یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّاسُ قَدۡ جَآءَکُمُ الرَّسُوۡلُ بِالۡحَقِّ مِنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ فَاٰمِنُوۡا خَیۡرًا لَّکُمۡ ؕ وَ اِنۡ تَکۡفُرُوۡا فَاِنَّ لِلّٰہِ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمًا حَکِیۡمًا ﴿۱۷۱﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ قَدۡ جَآءَكُمُ ٱلرَّسُولُ بِٱلۡحَقِّ مِن رَّبِّكُمۡ فَـَٔامِنُواْ خَيۡرٗا لَّكُمۡۚ وَإِن تَكۡفُرُواْ فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمٗا
The words, to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and in the earth, have been added to point out that in case of disbelief the disbelievers cannot harm God or His religion. It is only themselves that they would harm. (close)
یٰۤاَہۡلَ الۡکِتٰبِ لَا تَغۡلُوۡا فِیۡ دِیۡنِکُمۡ وَ لَا تَقُوۡلُوۡا عَلَی اللّٰہِ اِلَّا الۡحَقَّ ؕ اِنَّمَا الۡمَسِیۡحُ عِیۡسَی ابۡنُ مَرۡیَمَ رَسُوۡلُ اللّٰہِ وَ کَلِمَتُہٗ ۚ اَلۡقٰہَاۤ اِلٰی مَرۡیَمَ وَ رُوۡحٌ مِّنۡہُ ۫ فَاٰمِنُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ رُسُلِہٖ ۚ۟ وَ لَا تَقُوۡلُوۡا ثَلٰثَۃٌ ؕ اِنۡتَہُوۡا خَیۡرًا لَّکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّمَا اللّٰہُ اِلٰہٌ وَّاحِدٌ ؕ سُبۡحٰنَہٗۤ اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ لَہٗ وَلَدٌ ۘ لَہٗ مَا فِی السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِاللّٰہِ وَکِیۡلًا ﴿۱۷۲﴾٪
يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ لَا تَغۡلُواْ فِي دِينِكُمۡ وَلَا تَقُولُواْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ إِلَّا ٱلۡحَقَّۚ إِنَّمَا ٱلۡمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَ رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُۥٓ أَلۡقَىٰهَآ إِلَىٰ مَرۡيَمَ وَرُوحٞ مِّنۡهُۖ فَـَٔامِنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦۖ وَلَا تَقُولُواْ ثَلَٰثَةٌۚ ٱنتَهُواْ خَيۡرٗا لَّكُمۡۚ إِنَّمَا ٱللَّهُ إِلَٰهٞ وَٰحِدٞۖ سُبۡحَٰنَهُۥٓ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُۥ وَلَدٞۘ لَّهُۥ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ وَكِيلٗا
c. 5:78. (close)
711. See 414. (close)
d. 58:23. (close)
712. Ruh means, soul or spirit; the breath which pervades the whole body after the exit of which man dies; Divine revelation or inspiration; the Qur’an; angel; joy and happiness; mercy (Lane). From the above-mentioned different meanings of Ruh and Kalimah it becomes clear that no special spiritual status attaches to Jesus. These and similar expressions have been used in the Qur’an about other Prophets and also about other righteous persons such as Mary (15:30; 32:10; 58:23). They have been used to clear Jesus and Mary of the foul charges that were brought against them by the Jews and not to assign to them any special spiritual status. (close)
a. 5:74. (close)
b. 2:117; 10:69. (close)
e. 17:112; 18:5; 112:4, 5. (close)
a. 5:78. (close)
b. 58:23. (close)
c. 5:74. (close)
d. 2:117; 10:69; 17:112; 18:5; 112:4, 5. (close)
635. Important Words:
کلمته (His word). کلمة has been used in the Quran in different senses:(1) good tiding (e.g. 37:171, 172); (2) warning of coming punishment (e.g. 39:20); (3) a thing or being created without the instrumentality of any physical means, i.e. by the Will of God expressed by saying "Be" (e.g. 3:46-48); (4) a Sign (e.g. 18:110); (5) a message (e.g. 3:65); (6) a design; (e.g.9:40); (7) a word or saying (e.g. 23:101). See also 3:46.
