فَبِمَا نَقۡضِہِمۡ مِّیۡثَاقَہُمۡ وَ کُفۡرِہِمۡ بِاٰیٰتِ اللّٰہِ وَ قَتۡلِہِمُ الۡاَنۡۢبِیَآءَ بِغَیۡرِ حَقٍّ وَّ قَوۡلِہِمۡ قُلُوۡبُنَا غُلۡفٌ ؕ بَلۡ طَبَعَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہَا بِکُفۡرِہِمۡ فَلَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۱۵۶﴾۪
d. 5:14. (close)
e. 3:182. (close)
f. 2:89. (close)
g. 2:89; 16:109; 83:15. (close)
695. See 27. (close)
وَّ بِکُفۡرِہِمۡ وَ قَوۡلِہِمۡ عَلٰی مَرۡیَمَ بُہۡتَانًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۱۵۷﴾ۙ
696. The Jews accused Mary of fornication ("Jewish Life of Jesus" by Panther). The fact that the Jews uttered "a calumny" against Mary constitutes clear evidence of the fatherless birth of Jesus. For, if Jesus had a father, what "calumny" was it that the Jews uttered against Mary? Merely taunting her for the claims made by Jesus could in no sense be called a calumny. Elsewhere, the Qur’an refutes this charge by saying that the mother of Jesus was a righteous woman (3:43; 5:76). (close)
وَّ قَوۡلِہِمۡ اِنَّا قَتَلۡنَا الۡمَسِیۡحَ عِیۡسَی ابۡنَ مَرۡیَمَ رَسُوۡلَ اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ مَا قَتَلُوۡہُ وَ مَا صَلَبُوۡہُ وَ لٰکِنۡ شُبِّہَ لَہُمۡ ؕ وَ اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ اخۡتَلَفُوۡا فِیۡہِ لَفِیۡ شَکٍّ مِّنۡہُ ؕ مَا لَہُمۡ بِہٖ مِنۡ عِلۡمٍ اِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ ۚ وَ مَا قَتَلُوۡہُ یَقِیۡنًۢا ﴿۱۵۸﴾ۙ
697. Ma Salabu-hu means, they did not cause his death on the cross. Salab being a well-known manner of killing. They say Salabul-Lissa, i.e. he put the thief to death by putting him on the cross. The verse does not deny the fact of Jesus’s being nailed to the cross but denies his having died on it. (close)
698. The words Shubbiha La-hum mean, Jesus was made to appear to the Jews like one crucified; or the matter of the death of Jesus became obscure or dubious to them. Shubbiha ‘Alaihil-Amru means, the matter was rendered confused, obscure or dubious to him (Lane). (close)
a. 10:37; 53:29. (close)
699. The expression, Ma Qatalu-hu Yaqinan, means, (1) they did not kill him for certain; (2) they did not convert it (their conjecture) into certainty, i.e. their knowledge about the death of Jesus on the cross was not so certain as to have left no doubt in their minds that they had really killed him. In this case the pronoun hu in Qatalu-hu would refer to the noun Zann (conjecture). The Arabs say Qatalash-Shai’a Khubran, i.e. he acquired full and certain knowledge of the thing so as to dispel all possibility of doubt about it (Lane, Lisan & Mufradat). That Jesus did not die on the cross but died a natural death is clear from the Qur’an. The following facts, as narrated in the Gospels themselves lend powerful support to the Quranic version:
1. Being a Divine Prophet Jesus could not have died on the cross because according to the Bible "he that is hanged is accursed of God" (Deut. 21:23).
2. He had prayed to God in great agony to "take away this cup (of death on the cross) from me" (Mark, 14:36; Matt. 26:29; Luke, 22:42); and his prayer was heard (Heb. 5:7).
3. He had predicted that like Jonah who had gone into the belly of the whale alive and had come out of it alive (Matt. 12:40) he would remain in an excavated sepulchre for three days and would come out of it alive.
He had also prophesied that he would go to seek out the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel (John, 10:16). Even Jews in Jesus’s time believed that the Lost Tribes of Israel had become dispersed in different lands (John, 7:34, 35).
1. Jesus had remained hung on the cross only for about three hours (John, 19:14) and being a person of normal constitution he could not have died in such a short time.
2. Immediately after he had been taken down from the cross his side was pierced and blood and water flowed out of it which was a certain sign of life (John, 19:34).
3. The Jews themselves were not sure of Jesus’s death because they had asked Pilate to have a guard posted at his sepulchre "lest his disciples come by night and steal him away and say unto the people, 'He is risen from the dead' " (Matt. 27:64).
