وَ مَنۡ اَحۡسَنُ دِیۡنًا مِّمَّنۡ اَسۡلَمَ وَجۡہَہٗ لِلّٰہِ وَ ہُوَ مُحۡسِنٌ وَّ اتَّبَعَ مِلَّۃَ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ حَنِیۡفًا ؕ وَ اتَّخَذَ اللّٰہُ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ خَلِیۡلًا ﴿۱۲۶﴾
وَمَنۡ أَحۡسَنُ دِينٗا مِّمَّنۡ أَسۡلَمَ وَجۡهَهُۥ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحۡسِنٞ وَٱتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ حَنِيفٗاۗ وَٱتَّخَذَ ٱللَّهُ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ خَلِيلٗا
b. 2:132. (close)
675. This verse gives the essence of Islam which is complete submission to the will of God and the complete devotion of all one’s faculties and powers to His service and holds out Abraham as true model for a Muslim to imitate and follow. (close)
a. 2:132. (close)
591. Important Words:
خلیل (special friend) is derived from خل. They say خل الشیء i.e. he bored a hole into the thing. خل فی دعائه means, he was particular in his prayer. خلیل means, a special and particular friend whose love penetrates your inner parts (Aqrab & Lane). See also 2:255.
This verse gives the essence of Islam which signifies submission to the Will of God and the devotion of one’s faculties and powers to His service (see also note on 2:113). Abraham has been held out to the People of the Book who revere him as a patriarch and to the Arabs who were proud of being descended from him, as an example who embodied in his person the essence of Islam by his full submission to the Will of God; and both these people are herein told that it is only the true observance of the teachings of Islam that can make one like Abraham—beloved of God and His special friend.
There is a hadith in which the Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "If I had taken anyone from among men as my خلیل (special friend whose love penetrates one’s heart), I would have certainly taken Abu Bakr as such. But such friendship is permissible with God alone Who is my خلیل" (Bukhari, ch. on Fada’il of the Holy Companions). (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ مُّحِیۡطًا ﴿۱۲۷﴾٪
وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٖ مُّحِيطٗا
c. 2:285; 4:132; 10:56; 16:53; 24:65. (close)
d. 41:55; 85:21. (close)
b. 2:285; 4:132; 10:56; 16:53; 24:65. (close)
c. 41:55; 85:21. (close)
The word محیط (One Who encompasses) signifies two things: (1) that God encompasses everything with His knowledge; and (2) that He encompasses all with His power. There is nothing that He does not know and nothing that He does not hold in His power. (close)
وَ یَسۡتَفۡتُوۡنَکَ فِی النِّسَآءِ ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ یُفۡتِیۡکُمۡ فِیۡہِنَّ ۙ وَ مَا یُتۡلٰی عَلَیۡکُمۡ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ فِیۡ یَتٰمَی النِّسَآءِ الّٰتِیۡ لَاتُؤۡ تُوۡنَہُنَّ مَا کُتِبَ لَہُنَّ وَ تَرۡغَبُوۡنَ اَنۡ تَنۡکِحُوۡہُنَّ وَ الۡمُسۡتَضۡعَفِیۡنَ مِنَ الۡوِلۡدَانِ ۙ وَ اَنۡ تَقُوۡمُوۡا لِلۡیَتٰمٰی بِالۡقِسۡطِ ؕ وَ مَا تَفۡعَلُوۡا مِنۡ خَیۡرٍ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ بِہٖ عَلِیۡمًا ﴿۱۲۸﴾
وَيَسۡتَفۡتُونَكَ فِي ٱلنِّسَآءِۖ قُلِ ٱللَّهُ يُفۡتِيكُمۡ فِيهِنَّ وَمَا يُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ فِي يَتَٰمَى ٱلنِّسَآءِ ٱلَّـٰتِي لَا تُؤۡتُونَهُنَّ مَا كُتِبَ لَهُنَّ وَتَرۡغَبُونَ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ وَٱلۡمُسۡتَضۡعَفِينَ مِنَ ٱلۡوِلۡدَٰنِ وَأَن تَقُومُواْ لِلۡيَتَٰمَىٰ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِۚ وَمَا تَفۡعَلُواْ مِنۡ خَيۡرٖ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِهِۦ عَلِيمٗا
676. The "decision" is referred to in the following three verses. (close)
a. 4:4. (close)
677. The allusion in the words, that which is recited to you in the Book, is to the 4th verse of the present Surah. It was prohibited to Muslims to marry those orphan girls whose rights they could not adequately safeguard. ‘Umar, the Second Caliph would not allow the guardians of wealthy and handsome orphan girls to marry them and would insist on other and better husbands being found for them. The verse signifies that some instructions about women have already been given in the Qur’an and that other instructions follow. (close)
677A. Walad which is singular of Wildan is used both for a boy and a girl, but here Wildan signifies girls, marriage with whom is mentioned here. (close)
