وَ مَنۡ یَّکۡسِبۡ خَطِیۡٓٮـَٔۃً اَوۡ اِثۡمًا ثُمَّ یَرۡمِ بِہٖ بَرِیۡٓــًٔا فَقَدِ احۡتَمَلَ بُہۡتَانًا وَّ اِثۡمًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۱۱۳﴾٪
وَمَن يَكۡسِبۡ خَطِيٓـَٔةً أَوۡ إِثۡمٗا ثُمَّ يَرۡمِ بِهِۦ بَرِيٓـٔٗا فَقَدِ ٱحۡتَمَلَ بُهۡتَٰنٗا وَإِثۡمٗا مُّبِينٗا
667. The difference between Khati’ah (fault) and Ithm (sin) mentioned side by side in this verse is that the former can be both intentional and unintentional and is often confined to the doer, while the latter is intentional and its scope may extend to other people as well. Moreover, the former may signify a dereliction of duty due to God, but the latter is often an offence against both God and man and is, therefore, more serious and is deserving of greater punishment than the former. See also 2:82 and 2:174. The commission of a fault or a sin makes it doubly grave, if the offender tries to shift the blame to an innocent person. This is why such an attempt has been termed not only as Buhtan (calumny) but also as Ithmun Mubin (manifest sin). (close)
c. 24:2, 24; 33:59. (close)
c. 24:12, 24; 33:59. (close)
579. Important Words:
The difference between خطیئة (fault) and اثم (sin) mentioned side by side in this verse is that the former can be both intentional and unintentional and is often confined to the doer; while the latter is intentional and its scope may extend to other people as well. Moreover, the former may be a dereliction of duty due to God; while the latter is often an offence against both God and man and is, therefore, more serious and deserving of greater punishment than the former. See also 2:82 and 2:174.
The commission of a fault or sin makes it doubly grave, if he who commits it tries to fix it on an innocent person. This is why such an attempt has not only been termed بھتان (calumny) but also اثم مبین (manifest sin). As the word مبین (manifest) also means "that which cuts asunder" (2:169), the expression اثما مبینا may also signify that a double sin, (i.e. committing a sin and then imputing it to an innocent person) is that which is likely to cut asunder the connection of the sinner with his Maker. (close)
وَ لَوۡ لَا فَضۡلُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکَ وَ رَحۡمَتُہٗ لَہَمَّتۡ طَّآئِفَۃٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ اَنۡ یُّضِلُّوۡکَ ؕ وَ مَا یُضِلُّوۡنَ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ وَ مَا یَضُرُّوۡنَکَ مِنۡ شَیۡءٍ ؕ وَ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡکَ الۡکِتٰبَ وَ الۡحِکۡمَۃَ وَ عَلَّمَکَ مَا لَمۡ تَکُنۡ تَعۡلَمُ ؕ وَ کَانَ فَضۡلُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکَ عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۱۱۴﴾
وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكَ وَرَحۡمَتُهُۥ لَهَمَّت طَّآئِفَةٞ مِّنۡهُمۡ أَن يُضِلُّوكَ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلَّآ أَنفُسَهُمۡۖ وَمَا يَضُرُّونَكَ مِن شَيۡءٖۚ وَأَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ وَٱلۡحِكۡمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمۡ تَكُن تَعۡلَمُۚ وَكَانَ فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكَ عَظِيمٗا
668. The words Fadl (grace) and Rahmah (mercy), though general in their significance, sometimes denote, "worldly goods" and "spiritual blessings" respectively (2:65). Thus the verse would mean that the Holy Prophet enjoyed God’s protection in temporal as well as in spiritual matters. (close)
a. 17:74. (close)
669. The Hypocrites adopted various ways to bring the Holy Prophet to grief. They would try to mislead him into coming to a wrong decision in matters of vital importance. But their evil designs were always frustrated because he was invariably led by God to the right course concerning matters affecting the future of Islam. (close)
b. 42:53; 96:6. (close)
a. 17:74. (close)
b. 42:52; 96:6. (close)
580. Important Words:
یضلوك (bring about thy ruin). See 2:27.
