فَبِمَا نَقۡضِہِمۡ مِّیۡثَاقَہُمۡ وَ کُفۡرِہِمۡ بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ وَ قَتۡلِہِمُ الۡاَنۡۢبِیَآءَ بِغَیۡرِ حَقٍّ وَّ قَوۡلِہِمۡ قُلُوۡبُنَا غُلۡفٌ ؕ بَلۡ طَبَعَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہَا بِکُفۡرِہِمۡ فَلَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۱۵۶﴾۪
فَبِمَا نَقۡضِهِم مِّيثَٰقَهُمۡ وَكُفۡرِهِم بِـَٔايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ وَقَتۡلِهِمُ ٱلۡأَنۢبِيَآءَ بِغَيۡرِ حَقّٖ وَقَوۡلِهِمۡ قُلُوبُنَا غُلۡفُۢۚ بَلۡ طَبَعَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهَا بِكُفۡرِهِمۡ فَلَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا
d. 5:14. (close)
e. 3:182. (close)
f. 2:89. (close)
g. 2:89; 16:109; 83:15. (close)
695. See 27. (close)
d. 5:14. (close)
e. 3:182. (close)
f. 2:89. (close)
619. Important Words:
طبع (sealed) is similar to ختم for which see 2:8. طبع means, he sealed, stamped, imprinted or impressed (Lane).
غلف (wrapped in covers). See 2:89.
See 2:8; 2:62; 2:89. (close)
وَّ بِکُفۡرِہِمۡ وَ قَوۡلِہِمۡ عَلٰی مَرۡیَمَ بُہۡتَانًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۱۵۷﴾ۙ
وَبِكُفۡرِهِمۡ وَقَوۡلِهِمۡ عَلَىٰ مَرۡيَمَ بُهۡتَٰنًا عَظِيمٗا
696. The Jews accused Mary of fornication ("Jewish Life of Jesus" by Panther). The fact that the Jews uttered "a calumny" against Mary constitutes clear evidence of the fatherless birth of Jesus. For, if Jesus had a father, what "calumny" was it that the Jews uttered against Mary? Merely taunting her for the claims made by Jesus could in no sense be called a calumny. Elsewhere, the Qur’an refutes this charge by saying that the mother of Jesus was a righteous woman (3:43; 5:76). (close)
The fact that the Jews uttered "a calumny" against Mary constitutes a clear evidence of the fatherless birth of Jesus. For if Jesus had a father, what "calumny" was it that the Jews uttered against Mary? Merely taunting her for the claims made by Jesus could in no sense be called a calumny. Elsewhere the Quran says that the mother of Jesus was a righteous woman and that Satan had no share in his birth (3:37:5:76). (close)
وَّ قَوۡلِہِمۡ اِنَّا قَتَلۡنَا الۡمَسِیۡحَ عِیۡسَی ابۡنَ مَرۡیَمَ رَسُوۡلَ اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ مَا قَتَلُوۡہُ وَ مَا صَلَبُوۡہُ وَ لٰکِنۡ شُبِّہَ لَہُمۡ ؕ وَ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ اخۡتَلَفُوۡا فِیۡہِ لَفِیۡ شَکٍّ مِّنۡہُ ؕ مَا لَہُمۡ بِہٖ مِنۡ عِلۡمٍ اِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ ۚ وَ مَا قَتَلُوۡہُ یَقِیۡنًۢا ﴿۱۵۸﴾ۙ
وَقَوۡلِهِمۡ إِنَّا قَتَلۡنَا ٱلۡمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ٱبۡنَ مَرۡيَمَ رَسُولَ ٱللَّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمۡۚ وَإِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱخۡتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ لَفِي شَكّٖ مِّنۡهُۚ مَا لَهُم بِهِۦ مِنۡ عِلۡمٍ إِلَّا ٱتِّبَاعَ ٱلظَّنِّۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينَۢا
697. Ma Salabu-hu means, they did not cause his death on the cross. Salab being a well-known manner of killing. They say Salabul-Lissa, i.e. he put the thief to death by putting him on the cross. The verse does not deny the fact of Jesus’s being nailed to the cross but denies his having died on it. (close)
698. The words Shubbiha La-hum mean, Jesus was made to appear to the Jews like one crucified; or the matter of the death of Jesus became obscure or dubious to them. Shubbiha ‘Alaihil-Amru means, the matter was rendered confused, obscure or dubious to him (Lane). (close)
a. 10:37; 53:29. (close)
699. The expression, Ma Qatalu-hu Yaqinan, means, (1) they did not kill him for certain; (2) they did not convert it (their conjecture) into certainty, i.e. their knowledge about the death of Jesus on the cross was not so certain as to have left no doubt in their minds that they had really killed him. In this case the pronoun hu in Qatalu-hu would refer to the noun Zann (conjecture). The Arabs say Qatalash-Shai’a Khubran, i.e. he acquired full and certain knowledge of the thing so as to dispel all possibility of doubt about it (Lane, Lisan & Mufradat). That Jesus did not die on the cross but died a natural death is clear from the Qur’an. The following facts, as narrated in the Gospels themselves lend powerful support to the Quranic version:
1. Being a Divine Prophet Jesus could not have died on the cross because according to the Bible "he that is hanged is accursed of God" (Deut. 21:23).
