وَّ لَاُضِلَّنَّہُمۡ وَ لَاُمَنِّیَنَّہُمۡ وَ لَاٰمُرَنَّہُمۡ فَلَیُبَتِّکُنَّ اٰذَانَ الۡاَنۡعَامِ وَ لَاٰمُرَنَّہُمۡ فَلَیُغَیِّرُنَّ خَلۡقَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّتَّخِذِ الشَّیۡطٰنَ وَلِیًّا مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ فَقَدۡ خَسِرَ خُسۡرَانًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۱۲۰﴾ؕ
وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمۡ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمۡ وَلَأٓمُرَنَّهُمۡ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ ءَاذَانَ ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ وَلَأٓمُرَنَّهُمۡ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلۡقَ ٱللَّهِۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنَ وَلِيّٗا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ فَقَدۡ خَسِرَ خُسۡرَانٗا مُّبِينٗا
672. As a mark of their devotion to false deities, the Arabs used to cut the ears of dedicated animals in order to distinguish them from other animals. This foolish practice persists even to this day in some countries (close)
673. The 'alteration of Allah’s creation' is done by (1) deifying God’s creation; (2) by changing and corrupting the religion of God; (3) by deforming or disfiguring the body of a newborn child; and (4) by turning to evil use that which Allah has created for good use. (close)
586. Important Words:
فلیبتکن (will cut) is derived from بتك. They say بتکه i.e. he cut it or severed it, or slit it, or cut it off entirely, or plucked it out (Lane).
The opening part of the verse is a continuation of the speech of Satan begun in the last verse, and the latter part embodies a pronouncement of the judgement of God.
As a mark of their dedication to false deities, the Arabs used to cut the ears of dedicated animals in order to distinguish them from other animals. This foolish practice persists even to this day among some ignorant people in India and elsewhere.
The "alteration of God’s creation" can be, and is, generally done in four ways: (1) by deifying God’s creation; (2) by changing and corrupting the religion of God; (3) by deforming or disfiguring the body of a newborn child; (4) by turning to an evil use that which God has created for a good purpose. For instance, God has endowed man with many faculties by making a right use of which he can make great progress in all departments of life, but not unoften he seeks to alter God’s creation by making an evil use of them and as a result thereof "suffers a manifest loss". (close)
یَعِدُہُمۡ وَ یُمَنِّیۡہِمۡ ؕ وَ مَا یَعِدُہُمُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اِلَّا غُرُوۡرًا ﴿۱۲۱﴾
يَعِدُهُمۡ وَيُمَنِّيهِمۡۖ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا
a. 14:23; 17:75. (close)
a. 14:23; 17:65. (close)
587. Important Words:
غرورا (vain things) is derived from غر. They say غرہ i.e. he deceived him; he beguiled him; he made him desire what was vain or false. غرور (ghurur) means, false or vain thing; vanity or what is false or vain; a deception; a thing by which one is deceived. غرور (gharur), (e.g. 31:34), with different vowel point, means, very deceitful, or what deceives one, the Devil; also the present world (Lane).
