لَنۡ یَّسۡتَنۡکِفَ الۡمَسِیۡحُ اَنۡ یَّکُوۡنَ عَبۡدًا لِّلّٰہِ وَ لَا الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ الۡمُقَرَّبُوۡنَ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّسۡتَنۡکِفۡ عَنۡ عِبَادَتِہٖ وَ یَسۡتَکۡبِرۡ فَسَیَحۡشُرُہُمۡ اِلَیۡہِ جَمِیۡعًا ﴿۱۷۳﴾
لَّن يَسۡتَنكِفَ ٱلۡمَسِيحُ أَن يَكُونَ عَبۡدٗا لِّلَّهِ وَلَا ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ ٱلۡمُقَرَّبُونَۚ وَمَن يَسۡتَنكِفۡ عَنۡ عِبَادَتِهِۦ وَيَسۡتَكۡبِرۡ فَسَيَحۡشُرُهُمۡ إِلَيۡهِ جَمِيعٗا
d. 5:117, 118. (close)
a. 5:117, 118. (close)
636. Important Words:
یستنکف (will disdain) is derived from استنکف which is derived from نکف. They say نکف عنه i.e. he disdained it and turned away from it. استنکف الرجل means, the man was or became proud and vain, disdaining others. استنکف من کذا means, he kept back or turned away from it, or he disdained it by way of pride, vanity or haughtiness (Aqrab). (close)
فَاَمَّا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ فَیُوَفِّیۡہِمۡ اُجُوۡرَہُمۡ وَ یَزِیۡدُہُمۡ مِّنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ۚ وَ اَمَّا الَّذِیۡنَ اسۡتَنۡکَفُوۡا وَ اسۡتَکۡبَرُوۡا فَیُعَذِّبُہُمۡ عَذَابًا اَلِیۡمًا ۬ۙ وَّ لَا یَجِدُوۡنَ لَہُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰہِ وَلِیًّا وَّ لَا نَصِیۡرًا ﴿۱۷۴﴾
فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ فَيُوَفِّيهِمۡ أُجُورَهُمۡ وَيَزِيدُهُم مِّن فَضۡلِهِۦۖ وَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَنكَفُواْ وَٱسۡتَكۡبَرُواْ فَيُعَذِّبُهُمۡ عَذَابًا أَلِيمٗا وَلَا يَجِدُونَ لَهُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِيّٗا وَلَا نَصِيرٗا
e. 3:58, 16:97; 39:11. (close)
f. 4:46; 33:18, 66. (close)
a. 3:58; 16:97; 39:11. (close)
b. 7:158; 64:9. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا النَّاسُ قَدۡ جَآءَکُمۡ بُرۡہَانٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّکُمۡ وَ اَنۡزَلۡنَاۤ اِلَیۡکُمۡ نُوۡرًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۱۷۵﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ قَدۡ جَآءَكُم بُرۡهَٰنٞ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ وَأَنزَلۡنَآ إِلَيۡكُمۡ نُورٗا مُّبِينٗا
713. "Manifest proof" may either refer to the Qur’an which contains great and manifest Signs and proofs; or to the Holy Prophet who, by his personal example, demonstrated that the Quranic teachings are a great blessing for mankind. (close)
a. 7:158 (close)
714. "A clear Light" may also either refer to the Holy Prophet or to the Qur’an. (close)
The word برھان (manifest proof) may either refer to the Quran with its great and manifest Signs, or to the person of the Holy Prophet who, by his personal example, demonstrated to the world that the Quranic teachings were a great blessing for mankind.
The words نورا مبینا (a clear light) may also either refer to the Holy Prophet or to the Quran which supplies the clearest of light for all spiritual wayfarers. The verse thus also incidentally constitutes a repudiation of the Christian dictum that the Shari‘ah is a curse. (close)
فَاَمَّا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ اعۡتَصَمُوۡا بِہٖ فَسَیُدۡخِلُہُمۡ فِیۡ رَحۡمَۃٍ مِّنۡہُ وَ فَضۡلٍ ۙ وَّ یَہۡدِیۡہِمۡ اِلَیۡہِ صِرَاطًا مُّسۡتَقِیۡمًا ﴿۱۷۶﴾ؕ
فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱعۡتَصَمُواْ بِهِۦ فَسَيُدۡخِلُهُمۡ فِي رَحۡمَةٖ مِّنۡهُ وَفَضۡلٖ وَيَهۡدِيهِمۡ إِلَيۡهِ صِرَٰطٗا مُّسۡتَقِيمٗا
b. 3:102; 4:147. (close)
c. 3:102; 4:147. (close)
The words, hold fast to Him, imply a forceful exhortation to Christians not to take Jesus as a deity but to look upon, and hold fast to, God alone as the means of their salvation and advancement. (close)
یَسۡتَفۡتُوۡنَکَ ؕ قُلِ اللّٰہُ یُفۡتِیۡکُمۡ فِی الۡکَلٰلَۃِ ؕ اِنِ امۡرُؤٌا ہَلَکَ لَیۡسَ لَہٗ وَلَدٌ وَّ لَہٗۤ اُخۡتٌ فَلَہَا نِصۡفُ مَا تَرَکَ ۚ وَ ہُوَ یَرِثُہَاۤ اِنۡ لَّمۡ یَکُنۡ لَّہَا وَلَدٌ ؕ فَاِنۡ کَانَتَا اثۡنَتَیۡنِ فَلَہُمَا الثُّلُثٰنِ مِمَّا تَرَکَ ؕ وَ اِنۡ کَانُوۡۤا اِخۡوَۃً رِّجَالًا وَّ نِسَآءً فَلِلذَّکَرِ مِثۡلُ حَظِّ الۡاُنۡثَیَیۡنِ ؕ یُبَیِّنُ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ اَنۡ تَضِلُّوۡا ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمٌ ﴿۱۷۷﴾٪