2. He had prayed to God in great agony to "take away this cup (of death on the cross) from me" (Mark, 14:36; Matt. 26:29; Luke, 22:42); and his prayer was heard (Heb. 5:7).
3. He had predicted that like Jonah who had gone into the belly of the whale alive and had come out of it alive (Matt. 12:40) he would remain in an excavated sepulchre for three days and would come out of it alive.
He had also prophesied that he would go to seek out the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel (John, 10:16). Even Jews in Jesus’s time believed that the Lost Tribes of Israel had become dispersed in different lands (John, 7:34, 35).
1. Jesus had remained hung on the cross only for about three hours (John, 19:14) and being a person of normal constitution he could not have died in such a short time.
2. Immediately after he had been taken down from the cross his side was pierced and blood and water flowed out of it which was a certain sign of life (John, 19:34).
3. The Jews themselves were not sure of Jesus’s death because they had asked Pilate to have a guard posted at his sepulchre "lest his disciples come by night and steal him away and say unto the people, 'He is risen from the dead' " (Matt. 27:64).
4. There is not to be found in all the Gospels a single recorded statement of an eyewitness to the effect that Jesus was dead when he was taken down from the cross or when he was placed in the tomb. Moreover, none of the disciples was present at the scene of Crucifixion, all having fled when Jesus was taken to Calvary. The fact of the case seems to be that, presumably due to the dream of his wife "to have nothing to do with that just man," Pilate had believed Jesus to be innocent and had, therefore, conspired with Joseph of Arimathea, a respected member of the Essene Order to which Jesus himself belonged before he was commissioned as a Prophet, to save his life. The trial of Jesus took place on Friday, Pilate having purposely prolonged it, knowing that the next day being the Sabbath Day the condemned persons could not be left on the cross after sunset. When at last he found himself compelled to condemn Jesus, Pilate gave his judgment only three hours before sunset, thus making himself sure that no person of normal health could die in such a short time by remaining on the cross. He took additional care to see that Jesus was given wine or vinegar mingled with myrrh to render him less sensitive to pain. When after three hours’ suspension he was taken down from the cross in an unconscious state (probably under the influence of vinegar which was administered to him), Pilate readily granted Joseph of Arimathea’s request and handed over his body to him. Unlike those of the two malefactors who were hung along with Jesus, his bones were not broken and Joseph had him placed in a spacious room hewn in the side of a rock. There was no medical autopsy, no stethoscopic test, no inquest with the aid of the evidence of those who were last with him ("Mystical life of Jesus" by H. Spencer Lewis).
5. An ointment, the famous Marham-e-‘Isa, (Ointment of Jesus) was prepared and applied to Jesus’s wounds and he was tended and looked after by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, also a very learned and highly respected member of the Essene Brotherhood.
6. After his wounds had been sufficiently healed, Jesus left the tomb and met some of his disciples and had his food with them and walked the whole distance from Jerusalem to Galilee on foot (Luke, 24:50).