The promises made by Satan and the desires raised by him in the hearts of his votaries, as against the works and decrees of God, never materialize. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ مَاۡوٰٮہُمۡ جَہَنَّمُ ۫ وَ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ عَنۡہَا مَحِیۡصًا ﴿۱۲۲﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ مَأۡوَىٰهُمۡ جَهَنَّمُ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ عَنۡهَا مَحِيصٗا
b. 14:22. (close)
b. 14:22. (close)
588. Important Words:
محیص (way of escape) is derived from حاص. They say حاص عنه i.e. he turned away from, and escaped it. محیص therefore means, a way or place of escape; a place of refuge; a place to which one turns or flees (Aqrab & Lane). (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ سَنُدۡخِلُہُمۡ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاۤ اَبَدًا ؕ وَعۡدَ اللّٰہِ حَقًّا ؕ وَ مَنۡ اَصۡدَقُ مِنَ اللّٰہِ قِیۡلًا ﴿۱۲۳﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ سَنُدۡخِلُهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٖ تَجۡرِي مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدٗاۖ وَعۡدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقّٗاۚ وَمَنۡ أَصۡدَقُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ قِيلٗا
c. See 2:26. (close)
a. See 2:26. (close)
لَیۡسَ بِاَمَانِیِّکُمۡ وَ لَاۤ اَمَانِیِّ اَہۡلِ الۡکِتٰبِ ؕ مَنۡ یَّعۡمَلۡ سُوۡٓءًا یُّجۡزَ بِہٖ ۙ وَ لَا یَجِدۡ لَہٗ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَلِیًّا وَّ لَا نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۲۴﴾
لَّيۡسَ بِأَمَانِيِّكُمۡ وَلَآ أَمَانِيِّ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِۗ مَن يَعۡمَلۡ سُوٓءٗا يُجۡزَ بِهِۦ وَلَا يَجِدۡ لَهُۥ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِيّٗا وَلَا نَصِيرٗا
d. 4:46; 33:18, 66. (close)
b. 4:46; 33:18, 66. (close)
The expression, It shall not be according to your desires, does not mean that the desires of the Faithful will not materialize. The verse purports to lay down a general principle that it is only the Will of God which prevails. As the desires of true believers must coincide with the will of God, they are bound to materialize. (close)
وَ مَنۡ یَّعۡمَلۡ مِنَ الصّٰلِحٰتِ مِنۡ ذَکَرٍ اَوۡ اُنۡثٰی وَ ہُوَ مُؤۡمِنٌ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ یَدۡخُلُوۡنَ الۡجَنَّۃَ وَ لَا یُظۡلَمُوۡنَ نَقِیۡرًا ﴿۱۲۵﴾
وَمَن يَعۡمَلۡ مِنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ مِن ذَكَرٍ أَوۡ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤۡمِنٞ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ يَدۡخُلُونَ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظۡلَمُونَ نَقِيرٗا
a. 40:41 (close)
674. The verse places men and women on the same level so far as their works and rewards are concerned. Both are equally entitled to good reward if they do good works. (close)
c. 40:41. (close)
The verse is important inasmuch as it clearly places men and women on the same level so far as works and their rewards are concerned. Both alike are servants of the Lord and both are equally entitled to a good reward, if they do good works. It is indeed strange that in spite of such explicit teaching some Christian missionaries should have the hardihood to bring against Islam the charge that according to it women, unlike men, are devoid of souls.
It should also be noted that true belief is a necessary condition for salvation, as the words, and is a believer, clearly indicate. (close)
وَ مَنۡ اَحۡسَنُ دِیۡنًا مِّمَّنۡ اَسۡلَمَ وَجۡہَہٗ لِلّٰہِ وَ ہُوَ مُحۡسِنٌ وَّ اتَّبَعَ مِلَّۃَ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ حَنِیۡفًا ؕ وَ اتَّخَذَ اللّٰہُ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ خَلِیۡلًا ﴿۱۲۶﴾
وَمَنۡ أَحۡسَنُ دِينٗا مِّمَّنۡ أَسۡلَمَ وَجۡهَهُۥ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحۡسِنٞ وَٱتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ حَنِيفٗاۗ وَٱتَّخَذَ ٱللَّهُ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ خَلِيلٗا
b. 2:132. (close)
675. This verse gives the essence of Islam which is complete submission to the will of God and the complete devotion of all one’s faculties and powers to His service and holds out Abraham as true model for a Muslim to imitate and follow. (close)
a. 2:132. (close)
591. Important Words:
خلیل (special friend) is derived from خل. They say خل الشیء i.e. he bored a hole into the thing. خل فی دعائه means, he was particular in his prayer. خلیل means, a special and particular friend whose love penetrates your inner parts (Aqrab & Lane). See also 2:255.
This verse gives the essence of Islam which signifies submission to the Will of God and the devotion of one’s faculties and powers to His service (see also note on 2:113). Abraham has been held out to the People of the Book who revere him as a patriarch and to the Arabs who were proud of being descended from him, as an example who embodied in his person the essence of Islam by his full submission to the Will of God; and both these people are herein told that it is only the true observance of the teachings of Islam that can make one like Abraham—beloved of God and His special friend.
