وَ مَنۡ یَّفۡعَلۡ ذٰلِکَ عُدۡوَانًا وَّ ظُلۡمًا فَسَوۡفَ نُصۡلِیۡہِ نَارًا ؕ وَ کَانَ ذٰلِکَ عَلَی اللّٰہِ یَسِیۡرًا ﴿۳۱﴾
وَمَن يَفۡعَلۡ ذَٰلِكَ عُدۡوَٰنٗا وَظُلۡمٗا فَسَوۡفَ نُصۡلِيهِ نَارٗاۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرًا
اِنۡ تَجۡتَنِبُوۡا کَبَآئِرَ مَا تُنۡہَوۡنَ عَنۡہُ نُکَفِّرۡ عَنۡکُمۡ سَیِّاٰتِکُمۡ وَ نُدۡخِلۡکُمۡ مُّدۡخَلًا کَرِیۡمًا ﴿۳۲﴾
إِن تَجۡتَنِبُواْ كَبَآئِرَ مَا تُنۡهَوۡنَ عَنۡهُ نُكَفِّرۡ عَنكُمۡ سَيِّـَٔاتِكُمۡ وَنُدۡخِلۡكُم مُّدۡخَلٗا كَرِيمٗا
a. 42:38; 53:33. (close)
594. There is no classification of less or more grievous sins in the Qur’an. The term is rather a relative one. The commission of anything forbidden by God is a sin and the commission of all sins which one finds difficult to avoid is grievous. The meaning of the verse seems to be that if a person avoids doing those things the giving up of which seems difficult and burdensome to him, he will be enabled to get rid of other sins as well. Some scholars interpret the word Kaba’ir (grievous sins) as signifying the last stage of each act of sin. If one restrains oneself from committing the final act, the preliminary ones will be forgiven him. (close)
a. 42:38; 53:33. (close)
Truly speaking, there is no classification of more grievous and less grievous sins in the Quran. Rather, the term is a relative one. The commission of anything forbidden by God is a sin, and the commission of all sins which one finds difficult to shun is grievous. The meaning of the verse, therefore, is that if you avoid doing those things the giving up of which seems difficult and burdensome to you, the result will be that you will be enabled to get rid of other sins as well. Some scholars interpret the word کبائر (grievous sins) as signifying the last stage of each act of sin. For instance, a person contemplates committing a theft. Now, whereas the actual commitment of theft is "grievous", the preliminary acts leading up to it would be "minor evils." If one restrains oneself from committing the final act, the preliminary ones will be forgiven him. (close)
وَ لَا تَتَمَنَّوۡا مَا فَضَّلَ اللّٰہُ بِہٖ بَعۡضَکُمۡ عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ ؕ لِلرِّجَالِ نَصِیۡبٌ مِّمَّا اکۡتَسَبُوۡا ؕ وَ لِلنِّسَآءِ نَصِیۡبٌ مِّمَّا اکۡتَسَبۡنَ ؕ وَ سۡئَلُوا اللّٰہَ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ بِکُلِّ شَیۡءٍ عَلِیۡمًا ﴿۳۳﴾
وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوۡاْ مَا فَضَّلَ ٱللَّهُ بِهِۦ بَعۡضَكُمۡ عَلَىٰ بَعۡضٖۚ لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٞ مِّمَّا ٱكۡتَسَبُواْۖ وَلِلنِّسَآءِ نَصِيبٞ مِّمَّا ٱكۡتَسَبۡنَۚ وَسۡـَٔلُواْ ٱللَّهَ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦٓۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٍ عَلِيمٗا
b. 4:35. (close)
595. The verse establishes the equality of men and women so far as their works and rewards are concerned. (close)
The first part of the verse means that: (1) One should not pray that God may give one the very thing which another man possesses; (2) One may, however, pray that God may bestow on one "the like of that" which has been given to another man; (3) That while praying, one should not keep in view any particular favoured person, wishing that God may make one like that particular person, for it may be the will of God to bestow His favours upon one in even a greater measure. One should only pray to God generally for His bounty and grace, for Allah’s bounty and grace are unbounded.