a. 4:4. (close)
593. Important Words:
یستفتونك (they seek of thee the decision of the Law) and یفتیکم (gives you His decision) are both derived from فتو or فتی i.e.he was or became youthful, or he was in the prime of life. فتا الرجل means, he surpassed the man in فتوة i.e. in generosity. افتاه فی الامر means, he made known or explained to him the decision of the Shari‘ah respecting the matter; or he gave him an answer stating the decision of the Law respecting a question. استفتیت الفقیه فی الامر means, I asked or sought of the jurist or the lawyer or the learned man the decision of the Shari‘ah respecting the matter. فتوی therefore means, an explanation or notification or pronouncement of the decision of the Law in some dubious or difficult matter given by a jurist or a lawyer or a man learned in religious Law. استفتاء means, asking or seeking of a jurist or a lawyer or a learned man the decision of the Law (Shari‘ah) in a certain dubious or difficult matter (Lane & Aqrab). The expression إفتا rendered in the verse as gives you the decision, is also sometimes used in the sense of permitting or giving permission, as in the well-known hadith الاثم ماحك فی صدرك وان افتاك الناس i.e. a sin is that which pricks in thy mind even if people should say that it is permissible (Lisan). In this case the Quranic clause الله یفتیکم rendered as, Allah gives you His decision, may also be translated as "Allah gives you permission".
The verse which has been differently translated is considered to be a rather difficult one. The decision spoken of in the clause, Allah gives you His decision, refers to what follows in the succeeding verses, i.e. 4:129-131.
The allusion in the words, that which is recited to you in the Book, is to verse 4:4 in the beginning of the present Surah. It was prohibited to Muslims to marry those orphan girls whose rights they could not adequately discharge. ‘Umar, the Holy Prophet’s Second Successor, would not allow the guardians of wealthy and handsome orphan girls to marry them but would insist on better husbands being found for them. On the other hand, if they were not so wealthy or handsome, he recommended them to their guardians for marriage so that, being acquainted with their defects and weaknesses, they might overlook their shortcomings and deal kindly with them. For further instructions about good treatment of orphans; see 4:6, 7.
Generally speaking the clause, Allah gives you His decision regarding them (women) and so does that which is recited to you in the Book concerning the orphan girls, means that some instructions about women have already been given in the Quran and other instructions follow. (close)
وَ اِنِ امۡرَاَۃٌ خَافَتۡ مِنۡۢ بَعۡلِہَا نُشُوۡزًا اَوۡ اِعۡرَاضًا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَیۡہِمَاۤ اَنۡ یُّصۡلِحَا بَیۡنَہُمَا صُلۡحًا ؕ وَ الصُّلۡحُ خَیۡرٌ ؕ وَ اُحۡضِرَتِ الۡاَنۡفُسُ الشُّحَّ ؕ وَ اِنۡ تُحۡسِنُوۡا وَ تَتَّقُوۡا فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ خَبِیۡرًا ﴿۱۲۹﴾
وَإِنِ ٱمۡرَأَةٌ خَافَتۡ مِنۢ بَعۡلِهَا نُشُوزًا أَوۡ إِعۡرَاضٗا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيۡهِمَآ أَن يُصۡلِحَا بَيۡنَهُمَا صُلۡحٗاۚ وَٱلصُّلۡحُ خَيۡرٞۗ وَأُحۡضِرَتِ ٱلۡأَنفُسُ ٱلشُّحَّۚ وَإِن تُحۡسِنُواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرٗا
b. 4:35. (close)
678. The words, it shall be no sin for them that they be suitably reconciled to each other, constitute a peculiar Quranic expression denoting both exhortation and rebuke. They may be interpreted as something like this: "Do the contending parties think that they would be committing a sin if they became reconciled to each other? It is no sin to do so. On the contrary, it is a commendable thing." (close)
679. These words give the real cause that often leads to estrangement between husband and wife. It is niggardliness on the part of the husband and covetousness on the part of the wife. (close)
a. 4:35. (close)
The words, it shall be no sin on them that they be suitably reconciled to each other, constitute a peculiar Quranic expression denoting both exhortation and rebuke. They may be interpreted as something like this: "Do the contending parties think that they would be committing a sin if they became reconciled to each other? It is no sin to do so. On the contrary, it is a commendable thing."
