اِنۡ یَّدۡعُوۡنَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِہٖۤ اِلَّاۤ اِنٰثًا ۚ وَ اِنۡ یَّدۡعُوۡنَ اِلَّا شَیۡطٰنًا مَّرِیۡدًا ﴿۱۱۸﴾ۙ
إِن يَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦٓ إِلَّآ إِنَٰثٗا وَإِن يَدۡعُونَ إِلَّا شَيۡطَٰنٗا مَّرِيدٗا
671. The word Inath includes all false deities, whether living or dead. The word has been used to point to the utter weakness and helplessness of false deities. (close)
584. Important Words:
اناثا (lifeless objects) is the plural of انثی which is derived from انث which means, it was or became female or feminine; or it (iron, etc.) was or became soft. انثی means, female; feminine; of the female sex or feminine gender. اناث, which is the plural of انثی, also means, inanimate or lifeless things; small stars (Lane).
مریدا (rebellious) is derived from مرد i.e. he was or became rebellious and transgressed proper limits. مارد means, one who rebels and transgresses proper limits. مرید means, mischievous, haughty and rebellious (Aqrab).
The word اناث (lifeless objects) explained above includes all false deities, whether living or dead. The word has been used to point to the utter weakness and helplessness of the false deities.
The use of the word "Satan" in the verse signifies that idolaters, while invoking their deities, in reality invoke Satan, because it is at his bidding that they invoke false gods.
The verse provides two reasons for the statement made in the previous verse: (1) the worship of false gods does the idolaters no good; (2) it positively does them harm, because it strengthens their relation with Satan, who is the avowed enemy of a man and a rebel against the true God. (close)
لَّعَنَہُ اللّٰہُ ۘ وَ قَالَ لَاَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنۡ عِبَادِکَ نَصِیۡبًا مَّفۡرُوۡضًا ﴿۱۱۹﴾ۙ
لَّعَنَهُ ٱللَّهُۘ وَقَالَ لَأَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنۡ عِبَادِكَ نَصِيبٗا مَّفۡرُوضٗا
d. 14:23; 17:65. (close)
a. 14:23; 17:65. (close)
The opening part of the verse refers to Satan as mentioned in the preceding verse. When cursed by God, he vowed to mislead men; but he can lead astray only a "fixed portion" of them, i.e. those who themselves choose to accept his lead. The words "fixed portion" thus mean portion determined under the eternal laws of God. (close)
وَّ لَاُضِلَّنَّہُمۡ وَ لَاُمَنِّیَنَّہُمۡ وَ لَاٰمُرَنَّہُمۡ فَلَیُبَتِّکُنَّ اٰذَانَ الۡاَنۡعَامِ وَ لَاٰمُرَنَّہُمۡ فَلَیُغَیِّرُنَّ خَلۡقَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَّخِذِ الشَّیۡطٰنَ وَلِیًّا مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ فَقَدۡ خَسِرَ خُسۡرَانًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۱۲۰﴾ؕ
وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمۡ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمۡ وَلَأٓمُرَنَّهُمۡ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ ءَاذَانَ ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ وَلَأٓمُرَنَّهُمۡ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلۡقَ ٱللَّهِۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنَ وَلِيّٗا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ فَقَدۡ خَسِرَ خُسۡرَانٗا مُّبِينٗا
672. As a mark of their devotion to false deities, the Arabs used to cut the ears of dedicated animals in order to distinguish them from other animals. This foolish practice persists even to this day in some countries (close)
673. The 'alteration of Allah’s creation' is done by (1) deifying God’s creation; (2) by changing and corrupting the religion of God; (3) by deforming or disfiguring the body of a newborn child; and (4) by turning to evil use that which Allah has created for good use. (close)
586. Important Words:
فلیبتکن (will cut) is derived from بتك. They say بتکه i.e. he cut it or severed it, or slit it, or cut it off entirely, or plucked it out (Lane).
The opening part of the verse is a continuation of the speech of Satan begun in the last verse, and the latter part embodies a pronouncement of the judgement of God.
As a mark of their dedication to false deities, the Arabs used to cut the ears of dedicated animals in order to distinguish them from other animals. This foolish practice persists even to this day among some ignorant people in India and elsewhere.
The "alteration of God’s creation" can be, and is, generally done in four ways: (1) by deifying God’s creation; (2) by changing and corrupting the religion of God; (3) by deforming or disfiguring the body of a newborn child; (4) by turning to an evil use that which God has created for a good purpose. For instance, God has endowed man with many faculties by making a right use of which he can make great progress in all departments of life, but not unoften he seeks to alter God’s creation by making an evil use of them and as a result thereof "suffers a manifest loss". (close)
یَعِدُہُمۡ وَ یُمَنِّیۡہِمۡ ؕ وَ مَا یَعِدُہُمُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اِلَّا غُرُوۡرًا ﴿۱۲۱﴾
يَعِدُهُمۡ وَيُمَنِّيهِمۡۖ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا
a. 14:23; 17:75. (close)
587. Important Words:
غرورا (vain things) is derived from غر. They say غرہ i.e. he deceived him; he beguiled him; he made him desire what was vain or false. غرور (ghurur) means, false or vain thing; vanity or what is false or vain; a deception; a thing by which one is deceived. غرور (gharur), (e.g. 31:34), with different vowel point, means, very deceitful, or what deceives one, the Devil; also the present world (Lane).