Various were the ways the hypocrites adopted to bring the Holy Prophet to grief. They would try to mislead him into coming to a wrong decision on a matter of vital importance. But their evil designs were always frustrated because the Holy Prophet was invariably led by God to the right course concerning matters affecting the future of Islam.
The words فضل (grace) and رحمة (mercy), though also general in their significance, sometimes denote "worldly good" and "spiritual blessings" respectively (see 2:65). In this case, the verse would mean that the Holy Prophet enjoyed God’s protection in temporal as well as spiritual matters. (close)
لَا خَیۡرَ فِیۡ کَثِیۡرٍ مِّنۡ نَّجۡوٰٮہُمۡ اِلَّا مَنۡ اَمَرَ بِصَدَقَۃٍ اَوۡ مَعۡرُوۡفٍ اَوۡ اِصۡلَاحٍۭ بَیۡنَ النَّاسِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّفۡعَلۡ ذٰلِکَ ابۡتِغَآءَ مَرۡضَاتِ اللّٰہِ فَسَوۡفَ نُؤۡتِیۡـہِ اَجۡرًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۱۱۵﴾
۞لَّا خَيۡرَ فِي كَثِيرٖ مِّن نَّجۡوَىٰهُمۡ إِلَّا مَنۡ أَمَرَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَوۡ مَعۡرُوفٍ أَوۡ إِصۡلَٰحِۭ بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِۚ وَمَن يَفۡعَلۡ ذَٰلِكَ ٱبۡتِغَآءَ مَرۡضَاتِ ٱللَّهِ فَسَوۡفَ نُؤۡتِيهِ أَجۡرًا عَظِيمٗا
670. Najwa means, a secret talk between two or more persons or telling secrets to another person or holding secret conferences. The word is not restricted to secret conferences but applies to all sorts of conferences whether secret or otherwise in which specially invited people meet to discuss vital matters (Lisan & Muhit). (close)
c. 2:225. (close)
a. 2:225. (close)
581. Important Words:
نجوی (conference) is derived from نجا which means, he became safe; he escaped. نجا الجلد عن الذبیحة means, he removed the skin of the slaughtered animal, laying bare the interior. نجا الرجل means, he discoursed secrets with the man, or simply he discoursed with him. ناجا الرجل means, he talked with him in private, or he discoursed secretly with him. نجوی therefore means, a secret between two or more persons; a person or persons discoursing or talking secretly, or holding secret talks, or telling secrets to one another, or talking confidentially, or holding confidential conference; the act of talking or discussing secrets with one another or holding confidential conferences (Aqrab & Taj). According to some authorities, the word نجوی is not restricted to secret conferences, but signifies all conferences whether secret or otherwise in which some people meet at a place and discuss matters or talk together (Lisan). Zajjaj also endorses the same view, saying that secrecy is not essential to نجوی which is applied to all conferences, whether open or secret (Muhit). The word thus extends to those conferences which, though not secret, are attended only by regular members or specially invited persons.