روح (mercy) is derived from راح i.e. it became cool and pleasant; he was brisk, lively, active, prompt or quick. روح means, soul or spirit; the subtle substance in man which is the principle of vitality and of sensation and of voluntary motion; the breath which a man breathes and which pervades the whole body, after the exit of which he ceases to breathe; Divine revelation or inspiration; the Quran; angel; joy and happiness; mercy (Lane).
From the above-mentioned different meanings of روح and کلمة becomes clear that no higher spiritual status can be assigned to Jesus than to the other Prophets, on account of the word روح or کلمة having been used about him in the Quran. These and similar expressions have been used in the Quran about other Prophets also and even about persons who were not Prophets, such as Mary and the children of Adam (see 58:23; 15:30; 32:10; 21:92). It may be noted here that the words روح منه (mercy from Him) do not mean that the روح formed a part of the Divine Being but that it was only a gift of God. The expression منه (from Him) has been used in the Quran in this sense in 45:14.
In fact, the Quran uses these words about Jesus because foul charges were brought against him and his mother, Mary, by the Jews. These words are thus meant to exculpate and exonerate him from those charges and not to deify him. The Quranlends no support whatsoever to the absurd and unfounded view that Jesus was anything higher than a human being. He was human and of the earth, and yet a Messenger of God (e.g. 43:60; 19:31).
The verse refers to the three alleged persons of the Trinity, i.e. the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost, and condemns Trinity, declaring Allah alone to be the one true God, and the Messiah and the Holy Spirit as only the servants of God and in no way sharers in Godhead. (close)
لَنۡ یَّسۡتَنۡکِفَ الۡمَسِیۡحُ اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ عَبۡدًا لِّلّٰہِ وَ لَا الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ الۡمُقَرَّبُوۡنَ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّسۡتَنۡکِفۡ عَنۡ عِبَادَتِہٖ وَ یَسۡتَکۡبِرۡ فَسَیَحۡشُرُہُمۡ اِلَیۡہِ جَمِیۡعًا ﴿۱۷۳﴾
لَّن يَسۡتَنكِفَ ٱلۡمَسِيحُ أَن يَكُونَ عَبۡدٗا لِّلَّهِ وَلَا ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ ٱلۡمُقَرَّبُونَۚ وَمَن يَسۡتَنكِفۡ عَنۡ عِبَادَتِهِۦ وَيَسۡتَكۡبِرۡ فَسَيَحۡشُرُهُمۡ إِلَيۡهِ جَمِيعٗا
d. 5:117, 118. (close)
a. 5:117, 118. (close)
636. Important Words:
یستنکف (will disdain) is derived from استنکف which is derived from نکف. They say نکف عنه i.e. he disdained it and turned away from it. استنکف الرجل means, the man was or became proud and vain, disdaining others. استنکف من کذا means, he kept back or turned away from it, or he disdained it by way of pride, vanity or haughtiness (Aqrab). (close)
فَاَمَّا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ فَیُوَفِّیۡہِمۡ اُجُوۡرَہُمۡ وَ یَزِیۡدُہُمۡ مِّنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ۚ وَ اَمَّا الَّذِیۡنَ اسۡتَنۡکَفُوۡا وَ اسۡتَکۡبَرُوۡا فَیُعَذِّبُہُمۡ عَذَابًا اَلِیۡمًا ۬ۙ وَّ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ لَہُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَلِیًّا وَّ لَا نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۷۴﴾
فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ فَيُوَفِّيهِمۡ أُجُورَهُمۡ وَيَزِيدُهُم مِّن فَضۡلِهِۦۖ وَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَنكَفُواْ وَٱسۡتَكۡبَرُواْ فَيُعَذِّبُهُمۡ عَذَابًا أَلِيمٗا وَلَا يَجِدُونَ لَهُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِيّٗا وَلَا نَصِيرٗا
e. 3:58, 16:97; 39:11. (close)
f. 4:46; 33:18, 66. (close)
a. 3:58; 16:97; 39:11. (close)