"The Crucifixion by an Eye Witness", a book, which was at first published in 1873 in U.S.A. and which is an English translation of an ancient Latin copy of a letter written seven years after the Crucifixion by an Essene Brother in Jerusalem to a member of this Brotherhood in Alexandria, lends powerful support to the view that Jesus had been taken down from the cross alive. The book narrates in detail all the events leading to the Crucifixion, the scenes at the Calvary and also the incidents that took place afterwards. See also 'The Larger Edition of the Commentary'.
Two different views prevail among the Jews regarding Jesus’s alleged death by Crucifixion. Some of them hold that he was first killed and then his dead body was hung on the cross, while others are of the view that he was put to death by being fixed to the cross. The former view is reflected in The Acts 5:30 where we read "which ye slew and hanged on a tree". The Qur’an refutes both these views by saying,
they slew him not, nor did they bring about his death on the cross.
The Qur’an first rejects the slaying of Jesus in any form, and then proceeds to deny the particular way of killing by hanging on the cross. It does not deny that Jesus was hung on the cross; it only denies his death on it. (close)
621. Important Words:
ماقتلوہ (they slew him not). قتله means, he slew him by striking him with a sword or with a stone or by poison or by any other means. See also 2:62 & 4:158.
ماقتلوہ یقینا (they did not convert this conjecture into certainty) is a peculiar Arabic idiom. The Arabs say قتل الشیء خبرا (lit. he killed the thing with certainty of knowledge and proper examination), i.e. he acquired full and thorough knowledge of the thing so as to dispel all possibility of doubt. So the words ما قتلوہ یقینا would mean, their knowledge regarding it was not comprehensive, or they did not know it for certain that he had been killed, or they did not convert this (conjecture of theirs) into certainty, meaning that they were not sure and they did not make sure whether Jesus died on the cross or not. In this case, the pronoun in قتلوہ would refer to the noun ظن (a conjecture) immediately preceding it (Lane, Aqrab, Mufradat & Lisan).
In plain English, the words would mean that their knowledge about the death of Jesus on the cross was not so full and comprehensive as to have attained the stage of certainty. The expression may also mean that they certainly did not slay him or that they did not kill him as a certainty, i.e. they did not execute him in such a way as definitely assure themselves that life had indeed become extinct in him.
ما صلبوه (nor crucified him). The word صلبوا is from the root صلب. They say صلب الشیء i.e. he burned the thing. صلب العظامmeans, he extracted the marrow out of the bones. صلب اللص means, he crucified the thief, i.e. he put him to death in a certain well-known manner (Lane & Aqrab). In crucifixion one was nailed to a framework made in the form of a cross and, being kept without food and drink, slowly died of pain, hunger, fatigue and exposure.
شبه لھم (he was made to appear to them like one crucified). شبھه إیاہ means, he made it or him to be like it or him, or he made it or him to resemble it or him. شبه علیه الامر means, the matter was rendered confused, obscure or dubious to him. شبه علیه الامرmeans, he rendered the matter confused to him (by making it to appear like some other thing); he rendered it confused, obscure or dubious to him (Lane & Aqrab).
This and the preceding verse mention two main objections of the Jews against Jesus: (1) his alleged illegitimate birth, and (2) his supposed death on the cross which, according to Jewish Law, was an accursed death (Deut. 21:23). The words, We did kill the Messiah, Jesus, Son of Mary—the Messenger of Allah, are spoken ironically and tauntingly, meaning, "we have killed Jesus who posed as the Messiah and a Messenger of God."
The argument of the Jews was that because Jesus died on the cross, he could not be a true Prophet according to Jewish Law. The inference was based on their sacred Scriptures; for, according to the Bible, he who is hanged is accursed of God, and a false Prophet shall meet with destruction. Says the Bible: "His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day; (for he that is hanged is accursed of God) that thy land be not defiled, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance' (Deut. 21:23). Again: "My hand shall be upon false prophets that see vanity, and that divine lies" (Ezek. 13:9). Again: "Therefore thus saith the Lord concerning the prophets that prophesy in My name, and I sent them not, yet they say, Sword and famine shall not be in this land, by sword and famine shall those prophets be consumed" (Jer. 14:15).
On the strength of such verses of the Bible, the Jews claimed that, as Jesus had been crucified and met with destruction, he could not be a true Prophet of God, but was a false claimant and an accursed one.