The words, Men shall have a share of that which they have earned, etc., contain the key to national progress and advance. Both men and women get what they earn and deserve. So we should not wish evil for others but should work and pray. This is the way to succeed in life and to win the pleasure of God. The words also reveal the equality of men and women so far as their work and reward are concerned. (close)
وَ لِکُلٍّ جَعَلۡنَا مَوَالِیَ مِمَّا تَرَکَ الۡوَالِدٰنِ وَ الۡاَقۡرَبُوۡنَ ؕ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ عَقَدَتۡ اَیۡمَانُکُمۡ فَاٰتُوۡہُمۡ نَصِیۡبَہُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ شَہِیۡدًا ﴿٪۳۴﴾
وَلِكُلّٖ جَعَلۡنَا مَوَٰلِيَ مِمَّا تَرَكَ ٱلۡوَٰلِدَانِ وَٱلۡأَقۡرَبُونَۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ عَقَدَتۡ أَيۡمَٰنُكُمۡ فَـَٔاتُوهُمۡ نَصِيبَهُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ شَهِيدًا
c. 4:8. (close)
596. Mawali is the plural of Maula which among other things means, an heir. (close)
597. Besides the meaning given in the text the words may mean: "To every one We have appointed heirs to what he leaves, they are the parents, the relations and those, with whom your oaths have ratified contracts. So give them their portion." The words may also be rendered as, "to everything which parents and relations leave We have appointed heirs, etc." (close)
a. 4:8. (close)
511. Important Words:
موالی (heirs) is derived from ولی and is the plural of مولی which means, lord or chief; master or owner; son of a paternal uncle; or a relation such as a son of a paternal uncle and the like; a freedman whom the emancipator is bound to aid and whose property he inherits if he dies leaving no heir; a slave; emancipator of a slave; a neighbour; an ally; a friend or helper; a follower; a partner; an heir, etc. (Lane & Lisan).
The verse may also be rendered thus: "To every one We have appointed heirs to what he leaves. They are the parents, the relations and those with whom your oaths have ratified a contract. So give them their portion." Again, the verse may also be rendered as: "To everything which parents and relations leave we have appointed heirs, etc."
The words, with whom your oaths have ratified a contract, signify "spouses" embracing both husbands and wives. The pronoun "them" in the clause, so give them their portion, refers to, and stands for, the noun "heirs" in the opening clause. (close)
اَلرِّجَالُ قَوّٰمُوۡنَ عَلَی النِّسَآءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللّٰہُ بَعۡضَہُمۡ عَلٰی بَعۡضٍ وَّ بِمَاۤ اَنۡفَقُوۡا مِنۡ اَمۡوَالِہِمۡ ؕ فَالصّٰلِحٰتُ قٰنِتٰتٌ حٰفِظٰتٌ لِّلۡغَیۡبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللّٰہُ ؕ وَ الّٰتِیۡ تَخَافُوۡنَ نُشُوۡزَہُنَّ فَعِظُوۡہُنَّ وَ اہۡجُرُوۡہُنَّ فِی الۡمَضَاجِعِ وَ اضۡرِبُوۡہُنَّ ۚ فَاِنۡ اَطَعۡنَکُمۡ فَلَا تَبۡغُوۡا عَلَیۡہِنَّ سَبِیۡلًا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ عَلِیًّا کَبِیۡرًا ﴿۳۵﴾
ٱلرِّجَالُ قَوَّـٰمُونَ عَلَى ٱلنِّسَآءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ ٱللَّهُ بَعۡضَهُمۡ عَلَىٰ بَعۡضٖ وَبِمَآ أَنفَقُواْ مِنۡ أَمۡوَٰلِهِمۡۚ فَٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتُ قَٰنِتَٰتٌ حَٰفِظَٰتٞ لِّلۡغَيۡبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ ٱللَّهُۚ وَٱلَّـٰتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَٱهۡجُرُوهُنَّ فِي ٱلۡمَضَاجِعِ وَٱضۡرِبُوهُنَّۖ فَإِنۡ أَطَعۡنَكُمۡ فَلَا تَبۡغُواْ عَلَيۡهِنَّ سَبِيلًاۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيّٗا كَبِيرٗا
a. 2:229. (close)
598. Qawwamun is derived from Qama and Qama ‘Alal-Mar’ati means, he undertook the maintenance of the woman; he protected her. Qawwamun, therefore, means, maintainers, managers of affairs; protectors (Lisan). The verse gives two reasons why man has been made the head of the family, (a) his superior mental and physical faculties; and (b) his being the bread-earner and maintainer of the family. It is, therefore, natural and fair that he, who earns and supplies the money for the maintenance of the family, should enjoy a supervisory status in the disposal of its affairs. (close)
b. 2:238; 4:33. (close)
599. Nashazatu-Mar’atu ‘ala Zauji-ha means, the woman rose against her husband; resisted him; deserted him (Lane & Taj). (close)
