وَّ الۡمُحۡصَنٰتُ مِنَ النِّسَآءِ اِلَّا مَا مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُکُمۡ ۚ کِتٰبَ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ ۚ وَ اُحِلَّ لَکُمۡ مَّا وَرَآءَ ذٰلِکُمۡ اَنۡ تَبۡتَغُوۡا بِاَمۡوَالِکُمۡ مُّحۡصِنِیۡنَ غَیۡرَ مُسٰفِحِیۡنَ ؕ فَمَا اسۡتَمۡتَعۡتُمۡ بِہٖ مِنۡہُنَّ فَاٰتُوۡہُنَّ اُجُوۡرَہُنَّ فَرِیۡضَۃً ؕ وَ لَا جُنَاحَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ فِیۡمَا تَرٰضَیۡتُمۡ بِہٖ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ الۡفَرِیۡضَۃِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ عَلِیۡمًا حَکِیۡمًا ﴿۲۵﴾
۞وَٱلۡمُحۡصَنَٰتُ مِنَ ٱلنِّسَآءِ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَٰنُكُمۡۖ كِتَٰبَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡۚ وَأُحِلَّ لَكُم مَّا وَرَآءَ ذَٰلِكُمۡ أَن تَبۡتَغُواْ بِأَمۡوَٰلِكُم مُّحۡصِنِينَ غَيۡرَ مُسَٰفِحِينَۚ فَمَا ٱسۡتَمۡتَعۡتُم بِهِۦ مِنۡهُنَّ فَـَٔاتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةٗۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فِيمَا تَرَٰضَيۡتُم بِهِۦ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ ٱلۡفَرِيضَةِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمٗا
588. Muhsanat is the plural of Muhsanah which means, a married woman; a free woman; a chaste woman (Lane). (close)
589. This means that whereas a woman who is already married to a man cannot be taken in marriage by another person, an exception is made here in case of women who are taken prisoner in a war waged by a non-Muslim State against an Islamic State. This is the significance of the words Ma Malakat Aimanukum. Such married women, if they become converted to Islam and therefore could not be sent back to their non-Muslim husbands, may be married to Muslim husbands. For a detailed note on "What your right hands possess" see 561. (close)
a. 4:26; 5:6. (close)
590. Tamatta‘a bil Mar’ati means, he benefited by the woman temporarily. Istamta‘a bi Kadha means, he benefited by it for a long time. The Arabic idiom does not countenance the use of Istimta‘ with regard to a woman in the sense of temporary connection (Lisan). It may also be noted that whenever the noun Tamattu‘ is used to denote temporary connection with a woman, it is followed by the preposition ba’ put before the word standing for the woman, as in the above example. An Arab poet says, Tamatta‘ biha ma Sa‘afatka wa la Takun ‘alaika Shajan fil Halqi hina Tabinu (Hamasah), i.e. be benefited by her as long as she is agreeable to you, but when she gets separated from you, do not let her be a source of constant trouble for you like a piece of bone which remains stuck in the throat. But in this verse the pronoun Hunna referring to women is preceded by the preposition min. Misunderstanding about Mut‘ah seems to have arisen from the failure to understand the difference between the words Tamattu‘ and Istimta‘. The author of Lisan quotes Zajjaj as saying: "Owing to their ignorance of the Arabic language, some persons have inferred from this verse the legality of Mut‘ah which, by the consensus of opinion among Muslim theologians, has been declared to be unlawful, the words Fa-mastamta‘tum bihi Minhunna simply meaning marriage, performed in accordance with the conditions mentioned above". If there had been any reference to Mut‘ah here, the preposition used ought to have been ba’ and not min. Moreover, the word used is Istamta‘a and not Tamatta‘a which possesses a sense different from that of the former word. Nor can any inference in favour of Mut‘ah be drawn from the word Ujurahunna which means "their dowries", the sense in which it has also been used in the Qur’an (33:51). Thus the Qur’an positively forbids Mut‘ah and regards all sexual relations outside proper wedlock (Ihsan) as adultery. (close)
b. 4:5; 60:11. (close)
a. 4:26; 5:6. (close)
504. Important Words:
المحصنات (married) is the plural of محصنة and is derived from حصن meaning, he or it was or became inaccessible, fortified or protected against attack. حصن المرأة means, the woman was chaste, i.e. protected against moral or sexual sinfulness. احصنت المرأة means, the woman got married. محصنة therefore, means a married woman; a chaste woman who abstains from what is unlawful; a free or noble woman as opposed to a bondwoman. Similarly محصن means, a married man; chaste man who abstains from what is unlawful: a free or noble man. حصن means, a fort or a fortress. The word محصنات would, therefore, mean, women who have protected themselves by entering, as it were, the fortress of marriage. The word has been used in the Quran in all the different senses, i.e. (1) married women, (2) chaste women and (3) free women; but in the present verse it has been used in the sense of married women (Lane & Aqrab).
