muhit). In some cases, each of the two parties said only one Rak‘at of Prayer, while the Imam said two. In other cases, each of the parties said two Rak‘at, one Rak‘at with the Imam and the other alone, thus all saying two Rak‘at. On yet other occasions each of the two parties said two rak‘at of Prayer with the Imam, the Imam himself having said four Rak‘at—two Rak‘at with each party. These different methods were observed in different circumstances. If the danger was great, each of the parties said only one Rak‘at of Prayer with the Imam while the Imam himself said two; but if the danger was not so great, each party said two Rak‘ats while the Imam said four. Again, methods varied with the varying position of the army. If the enemy, for instance, was in front of the Imam, the congregation followed a method different from that which they followed on other occasions.
To sum up, whereas Prayer in a state of simple journey consists of two Rak‘ats in such Prayers as ordinarily consist of four Rak‘ats, the Prayer in time of fear may assume different forms, the more important being:
(a) Splitting up the worshippers into two parties, each party either saying one part of its Prayer with the Imam and then retiring, or saying one part of its Prayer with the Imam and the other part separately, the number of Rak‘ats performed by the worshippers being either one or two as the case may be (the present verse);
(b) Shortening the duration of Prayers only (the preceding verse);
(c) Doing away with all form and repeating the words of Prayer while walking, running or riding (2:240).
The verse observes a difference between: اسلحة (arms) and حذر (means of defence or simply precautions). Whereas the former may be put aside in moments of comparative security, the latter should always be adhered to and never neglected. See also 4:72. (close)
فَاِذَا قَضَیۡتُمُ الصَّلٰوۃَ فَاذۡکُرُوا اللّٰہَ قِیٰمًا وَّ قُعُوۡدًا وَّ عَلٰی جُنُوۡبِکُمۡ ۚ فَاِذَا اطۡمَاۡنَنۡتُمۡ فَاَقِیۡمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ ۚ اِنَّ الصَّلٰوۃَ کَانَتۡ عَلَی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ کِتٰبًا مَّوۡقُوۡتًا ﴿۱۰۴﴾
فَإِذَا قَضَيۡتُمُ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ فَٱذۡكُرُواْ ٱللَّهَ قِيَٰمٗا وَقُعُودٗا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِكُمۡۚ فَإِذَا ٱطۡمَأۡنَنتُمۡ فَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَۚ إِنَّ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ كَانَتۡ عَلَى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ كِتَٰبٗا مَّوۡقُوتٗا
a. 3:192. (close)
662. As in the midst of a battle formal Prayers are either said in haste, or performed in the form of one Rak‘at, Muslims are enjoined in this verse, that in order to make up the deficiency, they should remember God and pray to Him in an informal manner after the obligatory service is over. This is to compensate for the shortening of Prayer. (close)
a. 3:192. (close)
As in the midst of a battle, formal Prayers are either said in haste, or performed in the form of one Rak‘at only. Muslims are enjoined in this verse, with a view to making up the deficiency, to continue remembering God and praying to Him in an informal manner after the obligatory service is over. This was to compensate, on the one hand, for the shortening of Prayer and, on the other, to serve as a means of drawing the special aid and help of God in a time of great danger.
The expression, And when you are secure (from danger), then observe Prayer (in the prescribed form), very clearly brings out the difference between the words صلوا or اقضوا الصلوة (pray or offer Prayer) and the words اقیموا الصلوة (observe Prayer). The latter expression signifies observing Prayer attentively with all its necessary conditions. The verse thus clearly shows that Islam does not look upon the hasty performance of Prayer as coming under the injunction, اقیموا الصلوة (observe Prayer). See also 2:4. (close)
وَ لَا تَہِنُوۡا فِی ابۡتِغَآءِ الۡقَوۡمِ ؕ اِنۡ تَکُوۡنُوۡا تَاۡلَمُوۡنَ فَاِنَّہُمۡ یَاۡلَمُوۡنَ کَمَا تَاۡلَمُوۡنَ ۚ وَ تَرۡجُوۡنَ مِنَ اللّٰہِ مَا لَا یَرۡجُوۡنَ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمًا حَکِیۡمًا ﴿۱۰۵﴾٪
وَلَا تَهِنُواْ فِي ٱبۡتِغَآءِ ٱلۡقَوۡمِۖ إِن تَكُونُواْ تَأۡلَمُونَ فَإِنَّهُمۡ يَأۡلَمُونَ كَمَا تَأۡلَمُونَۖ وَتَرۡجُونَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَرۡجُونَۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
a. 3:147. (close)
a. 3:147. (close)
The expression, you hope from Allah, does not merely signify "hoping to get a reward or recompense", but also includes "hoping to win the pleasure of God and attain His nearness." There can be no bigger incentive for making sacrifices in the cause of religion than the hope that one will thereby win the pleasure and nearness of one’s Lord and Master. (close)
اِنَّاۤ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ بِالۡحَقِّ لِتَحۡکُمَ بَیۡنَ النَّاسِ بِمَاۤ اَرٰٮکَ اللّٰہُ ؕ وَ لَا تَکُنۡ لِّلۡخَآئِنِیۡنَ خَصِیۡمًا ﴿۱۰۶﴾ۙ
إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ لِتَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ بِمَآ أَرَىٰكَ ٱللَّهُۚ وَلَا تَكُن لِّلۡخَآئِنِينَ خَصِيمٗا
b. 5:49. (close)
663. The address is to every Muslim. (close)
b. 5:49. (close)
The Quran being the repository of all truth, all questions should be referred to it for decision and settlement. But no favour is to be shown, and no support given, to those who act dishonestly and faithlessly.