Regarding the charge about the alleged death of Jesus by crucifixion, the Quran says that the act of crucifixion having not been completed, and Jesus having been taken down alive from the cross, the charge carries no weight. It should, however, be noted that the Quran does not deny the mere hanging of Jesus on the cross; it only denies his death on it.
Two different views prevail among the Jews regarding Jesus’ alleged death by crucifixion. Some of them hold that Jesus was first killed and then his dead body was hung on the cross, while others are of the view that he was put to death by being fixed to the cross. The former view is reflected in Acts, 5:30 where we read "which ye slew and hanged on a tree." The Quran refutes both these views by saying, they slew him not, nor crucified him. The words may also signify that the Quran first rejects the slaying of Jesus in any form, and then proceeds to deny the particular way of killing by hanging on the cross.
The verb شبه (in the passive voice) means, he was made to appear like, or was made to resemble. Now the question arises, who is the person who was made to appear "like one crucified." Clearly, it was Jesus whom the Jews tried to crucify or slay. Nobody else can be meant here, for there is absolutely no reference to any other person in the context. Hence, the theory invented by certain commentators that Judas or somebody else was made to appear like Jesus and was then crucified in his place is simply absurd. The context cannot be so twisted as to make room for somebody else of whom no mention at all is made in the verse.
To what then was Jesus made like? The context provides a clear answer to that question. The Jews did not kill him by crucifixion, but he was made to appear to them like "one crucified", and thus it was that they wrongly took him for dead. It was thus Jesus who was made to resemble "one crucified." This interpretation is not only in perfect harmony with the context, but is also clearly borne out by all relevant facts of history.
The second meaning of the expression شبه لھم is, as explained under Important Words, that "the matter became confused to them." This interpretation is also clearly borne out by history; for, although the Jews asserted that they had put Jesus to death by suspending him on the cross, they were not sure of it and the circumstances being obscure, the matter had certainly become confused to them. The fact that the Jews themselves were not sure whether Jesus had actually died on the cross is supported by the Bible and by all authentic historical facts.
The statements made in this verse are clearly substantiated by the following facts narrated in the Gospels:
(1) Jesus had himself predicted his escape from death on the cross, saying, "As Jonah was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly, so shall the son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth" (Matt. 12:40). Now it is an accepted fact that Jonah had entered the whale’s belly alive and had come out alive; so, according to his own prophecy, Jesus was to enter the heart of the earth, (i.e. his tomb) alive and was to come out of it alive.
(2) The trying magistrate (Pilate) believed Jesus to be innocent and, being sympathetic, was anxious to save his life (Matt. 27:17, 18; Mark 15:9, 10, 14; Luke 23:4, 14, 15, 20,22; John 18:38, 39); and he must have secretly tried to save him or at least connived at the attempt of others to do so.
(3) Pilate’s wife had seen a vision concerning the innocence of Jesus: "When he (Pilate) was set down on the judgement seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, 'Have thou nothing to do with that just man, for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him'" (Matt. 27:19). This message must certainly have influenced Pilate, and his wife must have also done her best to save Jesus.
(4) Pilate held the killing of Jesus in such horror that he actually washed his hands with water, saying that he was innocent of the blood of that just man (Matt. 27:24).
(5) Pilate did all he could to help Jesus; and the soldiers in charge also treated Jesus with kindness, apparently under Pilate’s directions. The following are some of the special favours shown to Jesus: (a) Every malefactor carried his own cross but another man was made to carry that of Jesus (Matt. 27:32; Mark 15:21); (b) Jesus was given wine or vinegar mingled with myrrh. This was intended to render him less sensible to pain. The two thieves who were crucified with him were not given this drink. When after sometime the effects of the drink were wearing off and Jesus cried with pain, the drink was administered again to render him unconscious of pain (Matt. 27:34, 48; Mark 15:23, 36; John 19:29, 30).
(6) The unconsciousness which followed the administration of vinegar was mistaken for death (John 19:30).
(7) Jesus remained on the cross for only about three hours (John 19:14. cf. Matt. 27:46) and according to Mark only for six hours (Mark 15:25, 33), and either of these periods was by no means sufficient to kill a young man like Jesus on the cross.