There is a hadith in which the Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "If I had taken anyone from among men as my خلیل (special friend whose love penetrates one’s heart), I would have certainly taken Abu Bakr as such. But such friendship is permissible with God alone Who is my خلیل" (Bukhari, ch. on Fada’il of the Holy Companions). (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ مُّحِیۡطًا ﴿۱۲۷﴾٪
وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٖ مُّحِيطٗا
c. 2:285; 4:132; 10:56; 16:53; 24:65. (close)
d. 41:55; 85:21. (close)
b. 2:285; 4:132; 10:56; 16:53; 24:65. (close)
c. 41:55; 85:21. (close)
The word محیط (One Who encompasses) signifies two things: (1) that God encompasses everything with His knowledge; and (2) that He encompasses all with His power. There is nothing that He does not know and nothing that He does not hold in His power. (close)
وَ یَسۡتَفۡتُوۡنَکَ فِی النِّسَآءِ ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ یُفۡتِیۡکُمۡ فِیۡہِنَّ ۙ وَ مَا یُتۡلٰی عَلَیۡکُمۡ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ فِیۡ یَتٰمَی النِّسَآءِ الّٰتِیۡ لَاتُؤۡ تُوۡنَہُنَّ مَا کُتِبَ لَہُنَّ وَ تَرۡغَبُوۡنَ اَنۡ تَنۡکِحُوۡہُنَّ وَ الۡمُسۡتَضۡعَفِیۡنَ مِنَ الۡوِلۡدَانِ ۙ وَ اَنۡ تَقُوۡمُوۡا لِلۡیَتٰمٰی بِالۡقِسۡطِ ؕ وَ مَا تَفۡعَلُوۡا مِنۡ خَیۡرٍ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ بِہٖ عَلِیۡمًا ﴿۱۲۸﴾
وَيَسۡتَفۡتُونَكَ فِي ٱلنِّسَآءِۖ قُلِ ٱللَّهُ يُفۡتِيكُمۡ فِيهِنَّ وَمَا يُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ فِي يَتَٰمَى ٱلنِّسَآءِ ٱلَّـٰتِي لَا تُؤۡتُونَهُنَّ مَا كُتِبَ لَهُنَّ وَتَرۡغَبُونَ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ وَٱلۡمُسۡتَضۡعَفِينَ مِنَ ٱلۡوِلۡدَٰنِ وَأَن تَقُومُواْ لِلۡيَتَٰمَىٰ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِۚ وَمَا تَفۡعَلُواْ مِنۡ خَيۡرٖ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِهِۦ عَلِيمٗا
676. The "decision" is referred to in the following three verses. (close)
a. 4:4. (close)
677. The allusion in the words, that which is recited to you in the Book, is to the 4th verse of the present Surah. It was prohibited to Muslims to marry those orphan girls whose rights they could not adequately safeguard. ‘Umar, the Second Caliph would not allow the guardians of wealthy and handsome orphan girls to marry them and would insist on other and better husbands being found for them. The verse signifies that some instructions about women have already been given in the Qur’an and that other instructions follow. (close)
677A. Walad which is singular of Wildan is used both for a boy and a girl, but here Wildan signifies girls, marriage with whom is mentioned here. (close)
a. 4:4. (close)
593. Important Words:
یستفتونك (they seek of thee the decision of the Law) and یفتیکم (gives you His decision) are both derived from فتو or فتی i.e.he was or became youthful, or he was in the prime of life. فتا الرجل means, he surpassed the man in فتوة i.e. in generosity. افتاه فی الامر means, he made known or explained to him the decision of the Shari‘ah respecting the matter; or he gave him an answer stating the decision of the Law respecting a question. استفتیت الفقیه فی الامر means, I asked or sought of the jurist or the lawyer or the learned man the decision of the Shari‘ah respecting the matter. فتوی therefore means, an explanation or notification or pronouncement of the decision of the Law in some dubious or difficult matter given by a jurist or a lawyer or a man learned in religious Law. استفتاء means, asking or seeking of a jurist or a lawyer or a learned man the decision of the Law (Shari‘ah) in a certain dubious or difficult matter (Lane & Aqrab). The expression إفتا rendered in the verse as gives you the decision, is also sometimes used in the sense of permitting or giving permission, as in the well-known hadith الاثم ماحك فی صدرك وان افتاك الناس i.e. a sin is that which pricks in thy mind even if people should say that it is permissible (Lisan). In this case the Quranic clause الله یفتیکم rendered as, Allah gives you His decision, may also be translated as "Allah gives you permission".
