وَ قَدۡ نَزَّلَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ فِی الۡکِتٰبِ اَنۡ اِذَا سَمِعۡتُمۡ اٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ یُکۡفَرُ بِہَا وَ یُسۡتَہۡزَاُ بِہَا فَلَا تَقۡعُدُوۡا مَعَہُمۡ حَتّٰی یَخُوۡضُوۡا فِیۡ حَدِیۡثٍ غَیۡرِہٖۤ ۫ۖ اِنَّکُمۡ اِذًا مِّثۡلُہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ جَامِعُ الۡمُنٰفِقِیۡنَ وَ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ فِیۡ جَہَنَّمَ جَمِیۡعَۨا ﴿۱۴۱﴾ۙ
وَقَدۡ نَزَّلَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ أَنۡ إِذَا سَمِعۡتُمۡ ءَايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ يُكۡفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسۡتَهۡزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقۡعُدُواْ مَعَهُمۡ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُواْ فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيۡرِهِۦٓ إِنَّكُمۡ إِذٗا مِّثۡلُهُمۡۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ جَامِعُ ٱلۡمُنَٰفِقِينَ وَٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا
685. The reference in the words, He has already revealed to you in the Book, is to 6:69 which was revealed at Mecca prior to the verse under comment; yet 6:69 has been placed after it in the existing arrangement of the Qur’an which shows that the present arrangement of the Quranic verses is not the same in which they were revealed. (close)
a. 6:69. (close)
686. The underlying principle in the injunction contained in the present verse is threefold: (1) To emphasize the seriousness and importance of religious matters; (2) to protect the believers against the demoralizing influences of the disbelievers’ company and (3) to engender and promote feelings of pious jealousy for religion in the hearts of Muslims. (close)
d. 6:69. (close)
The reference in the words, has already revealed to you, is to 6:69 where we read, And when thou seest those who engage in vain discourse concerning Our Signs, then turn thou away from them until they enter into a discourse other than that; and if Satan cause thee to forget, then sit not, after recollection, with the unjust people.
The Surah in which the above-quoted verse occurs was revealed at Mecca, i.e. before the present Surah which is a Medinite one. This clearly shows that the present order of the verses and the Surahs of the Quran is not the same as that in which they were revealed. The reference in the words, He has already revealed to you in the Book, is, as stated above, to 6:69 which was revealed prior to the verse under comment; yet the former has been placed after the latter in the existing arrangement of the Quran.
It is also worthy of note here that while referring to a verse already revealed, the verse under comment uses the words نزل علیکم (has revealed to you) and not یتلی علیکم (is recited to you). The latter expression, i.e. "is recited to you" has been used in 4:128 with reference to 4:4 which had not only been already revealed but has also been placed before the former, i.e. 4:128, in the existing order of the Quran. Again 6:146 makes an allusion to 16:116 in the words اوحی الی (has been revealed to me). Thus, the fact that the Quran uses the words نزل and اوحی for alluding to verses that were revealed earlier but were to be placed later and the word یتلی for alluding to those verses that were not only revealed earlier but were also to be placed earlier, clearly shows that the present order was not devised by the Holy Prophet but was devised and revealed by God Himself.
Another noteworthy point that emerges from this verse is that when an address is made to the Holy Prophet, it is not always meant for him personally but is often meant for his followers, i.e. Muslims in general. In 6:69, the commandment appears to have been addressed to the Holy Prophet, because in that verse all the pronouns and verbs have been used in the second person singular number; but the verse under comment, while referring to the commandment contained in 6:69, clearly addresses Muslims generally, for the words used are, He has already revealed to you in the Book that, when you hear the Signs of God being denied and mocked at, sit not with them, which establishes the fact that the addressees in the commandment embodied in both these verses are the same, i.e. Muslims. If the pronoun "thou" in 6:69 was meant for the Holy Prophet himself, the present verse, while referring to the selfsame commandment, could not address Muslims generally by using the pronoun "you", particularly when besides 6:69 there is no verse in the Quran to which the verse under comment can possibly refer.
The substitution in the present verse of the words لا تقعدوا (sit not with them) for the words اعرض (turn away from them), occurring in 6:69, indicates that the latter expression as used at some places in the Quran is meant to convey the sense of "severing connection with".