b. 7:158; 64:9. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّاسُ قَدۡ جَآءَکُمۡ بُرۡہَانٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ وَ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکُمۡ نُوۡرًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۱۷۵﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ قَدۡ جَآءَكُم بُرۡهَٰنٞ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ وَأَنزَلۡنَآ إِلَيۡكُمۡ نُورٗا مُّبِينٗا
713. "Manifest proof" may either refer to the Qur’an which contains great and manifest Signs and proofs; or to the Holy Prophet who, by his personal example, demonstrated that the Quranic teachings are a great blessing for mankind. (close)
a. 7:158 (close)
714. "A clear Light" may also either refer to the Holy Prophet or to the Qur’an. (close)
The word برھان (manifest proof) may either refer to the Quran with its great and manifest Signs, or to the person of the Holy Prophet who, by his personal example, demonstrated to the world that the Quranic teachings were a great blessing for mankind.
The words نورا مبینا (a clear light) may also either refer to the Holy Prophet or to the Quran which supplies the clearest of light for all spiritual wayfarers. The verse thus also incidentally constitutes a repudiation of the Christian dictum that the Shari‘ah is a curse. (close)
فَاَمَّا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ اعۡتَصَمُوۡا بِہٖ فَسَیُدۡخِلُہُمۡ فِیۡ رَحۡمَۃٍ مِّنۡہُ وَ فَضۡلٍ ۙ وَّ یَہۡدِیۡہِمۡ اِلَیۡہِ صِرَاطًا مُّسۡتَقِیۡمًا ﴿۱۷۶﴾ؕ
فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱعۡتَصَمُواْ بِهِۦ فَسَيُدۡخِلُهُمۡ فِي رَحۡمَةٖ مِّنۡهُ وَفَضۡلٖ وَيَهۡدِيهِمۡ إِلَيۡهِ صِرَٰطٗا مُّسۡتَقِيمٗا
b. 3:102; 4:147. (close)
c. 3:102; 4:147. (close)
The words, hold fast to Him, imply a forceful exhortation to Christians not to take Jesus as a deity but to look upon, and hold fast to, God alone as the means of their salvation and advancement. (close)
یَسۡتَفۡتُوۡنَکَ ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ یُفۡتِیۡکُمۡ فِی الۡکَلٰلَۃِ ؕ اِنِ امۡرُؤٌا ہَلَکَ لَیۡسَ لَہٗ وَلَدٌ وَّ لَہٗۤ اُخۡتٌ فَلَہَا نِصۡفُ مَا تَرَکَ ۚ وَ ہُوَ یَرِثُہَاۤ اِنۡ لَّمۡ یَکُنۡ لَّہَا وَلَدٌ ؕ فَاِنۡ کَانَتَا اثۡنَتَیۡنِ فَلَہُمَا الثُّلُثٰنِ مِمَّا تَرَکَ ؕ وَ اِنۡ کَانُوۡۤا اِخۡوَۃً رِّجَالًا وَّ نِسَآءً فَلِلذَّکَرِ مِثۡلُ حَظِّ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ ؕ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ اَنۡ تَضِلُّوۡا ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۷۷﴾٪
يَسۡتَفۡتُونَكَ قُلِ ٱللَّهُ يُفۡتِيكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡكَلَٰلَةِۚ إِنِ ٱمۡرُؤٌاْ هَلَكَ لَيۡسَ لَهُۥ وَلَدٞ وَلَهُۥٓ أُخۡتٞ فَلَهَا نِصۡفُ مَا تَرَكَۚ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَآ إِن لَّمۡ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَدٞۚ فَإِن كَانَتَا ٱثۡنَتَيۡنِ فَلَهُمَا ٱلثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَۚ وَإِن كَانُوٓاْ إِخۡوَةٗ رِّجَالٗا وَنِسَآءٗ فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثۡلُ حَظِّ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِۗ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡ أَن تَضِلُّواْۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٍ عَلِيمُۢ
c. 4:13. (close)
715. In 4:13 mention was made of one kind of Kalalah who leaves behind neither a parent nor an offspring and who has brothers and sisters from the side of mother only. The present verse refers to a Kalalah who has brothers and sisters from both his parents, or from the side of his father only. By comparing the verse under comment with 4:13 it becomes clear that for obvious reasons the share allotted to the former class of brothers and sisters is less than that allotted to those of the latter class.