The promises made by Satan and the desires raised by him in the hearts of his votaries, as against the works and decrees of God, never materialize. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ مَاۡوٰٮہُمۡ جَہَنَّمُ ۫ وَ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ عَنۡہَا مَحِیۡصًا ﴿۱۲۲﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ مَأۡوَىٰهُمۡ جَهَنَّمُ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ عَنۡهَا مَحِيصٗا
b. 14:22. (close)
b. 14:22. (close)
588. Important Words:
محیص (way of escape) is derived from حاص. They say حاص عنه i.e. he turned away from, and escaped it. محیص therefore means, a way or place of escape; a place of refuge; a place to which one turns or flees (Aqrab & Lane). (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ سَنُدۡخِلُہُمۡ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاۤ اَبَدًا ؕ وَعۡدَ اللّٰہِ حَقًّا ؕ وَ مَنۡ اَصۡدَقُ مِنَ اللّٰہِ قِیۡلًا ﴿۱۲۳﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ سَنُدۡخِلُهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٖ تَجۡرِي مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدٗاۖ وَعۡدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقّٗاۚ وَمَنۡ أَصۡدَقُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ قِيلٗا
c. See 2:26. (close)
a. See 2:26. (close)
لَیۡسَ بِاَمَانِیِّکُمۡ وَ لَاۤ اَمَانِیِّ اَہۡلِ الۡکِتٰبِ ؕ مَنۡ یَّعۡمَلۡ سُوۡٓءًا یُّجۡزَ بِہٖ ۙ وَ لَا یَجِدۡ لَہٗ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَلِیًّا وَّ لَا نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۲۴﴾
لَّيۡسَ بِأَمَانِيِّكُمۡ وَلَآ أَمَانِيِّ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِۗ مَن يَعۡمَلۡ سُوٓءٗا يُجۡزَ بِهِۦ وَلَا يَجِدۡ لَهُۥ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِيّٗا وَلَا نَصِيرٗا
d. 4:46; 33:18, 66. (close)
b. 4:46; 33:18, 66. (close)
The expression, It shall not be according to your desires, does not mean that the desires of the Faithful will not materialize. The verse purports to lay down a general principle that it is only the Will of God which prevails. As the desires of true believers must coincide with the will of God, they are bound to materialize. (close)
وَ مَنۡ یَّعۡمَلۡ مِنَ الصّٰلِحٰتِ مِنۡ ذَکَرٍ اَوۡ اُنۡثٰی وَ ہُوَ مُؤۡمِنٌ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ یَدۡخُلُوۡنَ الۡجَنَّۃَ وَ لَا یُظۡلَمُوۡنَ نَقِیۡرًا ﴿۱۲۵﴾
وَمَن يَعۡمَلۡ مِنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ مِن ذَكَرٍ أَوۡ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤۡمِنٞ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ يَدۡخُلُونَ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظۡلَمُونَ نَقِيرٗا
a. 40:41 (close)
674. The verse places men and women on the same level so far as their works and rewards are concerned. Both are equally entitled to good reward if they do good works. (close)
c. 40:41. (close)
The verse is important inasmuch as it clearly places men and women on the same level so far as works and their rewards are concerned. Both alike are servants of the Lord and both are equally entitled to a good reward, if they do good works. It is indeed strange that in spite of such explicit teaching some Christian missionaries should have the hardihood to bring against Islam the charge that according to it women, unlike men, are devoid of souls.
It should also be noted that true belief is a necessary condition for salvation, as the words, and is a believer, clearly indicate. (close)
وَ مَنۡ اَحۡسَنُ دِیۡنًا مِّمَّنۡ اَسۡلَمَ وَجۡہَہٗ لِلّٰہِ وَ ہُوَ مُحۡسِنٌ وَّ اتَّبَعَ مِلَّۃَ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ حَنِیۡفًا ؕ وَ اتَّخَذَ اللّٰہُ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ خَلِیۡلًا ﴿۱۲۶﴾
وَمَنۡ أَحۡسَنُ دِينٗا مِّمَّنۡ أَسۡلَمَ وَجۡهَهُۥ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحۡسِنٞ وَٱتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ حَنِيفٗاۗ وَٱتَّخَذَ ٱللَّهُ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ خَلِيلٗا
b. 2:132. (close)
675. This verse gives the essence of Islam which is complete submission to the will of God and the complete devotion of all one’s faculties and powers to His service and holds out Abraham as true model for a Muslim to imitate and follow. (close)
a. 2:132. (close)
591. Important Words:
خلیل (special friend) is derived from خل. They say خل الشیء i.e. he bored a hole into the thing. خل فی دعائه means, he was particular in his prayer. خلیل means, a special and particular friend whose love penetrates your inner parts (Aqrab & Lane). See also 2:255.
This verse gives the essence of Islam which signifies submission to the Will of God and the devotion of one’s faculties and powers to His service (see also note on 2:113). Abraham has been held out to the People of the Book who revere him as a patriarch and to the Arabs who were proud of being descended from him, as an example who embodied in his person the essence of Islam by his full submission to the Will of God; and both these people are herein told that it is only the true observance of the teachings of Islam that can make one like Abraham—beloved of God and His special friend.
There is a hadith in which the Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "If I had taken anyone from among men as my خلیل (special friend whose love penetrates one’s heart), I would have certainly taken Abu Bakr as such. But such friendship is permissible with God alone Who is my خلیل" (Bukhari, ch. on Fada’il of the Holy Companions). (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ مُّحِیۡطًا ﴿۱۲۷﴾٪
وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٖ مُّحِيطٗا
c. 2:285; 4:132; 10:56; 16:53; 24:65. (close)
d. 41:55; 85:21. (close)
b. 2:285; 4:132; 10:56; 16:53; 24:65. (close)
c. 41:55; 85:21. (close)
The word محیط (One Who encompasses) signifies two things: (1) that God encompasses everything with His knowledge; and (2) that He encompasses all with His power. There is nothing that He does not know and nothing that He does not hold in His power. (close)