The underlying principle in the injunction contained in the present verse is threefold: (1) to emphasize the seriousness and importance of religious matters; (2) to protect the Faithful against the demoralizing influences of disbelievers; and (3) to engender and promote feelings of pious jealousy for religion in the hearts of Muslims. (close)
الَّذِیۡنَ یَتَرَبَّصُوۡنَ بِکُمۡ ۚ فَاِنۡ کَانَ لَکُمۡ فَتۡحٌ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ قَالُوۡۤا اَلَمۡ نَکُنۡ مَّعَکُمۡ ۫ۖ وَ اِنۡ کَانَ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ نَصِیۡبٌ ۙ قَالُوۡۤا اَلَمۡ نَسۡتَحۡوِذۡ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ نَمۡنَعۡکُمۡ مِّنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ؕ فَاللّٰہُ یَحۡکُمُ بَیۡنَکُمۡ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ ؕ وَ لَنۡ یَّجۡعَلَ اللّٰہُ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَلَی الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۱۴۲﴾٪
ٱلَّذِينَ يَتَرَبَّصُونَ بِكُمۡ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمۡ فَتۡحٞ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ قَالُوٓاْ أَلَمۡ نَكُن مَّعَكُمۡ وَإِن كَانَ لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ نَصِيبٞ قَالُوٓاْ أَلَمۡ نَسۡتَحۡوِذۡ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَنَمۡنَعۡكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَۚ فَٱللَّهُ يَحۡكُمُ بَيۡنَكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِۚ وَلَن يَجۡعَلَ ٱللَّهُ لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ عَلَى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ سَبِيلًا
b. 9:98; 57:15. (close)
a. 9:98; 57:15. (close)
605. Important Words:
نستحوذ علیکم (get the better of you). نستحوذ is derived from حاذ. They say حاذہ i.e. he guarded or protected it and took care of it. حاذ الابل means, he drove the camels quickly or he gained mastery over the camels and collected them together. استحوذ علیهmeans, he overcame or mastered or gained mastery of him or it; he got the better of him or it (Taj).
نمنعکم (protected you) is derived from منع i.e. (1) he prevented or hindered: (2) he denied or refused (3) he protected or guarded (Lane).
The words, did we not get the better of you, are addressed by the hypocrites to the disbelievers and mean "we had you in our power but we spared you". Similarly, the words, and protect you against the believers, may be interpreted something like this: "We separated ourselves from the Muslims with the result that they became weak and you were thus saved from them." Or the words may mean, "some of the faint-hearted among you wished to make peace with the Muslims, but we prevented them from doing so, and now the result is that you are victorious." In the latter case the clause نمنعکم من المؤمنینwould be translated as "we prevented you from making peace with the believers".
The last sentence of the verse means that the hypocrites will never be able to bring a valid objection against Muslims. (close)
اِنَّ الۡمُنٰفِقِیۡنَ یُخٰدِعُوۡنَ اللّٰہَ وَ ہُوَ خَادِعُہُمۡ ۚ وَ اِذَا قَامُوۡۤا اِلَی الصَّلٰوۃِ قَامُوۡا کُسَالٰی ۙ یُرَآءُوۡنَ النَّاسَ وَ لَا یَذۡکُرُوۡنَ اللّٰہَ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۱۴۳﴾۫ۙ
إِنَّ ٱلۡمُنَٰفِقِينَ يُخَٰدِعُونَ ٱللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَٰدِعُهُمۡ وَإِذَا قَامُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ قَامُواْ كُسَالَىٰ يُرَآءُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ وَلَا يَذۡكُرُونَ ٱللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا
a. 2:10. (close)
687. It is not God but the Holy Prophet whom, in reality, the hypocrites seek to deceive because the Prophet is an agent of God and all plots hatched against him are really so many plots hatched to frustrate the purpose of God. Therefore God Himself will punish them for their deceitful conduct. See also 2:16. (close)
b. 9:54. (close)
a. 2:10. (close)
b. 9:54. (close)
606. Important Words:
For the meaning of the word یخادعون and خادعھم see 2:10. The latter expression, though similar in root and construction, means "will punish them for their deception" and not "will deceive them". See also 2:16.
It is not the Holy Prophet but God Himself Whom in reality the hypocrites seek to deceive because the Prophet is only an agent of God and all plots hatched against him are really so many plots hatched to frustrate the purpose of God. Therefore, He Himself will punish them for their deceitful conduct.