مسافحین (committing fornication) is the active participle from سافح which is derived from سفح. They say سفح الدم i.e. he shed blood or made it flow. سفح الدمع means, tears began to flow. Thus the word is both transitive and intransitive. سافحة means, he vied with the other party in shedding blood; he committed fornication. مسافحة means, a fornicator and مسافحة means, a fornicatress (Lane & Aqrab).
اجور (dowries) is the plural of اجر which means, reward or wages. اجر المرأة means, dowry of a woman (Taj). Also, in 33:51 the word has been used in the sense of dowry.
استمتعتم (the benefit you receive) is formed from متع. They say متعھا بکذا i.e. he gave her (his wife) such a thing. تمتع بالمرأةmeans, he benefited by the woman temporarily. استمتع بکذا means, he benefited by it for a long time. The Arabic idiom does not countenance the use of استمتاع with regard to a woman in the sense of temporary connection (Lisan). It must also be noted that whenever the noun تمتع (tamattu‘) is used to denote temporary connection with a woman, it is followed by the preposition با (ba) put before the word standing for the woman, as in the above example. But in the expression فما استمتعم به منھن to pronoun ھن referring to women is preceded by the preposition من.
ماملکت ایمانکم (what your right hands possess). The Arabs say ھذا ملک یمینی i.e. he or it is in the possession of my right hand, meaning, he or it is in my possession and I can deal with him or it as I like (Lisan & Aqrab). The expression ما ملکت ایمانکمgenerally signifies, men or women taken prisoner in war and being in the custody and control of their Muslim captors. In this verse, the expression means women prisoners only. The term has been used by the Quran in preference to عباد or اماء (slaves and bondwomen) to point to just and rightful possession, the word ایمان (right hands) also pointing to the same fact.
The expression, such as your right hands possess, has been used in the Quran with regard to those men or women who took part in aggressive wars against Islam and fell prisoners into the hands of Muslims. The context, however, shows that the expression used in the present verse means female prisoners of war. Islam does not allow women taken prisoner in ordinary wars to be taken as wives. This exceptional injunction becomes operative only when a hostile nation wages a religious war against Islam with a view to extirpating it and compelling Muslims to abandon their religion at the point of the sword, and treats their prisoners as slaves, as was done in the days of the Holy Prophet when the enemy took away Muslim women as prisoners and treated them as slaves. The Islamic injunction was thus only a retaliatory measure and also served the additional purpose of protecting the morals of captive women who were generally in large numbers and whom war separated from their kith and kin. A people who seek to compel others to forsake their religion at the point of the sword and reduce them to slavery are mere brutes and not respectable human beings. They must be paid back in their own coin in order to bring them to their senses. For a fuller exposition of this subject see General Introduction.
It may be noted that it is not permitted to take into marriage such female relations of a bondwoman who is treated as wife, as correspond to the relations of a free woman within the prohibited degree. For instance, the mothers, sisters, daughters etc. of such bondwomen cannot be taken in marriage.
The advocates of mut‘a (temporary marriage) have endeavoured in vain to infer its legality from this verse. The Quran and the Arabic language both contradict this manifestly unfounded inference. The misunderstanding about mut‘aseems to have arisen from the failure to understand the difference between the meanings of تمتع and استمتاع given under Important Words. The author of Lisanul-‘Arab quotes Zajjaj as saying: "This is a verse in the interpretation of which some men have committed a great blunder, owing to their ignorance of the Arabic language. They have inferred from it the legality of mut‘a which, by the consensus of opinion among Muslim theologians, has been declared to be unlawful, whereas the words simply mean marriage performed in accordance with the conditions mentioned above."