The words احضرت الانفس الشح (people are prone to covetousness) literally mean, "souls have been put face to face with covetousness." These words thus give the real cause that often leads to estrangement between husband and wife. It may be expressed as niggardliness on the part of the husband and covetousness on the part of the wife. When the husband does not like his wife, he thinks it a burden to support her. On the other hand, the wife sometimes makes excessive demands on her husband. The verse exhorts both to treat each other equitably and fairly.
The words, and reconciliation is best, embody an appeal to the married couple to live amicably and avoid disagreements; for that is in their own interest in all respects. (close)
وَ لَنۡ تَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡۤا اَنۡ تَعۡدِلُوۡا بَیۡنَ النِّسَآءِ وَ لَوۡ حَرَصۡتُمۡ فَلَا تَمِیۡلُوۡا کُلَّ الۡمَیۡلِ فَتَذَرُوۡہَا کَالۡمُعَلَّقَۃِ ؕ وَ اِنۡ تُصۡلِحُوۡا وَ تَتَّقُوۡا فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿۱۳۰﴾
وَلَن تَسۡتَطِيعُوٓاْ أَن تَعۡدِلُواْ بَيۡنَ ٱلنِّسَآءِ وَلَوۡ حَرَصۡتُمۡۖ فَلَا تَمِيلُواْ كُلَّ ٱلۡمَيۡلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَٱلۡمُعَلَّقَةِۚ وَإِن تُصۡلِحُواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمٗا
680. It is humanly impossible for a man to keep perfect balance between his wives in all respects; for instance love being an affair of the heart over which man has no control, a husband cannot be expected to have equal love for all his wives. But he can certainly deal by them with equity in other respects, and this he must do. So acting equitably between one’s wives pertains only to such acts over which one has control. This is the interpretation the Holy Prophet himself put upon this verse. (close)
b. 2:232. (close)
595. Important Words:
معلقة (a thing suspended) is derived from علق. They say علقه i.e. he hung it up or suspended it. علق الامر means, he left the affair suspended, i.e. undecided. معلقه is, therefore, a woman whose husband neither keeps her properly as a wife nor divorces her so that she might marry another man (Lane & Aqrab).
The words, And you cannot keep perfect balance between wives, however much you may desire it, mean that it is not humanly possible for a man to keep perfect balance between his different wives in every respect. For instance, love being an affair of the heart over which man has no control, a husband cannot be expected to have equal love for all his wives. But he can certainly treat them with equity in matters of money, time, etc., and this he must do. So acting equitably between the different wives, which has been laid down by Islam as an essential condition for polygamy, pertains only to such overt acts over which man has control. This is the interpretation which the Holy Prophet himself has put on this verse, both through his word and example. ‘A’ishah reports that the Holy Prophet used to treat his wives with equity in all matters over which man can have control and having done this, he used to pray to God, saying: "My Lord, these are my dealings in matters over which I have control; so blame me not for that which is in Thy power and not mine," meaning the feelings of the heart (Dawud, ch. on Nikah). The Holy Prophet is also reported to have said: "If a man has two wives and he is inclined to one of them (neglecting the other), he will rise on the Day of Resurrection with one of his sides having been torn off (Dawud, ch. on Nikah). Thus, both the example and the sayings of the Holy Prophet show that though a husband cannot love his wives equally, he should in his outward treatment, i.e. allotment of time, money, etc. be equally just and fair to all of them. In this connection see also 4:4. (close)
وَ اِنۡ یَّتَفَرَّقَا یُغۡنِ اللّٰہُ کُلًّا مِّنۡ سَعَتِہٖ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ وَاسِعًا حَکِیۡمًا ﴿۱۳۱﴾
وَإِن يَتَفَرَّقَا يُغۡنِ ٱللَّهُ كُلّٗا مِّن سَعَتِهِۦۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ وَٰسِعًا حَكِيمٗا