4. There is not to be found in all the Gospels a single recorded statement of an eyewitness to the effect that Jesus was dead when he was taken down from the cross or when he was placed in the tomb. Moreover, none of the disciples was present at the scene of Crucifixion, all having fled when Jesus was taken to Calvary. The fact of the case seems to be that, presumably due to the dream of his wife "to have nothing to do with that just man," Pilate had believed Jesus to be innocent and had, therefore, conspired with Joseph of Arimathea, a respected member of the Essene Order to which Jesus himself belonged before he was commissioned as a Prophet, to save his life. The trial of Jesus took place on Friday, Pilate having purposely prolonged it, knowing that the next day being the Sabbath Day the condemned persons could not be left on the cross after sunset. When at last he found himself compelled to condemn Jesus, Pilate gave his judgment only three hours before sunset, thus making himself sure that no person of normal health could die in such a short time by remaining on the cross. He took additional care to see that Jesus was given wine or vinegar mingled with myrrh to render him less sensitive to pain. When after three hours’ suspension he was taken down from the cross in an unconscious state (probably under the influence of vinegar which was administered to him), Pilate readily granted Joseph of Arimathea’s request and handed over his body to him. Unlike those of the two malefactors who were hung along with Jesus, his bones were not broken and Joseph had him placed in a spacious room hewn in the side of a rock. There was no medical autopsy, no stethoscopic test, no inquest with the aid of the evidence of those who were last with him ("Mystical life of Jesus" by H. Spencer Lewis).
5. An ointment, the famous Marham-e-‘Isa, (Ointment of Jesus) was prepared and applied to Jesus’s wounds and he was tended and looked after by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, also a very learned and highly respected member of the Essene Brotherhood.
6. After his wounds had been sufficiently healed, Jesus left the tomb and met some of his disciples and had his food with them and walked the whole distance from Jerusalem to Galilee on foot (Luke, 24:50).
"The Crucifixion by an Eye Witness", a book, which was at first published in 1873 in U.S.A. and which is an English translation of an ancient Latin copy of a letter written seven years after the Crucifixion by an Essene Brother in Jerusalem to a member of this Brotherhood in Alexandria, lends powerful support to the view that Jesus had been taken down from the cross alive. The book narrates in detail all the events leading to the Crucifixion, the scenes at the Calvary and also the incidents that took place afterwards. See also 'The Larger Edition of the Commentary'.
Two different views prevail among the Jews regarding Jesus’s alleged death by Crucifixion. Some of them hold that he was first killed and then his dead body was hung on the cross, while others are of the view that he was put to death by being fixed to the cross. The former view is reflected in The Acts 5:30 where we read "which ye slew and hanged on a tree". The Qur’an refutes both these views by saying,
they slew him not, nor did they bring about his death on the cross.
The Qur’an first rejects the slaying of Jesus in any form, and then proceeds to deny the particular way of killing by hanging on the cross. It does not deny that Jesus was hung on the cross; it only denies his death on it. (close)
بَلۡ رَّفَعَہُ اللّٰہُ اِلَیۡہِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ عَزِیۡزًا حَکِیۡمًا ﴿۱۵۹﴾
a. 2:254; 3:56; 7:177; 58:12. (close)
700. The Jews exultingly claimed to have killed Jesus on the cross and thus to have proved that his claim to be a Divine Prophet was not true. The verse along with the preceding one contains a strong refutation of the charge and clears him of the insinuated blemish and speaks of his spiritual elevation and of his having been honoured in the presence of God. There is absolutely no reference in the verse to his physical ascension to heavens. It only says that God exalted him towards Himself which clearly signifies a spiritual exaltation, because no fixed abode can be assigned to God. (close)
وَ اِنۡ مِّنۡ اَہۡلِ الۡکِتٰبِ اِلَّا لَیُؤۡمِنَنَّ بِہٖ قَبۡلَ مَوۡتِہٖ ۚ وَ یَوۡمَ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ یَکُوۡنُ عَلَیۡہِمۡ شَہِیۡدًا ﴿۱۶۰﴾ۚ