According to Arabic usage, the legality of mut‘a, as asserted by some people, cannot, therefore, be inferred from this verse. If there had been any reference to mut‘a, the preposition used ought to have been با (ba) and not من (min). Moreover, the expression used here is not تمتع but استمتع which possesses a sense different from that of the former word.
Nor can any inference in favour of mut‘a be drawn from the expression اجورھن which, as explained under Important Words, means "their dowries", in which sense it has been used in the Quran elsewhere also (33:51).
On principle, the dowry must be paid immediately at marriage; but with the wife’s consent the payment can be suitably deferred. The husband can increase the amount of the dowry later, if he so desires; but he cannot decrease it except with the permission of the wife or the qadi. (close)
وَ مَنۡ لَّمۡ یَسۡتَطِعۡ مِنۡکُمۡ طَوۡلًا اَنۡ یَّنۡکِحَ الۡمُحۡصَنٰتِ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتِ فَمِنۡ مَّا مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُکُمۡ مِّنۡ فَتَیٰتِکُمُ الۡمُؤۡمِنٰتِ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ اَعۡلَمُ بِاِیۡمَانِکُمۡ ؕ بَعۡضُکُمۡ مِّنۡۢ بَعۡضٍ ۚ فَانۡکِحُوۡہُنَّ بِاِذۡنِ اَہۡلِہِنَّ وَ اٰتُوۡہُنَّ اُجُوۡرَہُنَّ بِالۡمَعۡرُوۡفِ مُحۡصَنٰتٍ غَیۡرَ مُسٰفِحٰتٍ وَّ لَا مُتَّخِذٰتِ اَخۡدَانٍ ۚ فَاِذَاۤ اُحۡصِنَّ فَاِنۡ اَتَیۡنَ بِفَاحِشَۃٍ فَعَلَیۡہِنَّ نِصۡفُ مَا عَلَی الۡمُحۡصَنٰتِ مِنَ الۡعَذَابِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ لِمَنۡ خَشِیَ الۡعَنَتَ مِنۡکُمۡ ؕ وَ اَنۡ تَصۡبِرُوۡا خَیۡرٌ لَّکُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿٪۲۶﴾
وَمَن لَّمۡ يَسۡتَطِعۡ مِنكُمۡ طَوۡلًا أَن يَنكِحَ ٱلۡمُحۡصَنَٰتِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَٰتِ فَمِن مَّا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَٰنُكُم مِّن فَتَيَٰتِكُمُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَٰتِۚ وَٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِإِيمَٰنِكُمۚ بَعۡضُكُم مِّنۢ بَعۡضٖۚ فَٱنكِحُوهُنَّ بِإِذۡنِ أَهۡلِهِنَّ وَءَاتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ مُحۡصَنَٰتٍ غَيۡرَ مُسَٰفِحَٰتٖ وَلَا مُتَّخِذَٰتِ أَخۡدَانٖۚ فَإِذَآ أُحۡصِنَّ فَإِنۡ أَتَيۡنَ بِفَٰحِشَةٖ فَعَلَيۡهِنَّ نِصۡفُ مَا عَلَى ٱلۡمُحۡصَنَٰتِ مِنَ ٱلۡعَذَابِۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَنۡ خَشِيَ ٱلۡعَنَتَ مِنكُمۡۚ وَأَن تَصۡبِرُواْ خَيۡرٞ لَّكُمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٞ رَّحِيمٞ
591. In Islam no stigma attaches to the status of a handmaid as such; but owing to her relationships and associations she may not prove such a perfect companion as a free believing woman. (close)
591A. This means that only such of them may be married as are chaste and virtuous. Once they are married their dowries must be paid just as in the case of free women. (close)
a. 4:16, 20; 24:20. (close)
592. The verse has laid down three vital principles: (a) Bondwomen should be properly married before conjugal relations are had with them. This is also clear from 2:222; 4:4; and 24:33. Thus Islam has cut at the root of concubinage which was so prevalent in Arab society before its advent. (b) If they commit adultery, bondwomen are to have half the punishment which is 100 stripes for free women for the same offence which shows that stoning to death is not the punishment for adultery, as mistakenly understood, because stoning to death cannot be halved. (c) Incidentally, the verse seems to indicate that a bondwoman taken in marriage had a lower social status in Arab society than a free woman taken in marriage, perhaps because of her having taken part in a war waged to destroy an Islamic State. (close)
505. Important Words:
طولا (to afford) is noun from طال i.e. he or it was or became long, tall or high. طول means, bounty or gift; ampleness of means; excellence; excess or increase; power or ability; wealth or competence. It may also mean, dowry or expenses of marriage (Lane, Aqrab & Mufradat).