(8) When Joseph of Arimathaea came and craved the body of Jesus, Pilate "marvelled if he were already dead", and calling to him the centurion asked him whether he had been any while dead (Mark, 15:44).
(9) The soldiers did not break the legs of Jesus, but the legs of the two malefactors who had been crucified with him were broken (John 19:32, 33).
(10) Jesus was not buried in the earth with the two malefactors but was laid separately in a spacious sepulchre hewn out of a rock and situated in a garden which was private property (Mark 15:46; John 19:41, 42).
(11) The Jews themselves were not sure that Jesus was dead; for they came to Pilate and besought him that his legs be broken (John 19:31).
(12) The doubt that Jesus was alive and might, with the aid of his sympathizers, escape from the sepulchre rankled in the minds of the Jews. They remembered also the prophecy of Jesus that he would show them the miracle of Jonah and would come out of the heart of the earth alive. So, influenced by such misgivings, the chief priests and Pharisees went together to Pilate, saying, "Sir, we remember that the deceiver said, while he was yet alive—'After three days I will rise again.'—Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third day. Pilate told them to make their own arrangements; "so they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone and setting a watch" (Matt. 27:62-66).
(13) In spite of the watch and despite the sealing of the stone, Jesus had left the sepulchre before the third day had dawned, when Mary Magdalene and Mary, mother of James, came to see the sepulchre and found the stone rolled away and the sepulchre empty (Matt. 28:1-6 Mark 16:1-6), which shows that the men set to watch were also in league with, and won over by, the friends of Jesus.
(14) After leaving the sepulchre, Jesus moved about secretly, lest the Jews should have him arrested again (Mark 16:12 John 20:19, 26; 21:4).
(15) Mary Magdalene and other disciples actually saw Jesus in this body of clay (Mark 16:9, 12).
(16) Jesus showed them his wounds to assure them that he was not a spirit but a man of flesh and blood and that the body they saw before them was the same physical body that had been nailed to the cross (Luke 24:39, 40; John 20:27).
(17) After leaving the sepulchre, Jesus felt hungry and partook of food with his disciples (John 21:5, 13; Luke 24:41, 42, 43).
The above references among others make it abundantly clear that Jesus did not die on the cross, that he was alive when he was taken down from the cross, and also when he was laid in the sepulchre, and that he came out of it alive on the third day at early morn, as he had himself prophesied, and that later he appeared to his disciples in secret and assured them that he was not dead.
(18) Jesus had said, "And other sheep I have which are not of this fold, them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice and there shall be one fold and one shepherd" (John 10:16). In these words he was obviously referring to the lost ten tribes of Israel who had scattered in Afghanistan, Kashmir, etc. In search of these Jesus came to the East after his miraculous escape from an accursed death on the cross, and among these he now lies buried in Khan Yar Street in Srinagar Kashmir. Conclusive historical evidence has established the fact that the holy occupant of the tomb in the Khan Yar Street in Srinagar is no other than Jesus, son of Mary. For further discussion of this important subject, see Masih Hindustan Meiń (Jesus in India) by the Promised Messiah, and R. Rel. Vol. II Nos. 1, 2, 5, 6, 10 published from Qadian, and the "Tomb of Jesus" by Dr M. M. Sadiq of Qadian. (close)
بَلۡ رَّفَعَہُ اللّٰہُ اِلَیۡہِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ عَزِیۡزًا حَکِیۡمًا ﴿۱۵۹﴾
بَل رَّفَعَهُ ٱللَّهُ إِلَيۡهِۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمٗا
a. 2:254; 3:56; 7:177; 58:12. (close)
700. The Jews exultingly claimed to have killed Jesus on the cross and thus to have proved that his claim to be a Divine Prophet was not true. The verse along with the preceding one contains a strong refutation of the charge and clears him of the insinuated blemish and speaks of his spiritual elevation and of his having been honoured in the presence of God. There is absolutely no reference in the verse to his physical ascension to heavens. It only says that God exalted him towards Himself which clearly signifies a spiritual exaltation, because no fixed abode can be assigned to God. (close)
a. 2:254; 3:56; 7:177; 58:12. (close)
622. Important Words:
رفعه (exalted him). See 2:64.