يَسۡتَفۡتُونَكَ قُلِ ٱللَّهُ يُفۡتِيكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡكَلَٰلَةِۚ إِنِ ٱمۡرُؤٌاْ هَلَكَ لَيۡسَ لَهُۥ وَلَدٞ وَلَهُۥٓ أُخۡتٞ فَلَهَا نِصۡفُ مَا تَرَكَۚ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَآ إِن لَّمۡ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَدٞۚ فَإِن كَانَتَا ٱثۡنَتَيۡنِ فَلَهُمَا ٱلثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَۚ وَإِن كَانُوٓاْ إِخۡوَةٗ رِّجَالٗا وَنِسَآءٗ فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثۡلُ حَظِّ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِۗ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡ أَن تَضِلُّواْۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٍ عَلِيمُۢ
c. 4:13. (close)
715. In 4:13 mention was made of one kind of Kalalah who leaves behind neither a parent nor an offspring and who has brothers and sisters from the side of mother only. The present verse refers to a Kalalah who has brothers and sisters from both his parents, or from the side of his father only. By comparing the verse under comment with 4:13 it becomes clear that for obvious reasons the share allotted to the former class of brothers and sisters is less than that allotted to those of the latter class.
This part of the law of inheritance has been purposely treated separately from the law dealt with in 4:12, 13. After dealing at some length with the charges levelled against Jesus by the Jews, the Qur’an reverts to the subject of Kalalah at the end of the Surah, thus seeking (beside completing the law relating to Kalalah) to draw attention to the spiritual heirlessness of Jesus who in a sense was also a Kalalah. Jesus was born without the agency of a father, and he left behind no spiritual successor. Ibn-e-‘Abbas defines a Kalalah as one who leaves no child and Jesus was spiritually a Kalalah since he left behind him no spiritual successor.
a. 4:12. (close)
b. 4:27. (close)
a. 4:13. (close)
b. 4:12. (close)
c. 4:27. (close)
639. Important Words:
For the meaning of the word کلالة see 4:13.
ولد (child) means, child or children whether male or female, but as کلالة (kalalah) means, one having no child and no parent, the words ولا والد (and neither parent) may be taken as being understood after the words لیس له ولد. The word اثنتین (lit. two) here means two or more sisters. This meaning is supported by a verdict of the Holy Prophet in which he applied this verse to the case of Jabir who died, leaving seven sisters (Jarir, vi. 24). The word اخوة (brethren) here includes sisters and brothers both, as the words رجالا و نساء (both men and women), forming case in apposition with اخوة indicate.
This verse, placed as it is in between the verses dealing with the Christians and their false doctrines, appears to be rather misplaced. But as the following note will show, it is very fittingly placed here, furnishing a striking proof of the Quran as well as its present arrangement being the work of God.
In 4:13 mention was made of one kind of Kalalah (one who leaves behind neither a parent nor an offspring) who had brothers and sisters from the side of his mother only. The present verse refers to a Kalalah who has brothers and sisters from both his parents, or from the side of his father only. By comparing the verse under comment with 4:13 it becomes clear that for obvious reasons the share allotted to the former class of brothers and sisters is less than that allotted to those of the latter class.
This part of the law of inheritance has been purposely treated separately from the main portion of the law dealt with in 4:12, 13 in the beginning of the Surah. The object in doing so is not far to seek. After dealing at some length with the charges levelled against Jesus by the Jews and clearing his position, the Quran reverts to the subject of Kalalah at the end of the Surah, thus seeking (beside completing the law relating to Kalalah) to draw, by a most fitting parable, our attention to the spiritual heirlessness of Jesus who, in a sense, was also a Kalalah. He was born without the agency of a father, and he left behind no spiritual successor to succeed him in his prophetic office, which was, after his death, inherited by the Ishmaelites. In this case the words, If a man dies, leaving no child, may also signify that Jesus was a Kalalah, not in the sense that spiritually speaking he had neither parents nor child, but in the restricted sense that he had no child. See 4:13 under Important Words where Ibn ‘Abbas defines a Kalalah as simply one who leaves no child. Thus Jesus was spiritually a Kalalah in the sense that he left behind no spiritual successor. Compare also the prophecy, "I will raise them a prophet from among their brethren" (Deut. 18:18). (close)