اخدان (secret paramours) is the plural of خدن. They say خادنه i.e. he was or became his friend or companion; or he was or became his secret or private friend. اخدان means friends or secret friends; amorous companions or associates; companions or associates affected with sensual appetency (Lane & Mufradat).
العنت (sins) is the noun-infinitive from عنت i.e. he fell into a difficulty; or he committed a sin or a crime or an act of disobedience; or he committed fornication or adultery. عنت therefore, means, severe difficulty or hardship; a state of perdition; a corrupt or evil state or conduct; a sin or crime, or an act of disobedience deserving punishment; a wrong action (intentional or unintentional); fornication or adultery (Lane & Aqrab). See also 3:119, 2:221.
As God attaches great value to the faith of a Muslim, He does not like it to become impaired by his marrying disbelieving women. Hence the condition that even the bondwoman a Muslim may marry should be a believer.
The words, you are all one from another, are meant to raise believing bondwomen in the estimation of Muslims, who are hereby required not to despise them or treat them with contempt on account of their so-called lower status.
The words, half the punishment, mean 50 stripes, the punishment for (unmarried) free women being 100 stripes. See also 24:3. The word half shows that the verse refers to a punishment which can be halved, and not to stoning to death, which was inflicted on married free women. The punishment definitely prescribed in the Quran (24:3) for a fornicator and a fornicatress is only a hundred stripes, but as the Holy Prophet differentiated between married and unmarried persons, inflicting on the former the punishment of stoning to death, the aforesaid verse has been taken as only applying to unmarried persons.
The expression, this is for him among you who fears lest he should commit sin, shows that Muslims are enjoined to avoid, as far as possible, contracting conjugal relations with bond women taken prisoner from belligerent disbelievers. This is to be done only if, on the one hand, one is not able to marry a free woman and, on the other, by remaining unmarried, one fears to fall into sin. The Muslim Empire of Baghdad fell to pieces because the khalifahs took to contracting conjugal relations with bondwomen. The incompetent princes born of them ruined the State. In most cases, marital relations with bondwomen are calculated to have a demoralizing effect on both husbands and children. (close)
یُرِیۡدُ اللّٰہُ لِیُبَیِّنَ لَکُمۡ وَ یَہۡدِیَکُمۡ سُنَنَ الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکُمۡ وَ یَتُوۡبَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمٌ حَکِیۡمٌ ﴿۲۷﴾
يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَكُمۡ وَيَهۡدِيَكُمۡ سُنَنَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ وَيَتُوبَ عَلَيۡكُمۡۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٞ
a. 4:177. (close)
a. 4:177. (close)
وَ اللّٰہُ یُرِیۡدُ اَنۡ یَّتُوۡبَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ ۟ وَ یُرِیۡدُ الَّذِیۡنَ یَتَّبِعُوۡنَ الشَّہَوٰتِ اَنۡ تَمِیۡلُوۡا مَیۡلًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۲۸﴾
وَٱللَّهُ يُرِيدُ أَن يَتُوبَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَيُرِيدُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ ٱلشَّهَوَٰتِ أَن تَمِيلُواْ مَيۡلًا عَظِيمٗا
b. 9:104; 33:74; 42:26. (close)
a. 9:104; 33:74; 42:26. (close)
In the matter of bondwomen, the Quran wants Muslims to exercise self-control, without which it is feared they may deviate from the path of moral rectitude. (close)
یُرِیۡدُ اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یُّخَفِّفَ عَنۡکُمۡ ۚ وَ خُلِقَ الۡاِنۡسَانُ ضَعِیۡفًا ﴿۲۹﴾
يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ أَن يُخَفِّفَ عَنكُمۡۚ وَخُلِقَ ٱلۡإِنسَٰنُ ضَعِيفٗا
593. The reason why God has revealed the Law is that man is by nature weak and cannot himself find out the ways of spiritual advancement. God has taken away this burden from him. The verse also constitutes a refutation of the Christian doctrine of Atonement which rejects the Law (Shari‘ah) on the ground of human weakness. As a matter of fact, Islam declares human weakness to be the very reason for the revelation of the Law, so that it may help man to fulfil his high destiny. The Law, therefore, is not a curse but a help and a blessing. (close)
The reason why the Law is revealed is that man is by nature weak and cannot himself find out the ways of spiritual advancement. So God has taken this burden from him. It was far from God to entrust man with a work which he could not discharge.