The words, On the contrary, Allah exalted him to Himself, constitute a reply to the taunt embodied in the words of the Jews: We did kill the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah (4:158). The verse thus purports to say that he whom the Jews so exultingly claimed to have killed on the cross was never so killed but was exalted to God Himself and granted His nearness. There is no reference here whatever to the supposed physical ascension of Jesus to the skies. The verse only contains a refutation of the allegation of the Jews that, having become accursed by crucifixion, Jesus had become spiritually fallen and degraded, and was, as it were, driven away from the presence of God. In refutation of this charge the verse clears him of the insinuated blemish by speaking of his spiritual exaltation.
It should also be noted that the Quran does not say here that Allah raised Jesus towards the skies, but only that He exalted him towards Himself, which clearly signifies not a physical but a spiritual exaltation, because no fixed abode can be, or has ever been, assigned to God. It is a pity that such an ennobled and holy spiritual significance of the verse should be distorted and debased to prove the utterly unfounded notion that Jesus was taken up to the heavens alive. The Quran would not accept the idea of a human being being physically taken up into the skies even if it were the Holy Prophet himself (17:94). See also note on 3:56. (close)
وَ اِنۡ مِّنۡ اَہۡلِ الۡکِتٰبِ اِلَّا لَیُؤۡمِنَنَّ بِہٖ قَبۡلَ مَوۡتِہٖ ۚ وَ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ یَکُوۡنُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ شَہِیۡدًا ﴿۱۶۰﴾ۚ
وَإِن مِّنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ إِلَّا لَيُؤۡمِنَنَّ بِهِۦ قَبۡلَ مَوۡتِهِۦۖ وَيَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ يَكُونُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ شَهِيدٗا
701. The pronoun "his" in the expression "before his death" stands for the noun "none", meaning every one among the People of the Book before his own death……This meaning is supported by the second reading of Mautihi which is Mautihim (their death) as reported by Ubayy (Jarir, vi. 13). The Jews believe that they killed Jesus on the cross because they seek to prove that he was not a true Prophet. The Christians believe that he had died on the cross, and this is because they have adopted the doctrine of Atonement. (close)
b. 5:118. (close)
623. Important Words:
The pronoun "it" in the clause, believe in it, stands for the false belief (referred to in the preceding verses) that Jesus met his death on the cross. So the verse signifies that both Jews and Christians will continue to believe in the supposed crucifixion of Jesus till the time of their death, when the veil will be lifted and everything will become clear. They are indeed bound to believe in the alleged death of Jesus on the cross. If the Jews do not do so, his truth becomes established and their whole position becomes indefensible. Similarly, if the Christians do not believe in it, the doctrine of Atonement becomes untenable and the entire fabric of Christianity crashes to pieces. So both these peoples go on sticking to this absurd and unfounded belief in the face of all reason and all established facts of history.
The attempts to make the words لیؤمنن به قبل موته (will believe in it before his death) mean "will believe in him (Jesus) before his (Jesus’) death" is simply ridiculous. The context spurns the idea, as does the second reading of the expression موته (his death) viz. موتھم (their death) reported by Ubayy (Jarir, vi. 13). (close)
فَبِظُلۡمٍ مِّنَ الَّذِیۡنَ ہَادُوۡا حَرَّمۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ طَیِّبٰتٍ اُحِلَّتۡ لَہُمۡ وَ بِصَدِّہِمۡ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ کَثِیۡرًا ﴿۱۶۱﴾ۙ
فَبِظُلۡمٖ مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ حَرَّمۡنَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ طَيِّبَٰتٍ أُحِلَّتۡ لَهُمۡ وَبِصَدِّهِمۡ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ كَثِيرٗا
a. 6:147. (close)