600. The clause may signify, (a) abstention from conjugal relations; (b) sleeping in separate beds; (c) ceasing to talk to them. These measures are not to remain in force for an indefinite period, for wives are not to be left like a thing suspended (4:130). Four months, according to the Qur’an, is the maximum limit for abstention from conjugal relations, i.e. practical separation (2:227). If the husband deems the affair to be sufficiently grave, he will have to observe the conditions mentioned in 4:16. (close)
601. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said that if at all a Muslim has to beat his wife, the beating should not be such as to leave any mark on her body (Tirmidhi & Muslim) but the husbands who beat their wives are not the best among men (Kathir, iii). (close)
b. 2:229. (close)
c. 2:238; 4:33. (close)
512. Important Words:
قوامون (guardians) is derived from قام i.e. he stood. They say قام علیه i.e. he tended or took care of it or him. قام بالیتم means, he maintained the orphan. قام علی المرأة means, he undertook the maintenance of the woman; he undertook or managed her affairs; he protected her, or became her guardian. قوم الشیء (qawwama) means, he set the thing right, or made it straight or even. قوام therefore means, one who manages affairs well; a ruler or governor; one in a position to issue orders (Lane & Aqrab).
قانتات (obedient) is the plural of قانتة being the active participle from قنت. They say قنت لله i.e. he was obedient to God. امرأة قنوت means, a woman humble, submissive and obedient to her husband (Lane). See also 2:117.
نشوز (disobedience) is the noun-infinitive from نشز i.e. he rose or raised himself. نشزت المرأة علی زوجھا means, the woman rose against, or was disobedient to her husband and exalted herself against him and resisted him and was an evil companion to him. نشز المرء علی زوجته means, the husband treated his wife unjustly and was unkind to her or forsook her or hated her and was an evil companion to her (Lane & Aqrab).
اھجروھن (leave them alone). ھجر means, he cut him off from friendly or loving communion or intercourse; he forsook or abandoned him; he "cut" him, i.e. he boycotted him and ceased to speak to him or to associate with him. ھجر الشیء means, he forsook, or abandoned the thing; he shunned or avoided it. ھجر زوجته means, he separated himself from his wife or kept away from her (Lane & Mufradat).
اضربوھن (chastise them) is derived from ضرب. They say ضربه i.e. he beat, struck, smote or hit him (with hand, stick, etc.); hence, he chastised him.
علیا (High) is derived from علا i.e. he or it was or became high, elevated, lofty or exalted. تعالی means, he was or became high, elevated, exalted or supremely exalted or extolled. علی means high, elevated or lofty in rank, condition or state. العلیwhich is one of the attributive names of God (e.g. 2:256) means, the High; the Most High; He above Whom is nothing. المتعالی is also an attributive name of God (e.g. 13:10) meaning, He Who is Great or Supremely Great, the High or the Most High; One Higher than every other high one. تعال means, come thou, as if said by a man in a high place when calling upon a man in a low place, but is also used generally (Lane).
The verse gives two reasons why man has been made the head of the family: (a) his superior mental and physical powers; (b) his being bread-earner and maintainer of the family. It is natural and fair that he who earns and supplies the money should have the final say in the disposal of affairs.
The word قانتات (obedient) spoken of wives may mean either obedient to God, or to husbands.
The expression, guard the secrets of their husbands, means that when the husbands are at home, they are obedient to them and guard their secrets; and when they are away, they not only guard their secrets but take care of their property and guard their own chastity.
The clause, leave them alone in their beds, may mean: (a) abstention from conjugal relations with them; (b) sleeping in separate beds; or (c) ceasing to talk to them. The use of the word "beds" also incidentally implies that the disobedient wives are to stay at home and are not to be allowed to leave or be turned out of their homes.
The measures mentioned in the verse are not to remain in force for an indefinite period, for wives are not to be left like a thing suspended (4:130). Four months, according to the Quran, is the utmost limit for abstention from conjugal relations, i.e. for practical separation (2:227).
If the husband deems the affair to be sufficiently grave, he will have to observe the conditions mentioned in 4:16.