The verse also constitutes refutation of the Christian doctrine of Atone-ment which rejects the Law (Shari‘ah) on the ground of human weakness. As a matter of fact, Islam declares human weakness to be the very reason for the revelation of the Law, so that it may help man to fulfil his high destiny. The Law is not, therefore, a curse but a help and a blessing. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا لَا تَاۡکُلُوۡۤا اَمۡوَالَکُمۡ بَیۡنَکُمۡ بِالۡبَاطِلِ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ تَکُوۡنَ تِجَارَۃً عَنۡ تَرَاضٍ مِّنۡکُمۡ ۟ وَ لَا تَقۡتُلُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ بِکُمۡ رَحِیۡمًا ﴿۳۰﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَأۡكُلُوٓاْ أَمۡوَٰلَكُم بَيۡنَكُم بِٱلۡبَٰطِلِ إِلَّآ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَٰرَةً عَن تَرَاضٖ مِّنكُمۡۚ وَلَا تَقۡتُلُوٓاْ أَنفُسَكُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمۡ رَحِيمٗا
c. 2:189. (close)
a. 2:189. (close)
By unlawful means is meant all those means and methods which are forbidden by the Law.
The verse declares all commercial transactions without the mutual consent of seller and buyer to be null and void.
The clause, kill not yourselves, makes it clear that the devouring of other person’s property by unlawful means, or carrying on transaction without the free consent of the parties concerned brings about the moral death of the guilty party.
The words, kill not yourselves, also imply interdiction of suicide. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said, "Whosoever kills himself with a weapon, will be brought on the Day of Judgement with the said weapon in his hand and will be thrown into the Fire wherein he will abide. And whosoever kills himself with a poison will be thrown into the Fire, with that poison in his hand, where he will continue to take it" (Kathir). (close)
وَ مَنۡ یَّفۡعَلۡ ذٰلِکَ عُدۡوَانًا وَّ ظُلۡمًا فَسَوۡفَ نُصۡلِیۡہِ نَارًا ؕ وَ کَانَ ذٰلِکَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ یَسِیۡرًا ﴿۳۱﴾
وَمَن يَفۡعَلۡ ذَٰلِكَ عُدۡوَٰنٗا وَظُلۡمٗا فَسَوۡفَ نُصۡلِيهِ نَارٗاۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرًا
اِنۡ تَجۡتَنِبُوۡا کَبَآئِرَ مَا تُنۡہَوۡنَ عَنۡہُ نُکَفِّرۡ عَنۡکُمۡ سَیِّاٰتِکُمۡ وَ نُدۡخِلۡکُمۡ مُّدۡخَلًا کَرِیۡمًا ﴿۳۲﴾
إِن تَجۡتَنِبُواْ كَبَآئِرَ مَا تُنۡهَوۡنَ عَنۡهُ نُكَفِّرۡ عَنكُمۡ سَيِّـَٔاتِكُمۡ وَنُدۡخِلۡكُم مُّدۡخَلٗا كَرِيمٗا
a. 42:38; 53:33. (close)
594. There is no classification of less or more grievous sins in the Qur’an. The term is rather a relative one. The commission of anything forbidden by God is a sin and the commission of all sins which one finds difficult to avoid is grievous. The meaning of the verse seems to be that if a person avoids doing those things the giving up of which seems difficult and burdensome to him, he will be enabled to get rid of other sins as well. Some scholars interpret the word Kaba’ir (grievous sins) as signifying the last stage of each act of sin. If one restrains oneself from committing the final act, the preliminary ones will be forgiven him. (close)
a. 42:38; 53:33. (close)
Truly speaking, there is no classification of more grievous and less grievous sins in the Quran. Rather, the term is a relative one. The commission of anything forbidden by God is a sin, and the commission of all sins which one finds difficult to shun is grievous. The meaning of the verse, therefore, is that if you avoid doing those things the giving up of which seems difficult and burdensome to you, the result will be that you will be enabled to get rid of other sins as well. Some scholars interpret the word کبائر (grievous sins) as signifying the last stage of each act of sin. For instance, a person contemplates committing a theft. Now, whereas the actual commitment of theft is "grievous", the preliminary acts leading up to it would be "minor evils." If one restrains oneself from committing the final act, the preliminary ones will be forgiven him. (close)