This part of the law of inheritance has been purposely treated separately from the law dealt with in 4:12, 13. After dealing at some length with the charges levelled against Jesus by the Jews, the Qur’an reverts to the subject of Kalalah at the end of the Surah, thus seeking (beside completing the law relating to Kalalah) to draw attention to the spiritual heirlessness of Jesus who in a sense was also a Kalalah. Jesus was born without the agency of a father, and he left behind no spiritual successor. Ibn-e-‘Abbas defines a Kalalah as one who leaves no child and Jesus was spiritually a Kalalah since he left behind him no spiritual successor.
a. 4:12. (close)
b. 4:27. (close)
a. 4:13. (close)
b. 4:12. (close)
c. 4:27. (close)
639. Important Words:
For the meaning of the word کلالة see 4:13.
ولد (child) means, child or children whether male or female, but as کلالة (kalalah) means, one having no child and no parent, the words ولا والد (and neither parent) may be taken as being understood after the words لیس له ولد. The word اثنتین (lit. two) here means two or more sisters. This meaning is supported by a verdict of the Holy Prophet in which he applied this verse to the case of Jabir who died, leaving seven sisters (Jarir, vi. 24). The word اخوة (brethren) here includes sisters and brothers both, as the words رجالا و نساء (both men and women), forming case in apposition with اخوة indicate.
This verse, placed as it is in between the verses dealing with the Christians and their false doctrines, appears to be rather misplaced. But as the following note will show, it is very fittingly placed here, furnishing a striking proof of the Quran as well as its present arrangement being the work of God.
In 4:13 mention was made of one kind of Kalalah (one who leaves behind neither a parent nor an offspring) who had brothers and sisters from the side of his mother only. The present verse refers to a Kalalah who has brothers and sisters from both his parents, or from the side of his father only. By comparing the verse under comment with 4:13 it becomes clear that for obvious reasons the share allotted to the former class of brothers and sisters is less than that allotted to those of the latter class.
This part of the law of inheritance has been purposely treated separately from the main portion of the law dealt with in 4:12, 13 in the beginning of the Surah. The object in doing so is not far to seek. After dealing at some length with the charges levelled against Jesus by the Jews and clearing his position, the Quran reverts to the subject of Kalalah at the end of the Surah, thus seeking (beside completing the law relating to Kalalah) to draw, by a most fitting parable, our attention to the spiritual heirlessness of Jesus who, in a sense, was also a Kalalah. He was born without the agency of a father, and he left behind no spiritual successor to succeed him in his prophetic office, which was, after his death, inherited by the Ishmaelites. In this case the words, If a man dies, leaving no child, may also signify that Jesus was a Kalalah, not in the sense that spiritually speaking he had neither parents nor child, but in the restricted sense that he had no child. See 4:13 under Important Words where Ibn ‘Abbas defines a Kalalah as simply one who leaves no child. Thus Jesus was spiritually a Kalalah in the sense that he left behind no spiritual successor. Compare also the prophecy, "I will raise them a prophet from among their brethren" (Deut. 18:18). (close)