مُّذَبۡذَبِیۡنَ بَیۡنَ ذٰلِکَ ٭ۖ لَاۤ اِلٰی ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ وَ لَاۤ اِلٰی ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یُّضۡلِلِ اللّٰہُ فَلَنۡ تَجِدَ لَہٗ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۱۴۴﴾
مُّذَبۡذَبِينَ بَيۡنَ ذَٰلِكَ لَآ إِلَىٰ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ وَلَآ إِلَىٰ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِۚ وَمَن يُضۡلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُۥ سَبِيلٗا
688. The expression means, "between belief and disbelief" or "between believers and disbelievers". (close)
607. Important Words:
مذبذبین (wavering) which is the plural of مذبذب is derived from ذب. They say ذب عنه meaning, he repelled from him, i.e. he defended him. ذبذب الشیء means, he made the thing move to and fro; he put it in a state of motion, commotion or agitation. ذبذبه means, he or it made him confounded or perplexed so that he could not know his right course; he left him wavering, vacillating, going to and fro. تذبذب الشیء means, the thing dangled or moved to and fro; or was in a state of motion or commotion. مذبذب means, driven away or repelled from this side and that; wavering or vacillating between two persons or parties or things, not attaching oneself steadily to either (Lane & Aqrab). Another قراءة (reading) of مذبذین is متذبذبین and yet another مذبذبین (mudhabdhibin) with different vowel point at the second ذ (Kashshaf).
The expression بین ذالك (between this and that) means, between belief and disbelief or between believers and disbelievers.
The verse very aptly describes the condition of the hypocrites. To quote a well-known Indian maxim, they have their feet in two separate boats. A hypocrite thinks himself to be acting wisely (2:14) but his action is really the height of folly. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ اَوۡلِیَآءَ مِنۡ دُوۡنِ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَؕ اَتُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ تَجۡعَلُوۡا لِلّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ سُلۡطٰنًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۱۴۵﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَجۡعَلُواْ لِلَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ سُلۡطَٰنٗا مُّبِينًا
c. 3:29, 119; 4:140. (close)
a. 3:29, 119; 4:140. (close)
He who makes friends with disbelievers when believers are engaged in a life-and-death struggle with them, helps the cause of disbelief against Islam and is thus sure to draw upon himself the wrath of God.
The expression, in preference to believers, is added to heighten the folly of the act. (close)
اِنَّ الۡمُنٰفِقِیۡنَ فِی الدَّرۡکِ الۡاَسۡفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ ۚ وَ لَنۡ تَجِدَ لَہُمۡ نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۴۶﴾ۙ
إِنَّ ٱلۡمُنَٰفِقِينَ فِي ٱلدَّرۡكِ ٱلۡأَسۡفَلِ مِنَ ٱلنَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمۡ نَصِيرًا
689. The Qur’an’s strong denunciation of the hypocrites is a clear refutation of the charge that it exhorts its followers to spread Islam by means of the sword. If a man is forced to accept Islam against his will, he will never make a sincere believer. (close)
609. Important Words:
درك (depth). They say, درك المطر i.e. the rain fell in close consecutiveness. ادرك الشیء means, he attained, reached or overtook the thing; he sought or pursued and attained it. درك means, the act of attaining, or overtaking; the attainment or acquisition of an object; a consequence; an evil consequence; the bottom or lowest depth of a thing or of anything deep as of a well or sea. درك signifies, a stage counting downwards whereas درج is a stage upwards (Lane & Aqrab).
الاسفل (lowest) is both comparative and superlative degree from سافل meaning, low or base or vile. اسفل means, lower or lowest, both physically and in rank (Lane & Aqrab).
The Quran’s strong denunciation of the hypocrites is a clear refutation of the charge brought against it that it exhorts its followers to spread Islam by means of the sword. If a man is forced to accept Islam against his will, he can never make a sincere believer. In other words, such a one will be a hypocrite and the last thing that can be alleged against the Quran is that it enjoins its followers to augment their numbers by admitting hypocrites into their fold.