The verse is important inasmuch as it differentiates between good and bad conferences. The verse teaches that only three kinds of conferences or societies or meetings can be productive of good: Firstly, من امر بصدقة i.e. those that are founded or held with the object of promoting the welfare of the poor, the needy, etc. Secondly, من امر بمعروف i.e. those whose object is to promote the spread and propagation of, or investigation and research into, sciences, law, education, learning, the arts, etc. Thirdly, من امر باصلاح بین الناس i.e.those established for the purpose of settling disputes and removing causes of friction in domestic, social, national, or international matters. This would include associations for the purpose of conducting the political affairs of a nation or a country, for their object also is to promote peace among mankind. This teaching, if faithfully acted upon, should go a long way to establish peace and harmony in the world. (close)
وَ مَنۡ یُّشَاقِقِ الرَّسُوۡلَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَا تَبَیَّنَ لَہُ الۡہُدٰی وَ یَتَّبِعۡ غَیۡرَ سَبِیۡلِ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ نُوَلِّہٖ مَا تَوَلّٰی وَ نُصۡلِہٖ جَہَنَّمَ ؕ وَ سَآءَتۡ مَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۱۶﴾٪
وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ ٱلرَّسُولَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ ٱلۡهُدَىٰ وَيَتَّبِعۡ غَيۡرَ سَبِيلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِۦ مَا تَوَلَّىٰ وَنُصۡلِهِۦ جَهَنَّمَۖ وَسَآءَتۡ مَصِيرًا
a. 7:4. (close)
a. 7:4. (close)
The verse means that people who oppose the Prophet openly or secretly and seek for themselves a way other than that of believers, in spite of the fact that the divine guidance has become clear to them, will be deprived of the means of guidance, and God will let them follow the wrong course they are pursuing, i.e. they will increase in their hypocrisy and disbelief. (close)
اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یَغۡفِرُ اَنۡ یُّشۡرَکَ بِہٖ وَ یَغۡفِرُ مَا دُوۡنَ ذٰلِکَ لِمَنۡ یَّشَآءُ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یُّشۡرِکۡ بِاللّٰہِ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ ضَلٰلًۢا بَعِیۡدًا ﴿۱۱۷﴾
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَغۡفِرُ أَن يُشۡرَكَ بِهِۦ وَيَغۡفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَآءُۚ وَمَن يُشۡرِكۡ بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ ضَلَٰلَۢا بَعِيدًا
b. 4:49. (close)
c. 4:137. (close)
b. 4:49. (close)
c. 4:137. (close)
See note on 4:49. (close)
اِنۡ یَّدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖۤ اِلَّاۤ اِنٰثًا ۚ وَ اِنۡ یَّدۡعُوۡنَ اِلَّا شَیۡطٰنًا مَّرِیۡدًا ﴿۱۱۸﴾ۙ
إِن يَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦٓ إِلَّآ إِنَٰثٗا وَإِن يَدۡعُونَ إِلَّا شَيۡطَٰنٗا مَّرِيدٗا
671. The word Inath includes all false deities, whether living or dead. The word has been used to point to the utter weakness and helplessness of false deities. (close)
584. Important Words:
اناثا (lifeless objects) is the plural of انثی which is derived from انث which means, it was or became female or feminine; or it (iron, etc.) was or became soft. انثی means, female; feminine; of the female sex or feminine gender. اناث, which is the plural of انثی, also means, inanimate or lifeless things; small stars (Lane).
مریدا (rebellious) is derived from مرد i.e. he was or became rebellious and transgressed proper limits. مارد means, one who rebels and transgresses proper limits. مرید means, mischievous, haughty and rebellious (Aqrab).
The word اناث (lifeless objects) explained above includes all false deities, whether living or dead. The word has been used to point to the utter weakness and helplessness of the false deities.
The use of the word "Satan" in the verse signifies that idolaters, while invoking their deities, in reality invoke Satan, because it is at his bidding that they invoke false gods.