701. The pronoun "his" in the expression "before his death" stands for the noun "none", meaning every one among the People of the Book before his own death……This meaning is supported by the second reading of Mautihi which is Mautihim (their death) as reported by Ubayy (Jarir, vi. 13). The Jews believe that they killed Jesus on the cross because they seek to prove that he was not a true Prophet. The Christians believe that he had died on the cross, and this is because they have adopted the doctrine of Atonement. (close)
b. 5:118. (close)
فَبِظُلۡمٍ مِّنَ الَّذِیۡنَ ہَادُوۡا حَرَّمۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ طَیِّبٰتٍ اُحِلَّتۡ لَہُمۡ وَ بِصَدِّہِمۡ عَنۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ کَثِیۡرًا ﴿۱۶۱﴾ۙ
a. 6:147. (close)
702. The verse does not refer to any material thing which was forbidden to the Jews after having been allowed before, because no Law-giving Prophet had appeared among them after Moses to forbid them things that had been allowed to them by the Torah. It refers to the spiritual Divine favours of which they had become deprived. It was also to the spiritual blessings the Jews had lost that Jesus referred when he said, I come to allow you some of that which had been forbidden to you (3:51), i.e. I come to restore to you some of the Divine blessings of which you have been deprived on account of your misdeeds. (close)
وَّ اَخۡذِہِمُ الرِّبٰوا وَ قَدۡ نُہُوۡا عَنۡہُ وَ اَکۡلِہِمۡ اَمۡوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالۡبَاطِلِ ؕ وَ اَعۡتَدۡنَا لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ مِنۡہُمۡ عَذَابًا اَلِیۡمًا ﴿۱۶۲﴾
b. 2:276, 277; 3:131; 30:40. (close)
c. 9:34. (close)
703. The Jews were forbidden to lend money on interest to other Jews, but they were permitted to take interest from non-Jews (Exod. 22:25; Lev. 25:36, 37; Deut. 23:19, 20). But they broke the Law and began to take interest even from Jews (Neh. 5:7). Later they promised Nehemiah to give up this evil practice (Neh. 5:12). But they again broke their word; and so, in accordance with the prophecy of Ezekiel (Ezek. 18:13), they, as a nation, suffered death and were scattered over the earth to be persecuted at the hands of their enemies. (close)
لٰکِنِ الرّٰسِخُوۡنَ فِی الۡعِلۡمِ مِنۡہُمۡ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ وَ مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکَ وَ الۡمُقِیۡمِیۡنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ الۡمُؤۡتُوۡنَ الزَّکٰوۃَ وَ الۡمُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ ؕ اُولٰٓئِکَ سَنُؤۡتِیۡہِمۡ اَجۡرًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۱۶۳﴾٪
d. 3:8. (close)
704. This means those learned men among the Jews who embraced Islam. The word "believers" has been added to indicate that only those Jews are meant here who became Muslims. (close)
e. 2:5, 137; 3:200; 4:137; 5:60. (close)
705. The variation in the vowel-points of Muqimin is permissible according to rules of Arabic grammar. It is resorted to for the purpose of emphasis (Kashshaf, i. 336). (close)
اِنَّاۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکَ کَمَاۤ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلٰی نُوۡحٍ وَّ النَّبِیّٖنَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِہٖ ۚ وَ اَوۡحَیۡنَاۤ اِلٰۤی اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ وَ اِسۡمٰعِیۡلَ وَ اِسۡحٰقَ وَ یَعۡقُوۡبَ وَ الۡاَسۡبَاطِ وَ عِیۡسٰی وَ اَیُّوۡبَ وَ یُوۡنُسَ وَ ہٰرُوۡنَ وَ سُلَیۡمٰنَ ۚ وَ اٰتَیۡنَا دَاوٗدَ زَبُوۡرًا ﴿۱۶۴﴾ۚ
a. 2:137; 3:85; 6:85-88. (close)
b. 17:56. (close)
706. Some Prophets have been mentioned here, and in the succeeding verse, to point out that the mission of the Prophet of Islam was not a new thing. The specific mention of Zabur, the Book of Wisdom given to David in the present verse and of the Law-bearing revelation vouchsafed to Moses in the succeeding one, is made to hint that the Qur’an combines in itself both "Law and wisdom". (close)
وَ رُسُلًا قَدۡ قَصَصۡنٰہُمۡ عَلَیۡکَ مِنۡ قَبۡلُ وَ رُسُلًا لَّمۡ نَقۡصُصۡہُمۡ عَلَیۡکَ ؕ وَ کَلَّمَ اللّٰہُ مُوۡسٰی تَکۡلِیۡمًا ﴿۱۶۵﴾ۚ
c. 40:79. (close)
707. The Qur’an mentions by name only 24 Prophets whereas according to a saying of the Holy Prophet as many as 124,000 Prophets appeared in the world (Musnad, v. 266). Elsewhere, the Qur’an says: There is not a people to whom a Warner has not been sent (35:25). (close)
707A. Besides the translation given in the text, the clause also means, "to Moses Allah spoke particularly or directly". (close)