The hypocrites will be placed in the lowest depth of Hell, because they combine the sin of disbelief with
that of hypocrisy. The lowest depth does not necessarily signify a depth which is the physically lowest, but a depth which is the hardest in torment and is meant for offenders of the lowest type. (close)
اِلَّا الَّذِیۡنَ تَابُوۡا وَ اَصۡلَحُوۡا وَ اعۡتَصَمُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ اَخۡلَصُوۡا دِیۡنَہُمۡ لِلّٰہِ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ مَعَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ؕ وَ سَوۡفَ یُؤۡتِ اللّٰہُ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ اَجۡرًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۱۴۷﴾
إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ تَابُواْ وَأَصۡلَحُواْ وَٱعۡتَصَمُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَأَخۡلَصُواْ دِينَهُمۡ لِلَّهِ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ مَعَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَۖ وَسَوۡفَ يُؤۡتِ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ أَجۡرًا عَظِيمٗا
a. See 2:161. (close)
b. 3:102. (close)
a. See 2:161. (close)
b. 3:102. (close)
610. Important Words:
For the meaning of مع see note on 4:70.
The verse is important inasmuch as it helps definitely to determine the meaning of the word مع (among) which does not, and indeed cannot, convey here the sense of "with", for the obvious reason that the penitent from among the hypocrites are not only to be reckoned "with the believers as mere companions" but are to become members and, as it were, part and parcel, of the Muslim community, being definitely reckoned among them. The verse also hints that the door of repentance is open even for the hypocrites who have been so strongly condemned in the foregoing verse. (close)
مَا یَفۡعَلُ اللّٰہُ بِعَذَابِکُمۡ اِنۡ شَکَرۡتُمۡ وَ اٰمَنۡتُمۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ شَاکِرًا عَلِیۡمًا ﴿۱۴۸﴾
مَّا يَفۡعَلُ ٱللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمۡ إِن شَكَرۡتُمۡ وَءَامَنتُمۡۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ شَاكِرًا عَلِيمٗا
c. 2:159. (close)
690. Shukr on the part of God consists in forgiving a person or commending him or regarding him with satisfaction, goodwill or favour and hence necessarily recompensing him or rewarding him (Lane). (close)
شکر (gratitude) on the part of man is to have a due sense of the favours of God and render thanks for them both by words of mouth and by action; and on the part of God, it is to give proper rewards to men for their obedience and righteousness. See also 1:2. (close)
لَا یُحِبُّ اللّٰہُ الۡجَہۡرَ بِالسُّوۡٓءِ مِنَ الۡقَوۡلِ اِلَّا مَنۡ ظُلِمَ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ سَمِیۡعًا عَلِیۡمًا ﴿۱۴۹﴾
۞لَّا يُحِبُّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡجَهۡرَ بِٱلسُّوٓءِ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡلِ إِلَّا مَن ظُلِمَۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ سَمِيعًا عَلِيمًا
691. Islam does not allow Muslims to speak ill of other people in public, but he who is wronged may cry aloud when he is actually being transgressed against, so that other men may come to his help. He may as well seek redress in a law court, but should not go about complaining to all and sundry. (close)
Islam does not allow Muslims to speak ill of a man in public, but he who is wronged may cry aloud when he is actually being transgressed against, so that other men may come to his help. He may as well seek redress in a law court. But he should not go about complaining to all and sundry, because that is calculated to create ill-will and bad blood and may disturb public peace which the Quran in no case countenances.
The words, Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing, have been added to point out that even for a man who is wronged, it is better to act patiently and refrain from speaking ill of anyone. He may either go to a law court or pray to God and seek justice and solace from Him. (close)
اِنۡ تُبۡدُوۡا خَیۡرًا اَوۡ تُخۡفُوۡہُ اَوۡ تَعۡفُوۡا عَنۡ سُوۡٓءٍ فَاِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ عَفُوًّا قَدِیۡرًا ﴿۱۵۰﴾
إِن تُبۡدُواْ خَيۡرًا أَوۡ تُخۡفُوهُ أَوۡ تَعۡفُواْ عَن سُوٓءٖ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوّٗا قَدِيرًا
The verse further enlarges on the idea contained in the preceding verse, at the same time hinting that as far as possible man should try to pardon the wrongs done him by his brethren; for is not God, before Whom all of us will one day stand, the great Pardoner and the Effacer of sins? (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ یَکۡفُرُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ رُسُلِہٖ وَ یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ یُّفَرِّقُوۡا بَیۡنَ اللّٰہِ وَ رُسُلِہٖ وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ نُؤۡمِنُ بِبَعۡضٍ وَّ نَکۡفُرُ بِبَعۡضٍ ۙ وَّ یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ یَّتَّخِذُوۡا بَیۡنَ ذٰلِکَ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۱۵۱﴾ۙ
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَكۡفُرُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُواْ بَيۡنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤۡمِنُ بِبَعۡضٖ وَنَكۡفُرُ بِبَعۡضٖ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُواْ بَيۡنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا
d. 4:137. (close)
692. The verse means that they accept God and reject His Prophets; or accept some Prophets and reject others; or accept some claims of a Prophet and reject other claims. True faith lies in total submission, accepting God and all His Messengers with all their claims. No middle course is permissible. (close)
a. 4:137. (close)
This verse provides clear proof of the fact that belief in all the Messengers of God is essential. The expression رسله (His Messengers) comprehends all Messengers of God and admits of no exception, demanding belief in all Prophets, whether old or new.