The verse which has been differently translated is considered to be a rather difficult one. The decision spoken of in the clause, Allah gives you His decision, refers to what follows in the succeeding verses, i.e. 4:129-131.
The allusion in the words, that which is recited to you in the Book, is to verse 4:4 in the beginning of the present Surah. It was prohibited to Muslims to marry those orphan girls whose rights they could not adequately discharge. ‘Umar, the Holy Prophet’s Second Successor, would not allow the guardians of wealthy and handsome orphan girls to marry them but would insist on better husbands being found for them. On the other hand, if they were not so wealthy or handsome, he recommended them to their guardians for marriage so that, being acquainted with their defects and weaknesses, they might overlook their shortcomings and deal kindly with them. For further instructions about good treatment of orphans; see 4:6, 7.
Generally speaking the clause, Allah gives you His decision regarding them (women) and so does that which is recited to you in the Book concerning the orphan girls, means that some instructions about women have already been given in the Quran and other instructions follow. (close)
وَ اِنِ امۡرَاَۃٌ خَافَتۡ مِنۡۢ بَعۡلِہَا نُشُوۡزًا اَوۡ اِعۡرَاضًا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَیۡہِمَاۤ اَنۡ یُّصۡلِحَا بَیۡنَہُمَا صُلۡحًا ؕ وَ الصُّلۡحُ خَیۡرٌ ؕ وَ اُحۡضِرَتِ الۡاَنۡفُسُ الشُّحَّ ؕ وَ اِنۡ تُحۡسِنُوۡا وَ تَتَّقُوۡا فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ خَبِیۡرًا ﴿۱۲۹﴾
وَإِنِ ٱمۡرَأَةٌ خَافَتۡ مِنۢ بَعۡلِهَا نُشُوزًا أَوۡ إِعۡرَاضٗا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيۡهِمَآ أَن يُصۡلِحَا بَيۡنَهُمَا صُلۡحٗاۚ وَٱلصُّلۡحُ خَيۡرٞۗ وَأُحۡضِرَتِ ٱلۡأَنفُسُ ٱلشُّحَّۚ وَإِن تُحۡسِنُواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرٗا
b. 4:35. (close)
678. The words, it shall be no sin for them that they be suitably reconciled to each other, constitute a peculiar Quranic expression denoting both exhortation and rebuke. They may be interpreted as something like this: "Do the contending parties think that they would be committing a sin if they became reconciled to each other? It is no sin to do so. On the contrary, it is a commendable thing." (close)
679. These words give the real cause that often leads to estrangement between husband and wife. It is niggardliness on the part of the husband and covetousness on the part of the wife. (close)
a. 4:35. (close)
The words, it shall be no sin on them that they be suitably reconciled to each other, constitute a peculiar Quranic expression denoting both exhortation and rebuke. They may be interpreted as something like this: "Do the contending parties think that they would be committing a sin if they became reconciled to each other? It is no sin to do so. On the contrary, it is a commendable thing."
The words احضرت الانفس الشح (people are prone to covetousness) literally mean, "souls have been put face to face with covetousness." These words thus give the real cause that often leads to estrangement between husband and wife. It may be expressed as niggardliness on the part of the husband and covetousness on the part of the wife. When the husband does not like his wife, he thinks it a burden to support her. On the other hand, the wife sometimes makes excessive demands on her husband. The verse exhorts both to treat each other equitably and fairly.
The words, and reconciliation is best, embody an appeal to the married couple to live amicably and avoid disagreements; for that is in their own interest in all respects. (close)