702. The verse does not refer to any material thing which was forbidden to the Jews after having been allowed before, because no Law-giving Prophet had appeared among them after Moses to forbid them things that had been allowed to them by the Torah. It refers to the spiritual Divine favours of which they had become deprived. It was also to the spiritual blessings the Jews had lost that Jesus referred when he said, I come to allow you some of that which had been forbidden to you (3:51), i.e. I come to restore to you some of the Divine blessings of which you have been deprived on account of your misdeeds. (close)
a. 6:147. (close)
The expression, We forbade them pure things which had been allowed to them, refers to the blessings and favours of God of which the Jews had become deprived by reason of their transgressions. The verse does not refer to any material thing which was forbidden to them after being allowed before, because no Law-giving Prophet appeared among the Israelites after Moses to forbid them things that had been allowed to them by the Torah. It was also to the spiritual blessings which the Jews had lost that Jesus referred when he said, (I come) to allow you some of that which had been forbidden to you (3:51), i.e. I come to restore to you some of the divine blessings of which you have been deprived on account of your misdeeds. (close)
وَّ اَخۡذِہِمُ الرِّبٰوا وَ قَدۡ نُہُوۡا عَنۡہُ وَ اَکۡلِہِمۡ اَمۡوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالۡبَاطِلِ ؕ وَ اَعۡتَدۡنَا لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ مِنۡہُمۡ عَذَابًا اَلِیۡمًا ﴿۱۶۲﴾
وَأَخۡذِهِمُ ٱلرِّبَوٰاْ وَقَدۡ نُهُواْ عَنۡهُ وَأَكۡلِهِمۡ أَمۡوَٰلَ ٱلنَّاسِ بِٱلۡبَٰطِلِۚ وَأَعۡتَدۡنَا لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ مِنۡهُمۡ عَذَابًا أَلِيمٗا
b. 2:276, 277; 3:131; 30:40. (close)
c. 9:34. (close)
703. The Jews were forbidden to lend money on interest to other Jews, but they were permitted to take interest from non-Jews (Exod. 22:25; Lev. 25:36, 37; Deut. 23:19, 20). But they broke the Law and began to take interest even from Jews (Neh. 5:7). Later they promised Nehemiah to give up this evil practice (Neh. 5:12). But they again broke their word; and so, in accordance with the prophecy of Ezekiel (Ezek. 18:13), they, as a nation, suffered death and were scattered over the earth to be persecuted at the hands of their enemies. (close)
b. 2:276, 277; 3:131; 30:40. (close)
c. 9:34. (close)
The Jews were forbidden to lend money on interest to other Jews, but they were permitted to take interest from non-Jews (Exod. 22:25; Lev. 25:36, 37; Deut. 23:19, 20). But they broke the Law and began to exact interest even from Jews (Neh. 5:7). Later they promised Nehemiah to give up taking interest from Jews (Neh. 5:12). But they again broke their word; and so, in accordance with the prophecy of Ezekiel (Ezek. 18:13), they suffered national death and were scattered over the earth to suffer persecution at the hands of their enemies. (close)
لٰکِنِ الرّٰسِخُوۡنَ فِی الۡعِلۡمِ مِنۡہُمۡ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ وَ مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکَ وَ الۡمُقِیۡمِیۡنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ الۡمُؤۡتُوۡنَ الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ سَنُؤۡتِیۡہِمۡ اَجۡرًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۱۶۳﴾٪
لَّـٰكِنِ ٱلرَّـٰسِخُونَ فِي ٱلۡعِلۡمِ مِنۡهُمۡ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبۡلِكَۚ وَٱلۡمُقِيمِينَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَۚ وَٱلۡمُؤۡتُونَ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ سَنُؤۡتِيهِمۡ أَجۡرًا عَظِيمًا
d. 3:8. (close)
704. This means those learned men among the Jews who embraced Islam. The word "believers" has been added to indicate that only those Jews are meant here who became Muslims. (close)
e. 2:5, 137; 3:200; 4:137; 5:60. (close)
705. The variation in the vowel-points of Muqimin is permissible according to rules of Arabic grammar. It is resorted to for the purpose of emphasis (Kashshaf, i. 336). (close)
a. 3:8. (close)
b. 2:5, 137; 3:200; 4:137; 5:60. (close)
626. Important Words:
مقیمین (who observe Prayer) is the active participle from اقام which is derived from قام i.e. he stood up or he stood still. اقام الامر means, he put the affair in a right state or condition.