681. If, in spite of the husband and the wife having done their utmost to live amicably, they find that they cannot pull on together, and separation takes place, then God promises to provide for both parties more suitable matches. But according to Islam divorce is "Of all permissible things most hateful in the eyes of God" (Dawud, ch. on Talaq). (close)
If, in spite of the husband and the wife having done their best to live amicably, they find that they cannot pull on together, and separation takes place, then God promises to provide for both parties out of His beneficence, i.e. they may find other and more suitable matches. How Islam looks upon divorce is vividly portrayed in a well-known hadith of the Holy Prophet, viz. "Of all permissible things divorce is most hateful in the eyes of God" (Dawud, ch. on Talaq). (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ لَقَدۡ وَصَّیۡنَا الَّذِیۡنَ اُوۡتُوا الۡکِتٰبَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکُمۡ وَ اِیَّاکُمۡ اَنِ اتَّقُوا اللّٰہَ ؕ وَ اِنۡ تَکۡفُرُوۡا فَاِنَّ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ غَنِیًّا حَمِیۡدًا ﴿۱۳۲﴾
وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۗ وَلَقَدۡ وَصَّيۡنَا ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ وَإِيَّاكُمۡ أَنِ ٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَۚ وَإِن تَكۡفُرُواْ فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَنِيًّا حَمِيدٗا
c. See 4:127. (close)
d. 42:14. (close)
a. See 4:127. (close)
b. 42:14. (close)
597. Important Words:
حمید (Praiseworthy) is derived from حمد which means, he praised or eulogized him; or he praised him for something depending on the latter’s will. Thus the describing of a pearl as lustrous is not حمد but مدح (see also 1:2). حمید or محمود with which it is almost synonymous, means, praised, eulogized or commended; praise-worthy or laudable. الحمید which is one of the names of God, means, He Who is praised or is praiseworthy in every case (Lane).
See the next verse. (close)
وَ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِاللّٰہِ وَکِیۡلًا ﴿۱۳۳﴾
وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ وَكِيلًا
a. See 4:127. (close)
The expression, And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth, is repeated thrice in this and the preceding verse to emphasize the fact that God will amply reward and protect from all harm and loss those who sincerely obey His commandments, because He is the Lord and Master of all that is in the heavens and the earth and because He is the Guardian over everything, so that He is in a position to help and reward those who act righteously and punish those who defy and break His laws. (close)
اِنۡ یَّشَاۡ یُذۡہِبۡکُمۡ اَیُّہَا النَّاسُ وَ یَاۡتِ بِاٰخَرِیۡنَ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی ذٰلِکَ قَدِیۡرًا ﴿۱۳۴﴾
إِن يَشَأۡ يُذۡهِبۡكُمۡ أَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ وَيَأۡتِ بِـَٔاخَرِينَۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ قَدِيرٗا
مَنۡ کَانَ یُرِیۡدُ ثَوَابَ الدُّنۡیَا فَعِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ ثَوَابُ الدُّنۡیَا وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعًۢا بَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۳۵﴾٪
مَّن كَانَ يُرِيدُ ثَوَابَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا فَعِندَ ٱللَّهِ ثَوَابُ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَٱلۡأٓخِرَةِۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ سَمِيعَۢا بَصِيرٗا
b. 2:201, 202; 42:21. (close)
The verse contains a beautiful exhortation to the people to seek after the good things of the world to come, along with those of the present. When God can bestow on man in an ample measure both the good things of this world and the blessings of the life to come, why should man neglect to strive after both, particularly the good things of the next world which are far superior and are everlasting. Being All-Hearing, God hears our prayers and we can get what we desire by praying to Him; and being All-Seeing, He knows our needs and requirements and He can satisfy them even without our asking for them, in case we are not aware of any of our needs. (close)