Laziness and slowness are the characteristics of a hypocrite. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said, "The most burdensome of Prayers for the hypocrites are the late-evening and morning Prayers"; and "A hypocrite waits until the sun is about to set; then he gets up and hurriedly performs four Rak‘at of late-afternoon Prayer, and remembers God but little" (Muslim). It is only true faith and certainty that can engender in man the spirit of eagerness to live up to one’s conviction. (close)
مُّذَبۡذَبِیۡنَ بَیۡنَ ذٰلِکَ ٭ۖ لَاۤ اِلٰی ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ وَ لَاۤ اِلٰی ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یُّضۡلِلِ اللّٰہُ فَلَنۡ تَجِدَ لَہٗ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۱۴۴﴾
مُّذَبۡذَبِينَ بَيۡنَ ذَٰلِكَ لَآ إِلَىٰ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ وَلَآ إِلَىٰ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِۚ وَمَن يُضۡلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُۥ سَبِيلٗا
688. The expression means, "between belief and disbelief" or "between believers and disbelievers". (close)
607. Important Words:
مذبذبین (wavering) which is the plural of مذبذب is derived from ذب. They say ذب عنه meaning, he repelled from him, i.e. he defended him. ذبذب الشیء means, he made the thing move to and fro; he put it in a state of motion, commotion or agitation. ذبذبه means, he or it made him confounded or perplexed so that he could not know his right course; he left him wavering, vacillating, going to and fro. تذبذب الشیء means, the thing dangled or moved to and fro; or was in a state of motion or commotion. مذبذب means, driven away or repelled from this side and that; wavering or vacillating between two persons or parties or things, not attaching oneself steadily to either (Lane & Aqrab). Another قراءة (reading) of مذبذین is متذبذبین and yet another مذبذبین (mudhabdhibin) with different vowel point at the second ذ (Kashshaf).
The expression بین ذالك (between this and that) means, between belief and disbelief or between believers and disbelievers.
The verse very aptly describes the condition of the hypocrites. To quote a well-known Indian maxim, they have their feet in two separate boats. A hypocrite thinks himself to be acting wisely (2:14) but his action is really the height of folly. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ اَوۡلِیَآءَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَؕ اَتُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ تَجۡعَلُوۡا لِلّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ سُلۡطٰنًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۱۴۵﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَجۡعَلُواْ لِلَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ سُلۡطَٰنٗا مُّبِينًا
c. 3:29, 119; 4:140. (close)
a. 3:29, 119; 4:140. (close)
He who makes friends with disbelievers when believers are engaged in a life-and-death struggle with them, helps the cause of disbelief against Islam and is thus sure to draw upon himself the wrath of God.
The expression, in preference to believers, is added to heighten the folly of the act. (close)
اِنَّ الۡمُنٰفِقِیۡنَ فِی الدَّرۡکِ الۡاَسۡفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ ۚ وَ لَنۡ تَجِدَ لَہُمۡ نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۴۶﴾ۙ
إِنَّ ٱلۡمُنَٰفِقِينَ فِي ٱلدَّرۡكِ ٱلۡأَسۡفَلِ مِنَ ٱلنَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمۡ نَصِيرًا
689. The Qur’an’s strong denunciation of the hypocrites is a clear refutation of the charge that it exhorts its followers to spread Islam by means of the sword. If a man is forced to accept Islam against his will, he will never make a sincere believer. (close)
609. Important Words:
درك (depth). They say, درك المطر i.e. the rain fell in close consecutiveness. ادرك الشیء means, he attained, reached or overtook the thing; he sought or pursued and attained it. درك means, the act of attaining, or overtaking; the attainment or acquisition of an object; a consequence; an evil consequence; the bottom or lowest depth of a thing or of anything deep as of a well or sea. درك signifies, a stage counting downwards whereas درج is a stage upwards (Lane & Aqrab).
الاسفل (lowest) is both comparative and superlative degree from سافل meaning, low or base or vile. اسفل means, lower or lowest, both physically and in rank (Lane & Aqrab).
The Quran’s strong denunciation of the hypocrites is a clear refutation of the charge brought against it that it exhorts its followers to spread Islam by means of the sword. If a man is forced to accept Islam against his will, he can never make a sincere believer. In other words, such a one will be a hypocrite and the last thing that can be alleged against the Quran is that it enjoins its followers to augment their numbers by admitting hypocrites into their fold.