وَ لَا تَتَمَنَّوۡا مَا فَضَّلَ اللّٰہُ بِہٖ بَعۡضَکُمۡ عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ ؕ لِلرِّجَالِ نَصِیۡبٌ مِّمَّا اکۡتَسَبُوۡا ؕ وَ لِلنِّسَآءِ نَصِیۡبٌ مِّمَّا اکۡتَسَبۡنَ ؕ وَ سۡئَلُوا اللّٰہَ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمًا ﴿۳۳﴾
وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوۡاْ مَا فَضَّلَ ٱللَّهُ بِهِۦ بَعۡضَكُمۡ عَلَىٰ بَعۡضٖۚ لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٞ مِّمَّا ٱكۡتَسَبُواْۖ وَلِلنِّسَآءِ نَصِيبٞ مِّمَّا ٱكۡتَسَبۡنَۚ وَسۡـَٔلُواْ ٱللَّهَ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦٓۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٍ عَلِيمٗا
b. 4:35. (close)
595. The verse establishes the equality of men and women so far as their works and rewards are concerned. (close)
The first part of the verse means that: (1) One should not pray that God may give one the very thing which another man possesses; (2) One may, however, pray that God may bestow on one "the like of that" which has been given to another man; (3) That while praying, one should not keep in view any particular favoured person, wishing that God may make one like that particular person, for it may be the will of God to bestow His favours upon one in even a greater measure. One should only pray to God generally for His bounty and grace, for Allah’s bounty and grace are unbounded.
The words, Men shall have a share of that which they have earned, etc., contain the key to national progress and advance. Both men and women get what they earn and deserve. So we should not wish evil for others but should work and pray. This is the way to succeed in life and to win the pleasure of God. The words also reveal the equality of men and women so far as their work and reward are concerned. (close)
وَ لِکُلٍّ جَعَلۡنَا مَوَالِیَ مِمَّا تَرَکَ الۡوَالِدٰنِ وَ الۡاَقۡرَبُوۡنَ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ عَقَدَتۡ اَیۡمَانُکُمۡ فَاٰتُوۡہُمۡ نَصِیۡبَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ شَہِیۡدًا ﴿٪۳۴﴾
وَلِكُلّٖ جَعَلۡنَا مَوَٰلِيَ مِمَّا تَرَكَ ٱلۡوَٰلِدَانِ وَٱلۡأَقۡرَبُونَۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ عَقَدَتۡ أَيۡمَٰنُكُمۡ فَـَٔاتُوهُمۡ نَصِيبَهُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ شَهِيدًا
c. 4:8. (close)
596. Mawali is the plural of Maula which among other things means, an heir. (close)
597. Besides the meaning given in the text the words may mean: "To every one We have appointed heirs to what he leaves, they are the parents, the relations and those, with whom your oaths have ratified contracts. So give them their portion." The words may also be rendered as, "to everything which parents and relations leave We have appointed heirs, etc." (close)
a. 4:8. (close)
511. Important Words:
موالی (heirs) is derived from ولی and is the plural of مولی which means, lord or chief; master or owner; son of a paternal uncle; or a relation such as a son of a paternal uncle and the like; a freedman whom the emancipator is bound to aid and whose property he inherits if he dies leaving no heir; a slave; emancipator of a slave; a neighbour; an ally; a friend or helper; a follower; a partner; an heir, etc. (Lane & Lisan).
The verse may also be rendered thus: "To every one We have appointed heirs to what he leaves. They are the parents, the relations and those with whom your oaths have ratified a contract. So give them their portion." Again, the verse may also be rendered as: "To everything which parents and relations leave we have appointed heirs, etc."
The words, with whom your oaths have ratified a contract, signify "spouses" embracing both husbands and wives. The pronoun "them" in the clause, so give them their portion, refers to, and stands for, the noun "heirs" in the opening clause. (close)