The verse provides two reasons for the statement made in the previous verse: (1) the worship of false gods does the idolaters no good; (2) it positively does them harm, because it strengthens their relation with Satan, who is the avowed enemy of a man and a rebel against the true God. (close)
لَّعَنَہُ اللّٰہُ ۘ وَ قَالَ لَاَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنۡ عِبَادِکَ نَصِیۡبًا مَّفۡرُوۡضًا ﴿۱۱۹﴾ۙ
لَّعَنَهُ ٱللَّهُۘ وَقَالَ لَأَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنۡ عِبَادِكَ نَصِيبٗا مَّفۡرُوضٗا
d. 14:23; 17:65. (close)
a. 14:23; 17:65. (close)
The opening part of the verse refers to Satan as mentioned in the preceding verse. When cursed by God, he vowed to mislead men; but he can lead astray only a "fixed portion" of them, i.e. those who themselves choose to accept his lead. The words "fixed portion" thus mean portion determined under the eternal laws of God. (close)
وَّ لَاُضِلَّنَّہُمۡ وَ لَاُمَنِّیَنَّہُمۡ وَ لَاٰمُرَنَّہُمۡ فَلَیُبَتِّکُنَّ اٰذَانَ الۡاَنۡعَامِ وَ لَاٰمُرَنَّہُمۡ فَلَیُغَیِّرُنَّ خَلۡقَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَّخِذِ الشَّیۡطٰنَ وَلِیًّا مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ فَقَدۡ خَسِرَ خُسۡرَانًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۱۲۰﴾ؕ
وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمۡ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمۡ وَلَأٓمُرَنَّهُمۡ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ ءَاذَانَ ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ وَلَأٓمُرَنَّهُمۡ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلۡقَ ٱللَّهِۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنَ وَلِيّٗا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ فَقَدۡ خَسِرَ خُسۡرَانٗا مُّبِينٗا
672. As a mark of their devotion to false deities, the Arabs used to cut the ears of dedicated animals in order to distinguish them from other animals. This foolish practice persists even to this day in some countries (close)
673. The 'alteration of Allah’s creation' is done by (1) deifying God’s creation; (2) by changing and corrupting the religion of God; (3) by deforming or disfiguring the body of a newborn child; and (4) by turning to evil use that which Allah has created for good use. (close)
586. Important Words:
فلیبتکن (will cut) is derived from بتك. They say بتکه i.e. he cut it or severed it, or slit it, or cut it off entirely, or plucked it out (Lane).
The opening part of the verse is a continuation of the speech of Satan begun in the last verse, and the latter part embodies a pronouncement of the judgement of God.
As a mark of their dedication to false deities, the Arabs used to cut the ears of dedicated animals in order to distinguish them from other animals. This foolish practice persists even to this day among some ignorant people in India and elsewhere.
The "alteration of God’s creation" can be, and is, generally done in four ways: (1) by deifying God’s creation; (2) by changing and corrupting the religion of God; (3) by deforming or disfiguring the body of a newborn child; (4) by turning to an evil use that which God has created for a good purpose. For instance, God has endowed man with many faculties by making a right use of which he can make great progress in all departments of life, but not unoften he seeks to alter God’s creation by making an evil use of them and as a result thereof "suffers a manifest loss". (close)
یَعِدُہُمۡ وَ یُمَنِّیۡہِمۡ ؕ وَ مَا یَعِدُہُمُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اِلَّا غُرُوۡرًا ﴿۱۲۱﴾
يَعِدُهُمۡ وَيُمَنِّيهِمۡۖ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا
a. 14:23; 17:75. (close)
587. Important Words:
غرورا (vain things) is derived from غر. They say غرہ i.e. he deceived him; he beguiled him; he made him desire what was vain or false. غرور (ghurur) means, false or vain thing; vanity or what is false or vain; a deception; a thing by which one is deceived. غرور (gharur), (e.g. 31:34), with different vowel point, means, very deceitful, or what deceives one, the Devil; also the present world (Lane).
The promises made by Satan and the desires raised by him in the hearts of his votaries, as against the works and decrees of God, never materialize. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ مَاۡوٰٮہُمۡ جَہَنَّمُ ۫ وَ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ عَنۡہَا مَحِیۡصًا ﴿۱۲۲﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ مَأۡوَىٰهُمۡ جَهَنَّمُ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ عَنۡهَا مَحِيصٗا
b. 14:22. (close)
b. 14:22. (close)
588. Important Words:
محیص (way of escape) is derived from حاص. They say حاص عنه i.e. he turned away from, and escaped it. محیص therefore means, a way or place of escape; a place of refuge; a place to which one turns or flees (Aqrab & Lane). (close)