The words, We believe in some and disbelieve in others, condemn those people who would believe in some Messengers of God and reject others. The idea is further explained by 4:153 below which says, those who believe in Allah and in all of His Messengers, and make no distinction between any of them. Here the expression, any of them, clearly refers to "the Messengers" and not to God and the Messengers combined, which shows that the present clause, We believe in some and disbelieve in others, refers to the distinction some people seek to make between the different Messengers, and not to the distinction they make between God and His Messengers, which has already been referred to in the preceding clause of the present verse, i.e. make a distinction between Allah and His Messengers.
Ibn Kathir, the famous expositor of the Quran, explains this verse as follows: "What is meant here is that he who rejects any of the Prophets of God really rejects all of them, for God has made it obligatory on man to believe in every Prophet whom He has raised for any people at any time on the earth" (vol. iii. 224). In fact, if a people reject a Prophet of God out of envy or bigotry or self-will, it becomes clear that their faith in the Prophet in whom they profess to believe is also not sincere and true but is mere make-belief. For, if they had really believed in him as a Messenger of God, they would have believed in that other one also who was his like and whose claim was supported by similar arguments.
The expression, desire to take a way in between, means that such people "seek a middle course between faith and disbelief", i.e. they accept God and reject His Prophets or accept some Prophets and reject others, or accept some claims of a Prophet and reject others or regard the claims of a Prophet to be true but do not consider themselves bound to join his fold. True faith lies in total submission, accepting God and all His Messengers with all their claims. No middle course is permissible. See also the two succeeding verses. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ ہُمُ الۡکٰفِرُوۡنَ حَقًّا ۚ وَ اَعۡتَدۡنَا لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَذَابًا مُّہِیۡنًا ﴿۱۵۲﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡكَٰفِرُونَ حَقّٗاۚ وَأَعۡتَدۡنَا لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٗا مُّهِينٗا
Those who seek to take a middle course, as explained in the previous verse, are "veritable disbelievers" in the sight of God and shall be awarded "a humiliating punishment." (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ رُسُلِہٖ وَ لَمۡ یُفَرِّقُوۡا بَیۡنَ اَحَدٍ مِّنۡہُمۡ اُولٰٓئِکَ سَوۡفَ یُؤۡتِیۡہِمۡ اُجُوۡرَہُمۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿۱۵۳﴾٪
وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَلَمۡ يُفَرِّقُواْ بَيۡنَ أَحَدٖ مِّنۡهُمۡ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ سَوۡفَ يُؤۡتِيهِمۡ أُجُورَهُمۡۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمٗا
a. 2:137: 2:286; 3:85. (close)
a. 2:137; 2:286; 3:85. (close)
The verse 4:151 above dealt with four classes of disbelievers: (1) those who disbelieve both in Allah and His Messengers; (2) those who profess to believe in Allah but reject His Messengers, i.e. those who believe that there is indeed a God but that He sends no Messengers, or those who think they are bound to accept only that which God sends down by His revelation but do not look upon the behests and precepts of the Prophet as binding on them; (3) those who accept some of the Messengers of God and reject others; and (4) those who accept some claims of a divine Messenger and reject others, or those who, though declaring a claimant to prophethood to be true in his claims, do not think it to be binding on them to enter his fold. In continuation of the above, the verse under comment says that only those people can hope for reward from God who spurn all the above different forms of disbelief and whose faith in God and in all His Prophets is full and unqualified. (close)