The address in this verse is not to the Holy Prophet in particular, but to every Muslim who accepts and studies the Quran. (close)
وَّ اسۡتَغۡفِرِ اللّٰہَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿۱۰۷﴾ۚ
وَٱسۡتَغۡفِرِ ٱللَّهَۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمٗا
664. Istighfar constitutes the keystone of all spiritual progress. It does not merely mean verbal asking for forgiveness but extends to such acts as lead to the covering up of one’s sins and shortcomings. (close)
استغفار (asking forgiveness) is the keystone of all spiritual progress. The word does not merely mean verbal asking for forgiveness, but also extends to acts leading to the covering up of one’s sins and shortcomings; and this covering up, implied in the root meaning of Istighfar (see 2:200) may be of diverse nature: (1) the covering up of evil propensities in man (2) the covering up of evil thoughts and their being restrained from being converted into actions; (3) the covering up of sins actually committed and preventing them from being exposed; and (4) finally the covering up of the sins, as it were, from the sight of God Himself, i.e. complete and absolute forgiveness and their being treated as non-existent. What a vista of bliss for a true believer! (close)
وَ لَا تُجَادِلۡ عَنِ الَّذِیۡنَ یَخۡتَانُوۡنَ اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یُحِبُّ مَنۡ کَانَ خَوَّانًا اَثِیۡمًا ﴿۱۰۸﴾ۚۙ
وَلَا تُجَٰدِلۡ عَنِ ٱلَّذِينَ يَخۡتَانُونَ أَنفُسَهُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ خَوَّانًا أَثِيمٗا
665. The word Anfusahum may also mean "their brethren" (2:85, 86; 4:67). The address is general as in the preceding verses. (close)
a. 8:59; 22:39. (close)
The expression انفسھم (themselves) may also mean "their brethren" (see 2:85, 86 and 4:67), in which case the clause would mean "those who act dishonestly with regard to their brethren." The verse further emphasizes the fact, stated in 4:106 above, that those who act unfaithfully and dishonestly should not be supported. They do not deserve support not only because they are dishonest with regard to their own souls or those of their brethren and because the good name of their community suffers on their account, but also because they are encouraged in this way to persist in their evil practices. Here, too, the address is general as in 4:106. (close)
یَّسۡتَخۡفُوۡنَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَ لَا یَسۡتَخۡفُوۡنَ مِنَ اللّٰہِ وَ ہُوَ مَعَہُمۡ اِذۡ یُبَیِّتُوۡنَ مَا لَا یَرۡضٰی مِنَ الۡقَوۡلِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ بِمَا یَعۡمَلُوۡنَ مُحِیۡطًا ﴿۱۰۹﴾
يَسۡتَخۡفُونَ مِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَا يَسۡتَخۡفُونَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ وَهُوَ مَعَهُمۡ إِذۡ يُبَيِّتُونَ مَا لَا يَرۡضَىٰ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡلِۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُونَ مُحِيطًا
c. 4:82. (close)
b. 4:82. (close)
ہٰۤاَنۡتُمۡ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ جٰدَلۡتُمۡ عَنۡہُمۡ فِی الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا ۟ فَمَنۡ یُّجَادِلُ اللّٰہَ عَنۡہُمۡ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ اَمۡ مَّنۡ یَّکُوۡنُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَکِیۡلًا ﴿۱۱۰﴾
هَـٰٓأَنتُمۡ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ جَٰدَلۡتُمۡ عَنۡهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا فَمَن يُجَٰدِلُ ٱللَّهَ عَنۡهُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ أَم مَّن يَكُونُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَكِيلٗا
666. The word Antum (you) shows that in the previous verses it was not the Holy Prophet but Muslims in general who were addressed. The Holy Prophet could not be expected to dispute on behalf of dishonest people. The Qur’an addresses him because he was the recipient of Divine commandment for the believers. (close)
The use in the present verse of the word انتم (you) which is in the plural number clearly shows that in the previous verses it was not the Holy Prophet, but Muslims in general who were addressed. The Holy Prophet could not be expected to dispute on behalf of dishonest people. The Quran addresses him merely because he is the recipient of the Word of God and it is through him that people receive Divine commands. (close)