The hypocrites will be placed in the lowest depth of Hell, because they combine the sin of disbelief with
that of hypocrisy. The lowest depth does not necessarily signify a depth which is the physically lowest, but a depth which is the hardest in torment and is meant for offenders of the lowest type. (close)
اِلَّا الَّذِیۡنَ تَابُوۡا وَ اَصۡلَحُوۡا وَ اعۡتَصَمُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ اَخۡلَصُوۡا دِیۡنَہُمۡ لِلّٰہِ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ مَعَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ؕ وَ سَوۡفَ یُؤۡتِ اللّٰہُ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ اَجۡرًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۱۴۷﴾
إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ تَابُواْ وَأَصۡلَحُواْ وَٱعۡتَصَمُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَأَخۡلَصُواْ دِينَهُمۡ لِلَّهِ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ مَعَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَۖ وَسَوۡفَ يُؤۡتِ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ أَجۡرًا عَظِيمٗا
a. See 2:161. (close)
b. 3:102. (close)
a. See 2:161. (close)
b. 3:102. (close)
610. Important Words:
For the meaning of مع see note on 4:70.
The verse is important inasmuch as it helps definitely to determine the meaning of the word مع (among) which does not, and indeed cannot, convey here the sense of "with", for the obvious reason that the penitent from among the hypocrites are not only to be reckoned "with the believers as mere companions" but are to become members and, as it were, part and parcel, of the Muslim community, being definitely reckoned among them. The verse also hints that the door of repentance is open even for the hypocrites who have been so strongly condemned in the foregoing verse. (close)
مَا یَفۡعَلُ اللّٰہُ بِعَذَابِکُمۡ اِنۡ شَکَرۡتُمۡ وَ اٰمَنۡتُمۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ شَاکِرًا عَلِیۡمًا ﴿۱۴۸﴾
مَّا يَفۡعَلُ ٱللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمۡ إِن شَكَرۡتُمۡ وَءَامَنتُمۡۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ شَاكِرًا عَلِيمٗا
c. 2:159. (close)
690. Shukr on the part of God consists in forgiving a person or commending him or regarding him with satisfaction, goodwill or favour and hence necessarily recompensing him or rewarding him (Lane). (close)
شکر (gratitude) on the part of man is to have a due sense of the favours of God and render thanks for them both by words of mouth and by action; and on the part of God, it is to give proper rewards to men for their obedience and righteousness. See also 1:2. (close)
لَا یُحِبُّ اللّٰہُ الۡجَہۡرَ بِالسُّوۡٓءِ مِنَ الۡقَوۡلِ اِلَّا مَنۡ ظُلِمَ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعًا عَلِیۡمًا ﴿۱۴۹﴾
۞لَّا يُحِبُّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡجَهۡرَ بِٱلسُّوٓءِ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡلِ إِلَّا مَن ظُلِمَۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ سَمِيعًا عَلِيمًا
691. Islam does not allow Muslims to speak ill of other people in public, but he who is wronged may cry aloud when he is actually being transgressed against, so that other men may come to his help. He may as well seek redress in a law court, but should not go about complaining to all and sundry. (close)
Islam does not allow Muslims to speak ill of a man in public, but he who is wronged may cry aloud when he is actually being transgressed against, so that other men may come to his help. He may as well seek redress in a law court. But he should not go about complaining to all and sundry, because that is calculated to create ill-will and bad blood and may disturb public peace which the Quran in no case countenances.
The words, Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing, have been added to point out that even for a man who is wronged, it is better to act patiently and refrain from speaking ill of anyone. He may either go to a law court or pray to God and seek justice and solace from Him. (close)
اِنۡ تُبۡدُوۡا خَیۡرًا اَوۡ تُخۡفُوۡہُ اَوۡ تَعۡفُوۡا عَنۡ سُوۡٓءٍ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ عَفُوًّا قَدِیۡرًا ﴿۱۵۰﴾
إِن تُبۡدُواْ خَيۡرًا أَوۡ تُخۡفُوهُ أَوۡ تَعۡفُواْ عَن سُوٓءٖ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوّٗا قَدِيرًا
The verse further enlarges on the idea contained in the preceding verse, at the same time hinting that as far as possible man should try to pardon the wrongs done him by his brethren; for is not God, before Whom all of us will one day stand, the great Pardoner and the Effacer of sins? (close)