اقام الصلوة means, he said or observed prayer constantly, regularly and with all the conditions attached to it (Lane & Aqrab). According to ordinary rules of grammar, this word ought to have been المقیمون and not المقیمین. But the اعراب (diacritics) of the word have been varied from that of the preceding or succeeding words e.g. الراسخون and المومنون in order to arrest the attention of the reader and thus to impress upon his mind the importance of the matter. The rules of the Arabic language sanction that variation for the purpose of emphasis (Jarir, vi. 16; Kashshaf, i. 336).
The words, But those among them who are firmly grounded in knowledge, refer to those learned Jews who embraced Islam. The word "believers" has been added to indicate that only those Jews are meant here who turned Muslim. (close)
اِنَّاۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ کَمَاۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلٰی نُوۡحٍ وَّ النَّبِیّٖنَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ ۚ وَ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلٰۤی اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ وَ اِسۡمٰعِیۡلَ وَ اِسۡحٰقَ وَ یَعۡقُوۡبَ وَ الۡاَسۡبَاطِ وَ عِیۡسٰی وَ اَیُّوۡبَ وَ یُوۡنُسَ وَ ہٰرُوۡنَ وَ سُلَیۡمٰنَ ۚ وَ اٰتَیۡنَا دَاوٗدَ زَبُوۡرًا ﴿۱۶۴﴾ۚ
۞إِنَّآ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ كَمَآ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَىٰ نُوحٖ وَٱلنَّبِيِّـۧنَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦۚ وَأَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَىٰٓ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ وَإِسۡمَٰعِيلَ وَإِسۡحَٰقَ وَيَعۡقُوبَ وَٱلۡأَسۡبَاطِ وَعِيسَىٰ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَٰرُونَ وَسُلَيۡمَٰنَۚ وَءَاتَيۡنَا دَاوُۥدَ زَبُورٗا
a. 2:137; 3:85; 6:85-88. (close)
b. 17:56. (close)
706. Some Prophets have been mentioned here, and in the succeeding verse, to point out that the mission of the Prophet of Islam was not a new thing. The specific mention of Zabur, the Book of Wisdom given to David in the present verse and of the Law-bearing revelation vouchsafed to Moses in the succeeding one, is made to hint that the Qur’an combines in itself both "Law and wisdom". (close)
a. 2:137; 3:85; 6:85-88. (close)
زبورا (a Book) signifies any writing or book; or a book that is confined to intellectual science exclusive of legal statutes or ordinances. الزبور signifies particularly the Book of the Psalms of David (Lane & Aqrab). See also 3:185.
Typical Prophets have been mentioned here and in the succeeding verse to point out that the mission of the Prophet of Islam was not a new thing, the specific mention of زبور, the Book of wisdom given to David, in the present verse and of the Law-bearing revelation vouchsafed to Moses in the succeeding one, being both "Law" and "Wisdom". (close)
وَ رُسُلًا قَدۡ قَصَصۡنٰہُمۡ عَلَیۡکَ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ وَ رُسُلًا لَّمۡ نَقۡصُصۡہُمۡ عَلَیۡکَ ؕ وَ کَلَّمَ اللّٰہُ مُوۡسٰی تَکۡلِیۡمًا ﴿۱۶۵﴾ۚ
وَرُسُلٗا قَدۡ قَصَصۡنَٰهُمۡ عَلَيۡكَ مِن قَبۡلُ وَرُسُلٗا لَّمۡ نَقۡصُصۡهُمۡ عَلَيۡكَۚ وَكَلَّمَ ٱللَّهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكۡلِيمٗا
c. 40:79. (close)
707. The Qur’an mentions by name only 24 Prophets whereas according to a saying of the Holy Prophet as many as 124,000 Prophets appeared in the world (Musnad, v. 266). Elsewhere, the Qur’an says: There is not a people to whom a Warner has not been sent (35:25). (close)
707A. Besides the translation given in the text, the clause also means, "to Moses Allah spoke particularly or directly". (close)
The Quran mentions only 24 Prophets by name, whereas a saying of the Holy Prophet states that as many as 124,000 Prophets have appeared in the world (Musnad, v. 266). Elsewhere the Quran says: There is not a people to whom a warner has not been sent (35:25).
For an explanation of the clause, and Allah spoke to Moses particularly, see the preceding verse. (close)