Regarding "chastisement" mentioned as a last resort in the verse under comment a Companion reports the Holy Prophet to have said that if at all a Muslim has to beat his wife, the beating should not be such as to leave any mark on her body (Tirmidhi, ch. on Rida‘). According to Abu Dawud and Nasa’i, the Holy Prophet forbade the beating of women at all, but when ‘Umar complained that they had become refractory, he gave the permission with the aforementioned condition; but on complaint of ill-treatment of women by their husbands he indignantly said that the husbands who beat their wives were not the best among men (Kathir, iii). On another occasion the Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "The best among you is he who treats his wife best and I am the best of you in this respect" (Tirmidhi).
The Divine attributes of "High and Great" mentioned at the end of the verse are also intended to warn husbands that the chastisement of their wives, if at all resorted to should not be unjust or vindictive or highhanded; for if they are high and great above their wives, there is One Who is High and Great above all and He shall call husbands to account for any improper use of the qualified authority given to them over their wives. (close)
وَ اِنۡ خِفۡتُمۡ شِقَاقَ بَیۡنِہِمَا فَابۡعَثُوۡا حَکَمًا مِّنۡ اَہۡلِہٖ وَ حَکَمًا مِّنۡ اَہۡلِہَا ۚ اِنۡ یُّرِیۡدَاۤ اِصۡلَاحًا یُّوَفِّقِ اللّٰہُ بَیۡنَہُمَا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ عَلِیۡمًا خَبِیۡرًا ﴿۳۶﴾
وَإِنۡ خِفۡتُمۡ شِقَاقَ بَيۡنِهِمَا فَٱبۡعَثُواْ حَكَمٗا مِّنۡ أَهۡلِهِۦ وَحَكَمٗا مِّنۡ أَهۡلِهَآ إِن يُرِيدَآ إِصۡلَٰحٗا يُوَفِّقِ ٱللَّهُ بَيۡنَهُمَآۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا خَبِيرٗا
a. 4:129. (close)
602. The pronoun, "you" in the expression, "if you fear" refers to the Muslim State or to the whole community collectively or the people generally. (close)
603. The arbiters should preferably be chosen from the relations of the contending parties, because they are expected to be acquainted with the real causes of differences and because also it is easier for both parties to put their differences before them. (close)
513. Important Words:
حکما (arbiter) is fromحکم. They say حکمه i.e. he made him judge. حکمor حاکم means, one who judges, a judge, an arbiter, an arbitrator or umpire between people; a ruler or governor (Lane).
The pronoun, used in the plural number, in the expression إن خفتم (if you fear) refers to a Muslim State, or community, or the people generally. The arbiters should prefer-ably be chosen from the relations of the contending parties, because they are expected to be acquainted with the real cause of differences and it is easier also for both parties to put their case before them. The verse makes it clear that Islam leaves no avenue unexplored to bring about reconciliation between husband and wife before it allows them to sever the tie of marriage. (close)
وَ اعۡبُدُوا اللّٰہَ وَ لَا تُشۡرِکُوۡا بِہٖ شَیۡئًا وَّ بِالۡوَالِدَیۡنِ اِحۡسَانًا وَّ بِذِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ الۡیَتٰمٰی وَ الۡمَسٰکِیۡنِ وَ الۡجَارِ ذِی الۡقُرۡبٰی وَ الۡجَارِ الۡجُنُبِ وَ الصَّاحِبِ بِالۡجَنۡۢبِ وَ ابۡنِ السَّبِیۡلِ ۙ وَ مَا مَلَکَتۡ اَیۡمَانُکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ لَا یُحِبُّ مَنۡ کَانَ مُخۡتَالًا فَخُوۡرَا ﴿ۙ۳۷﴾
۞وَٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَلَا تُشۡرِكُواْ بِهِۦ شَيۡـٔٗاۖ وَبِٱلۡوَٰلِدَيۡنِ إِحۡسَٰنٗا وَبِذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَٱلۡيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلۡمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱلۡجَارِ ذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَٱلۡجَارِ ٱلۡجُنُبِ وَٱلصَّاحِبِ بِٱلۡجَنۢبِ وَٱبۡنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَٰنُكُمۡۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخۡتَالٗا فَخُورًا
b. 6:152; 7:34; 17:24, 25; 23:60. (close)
604. After having enjoined in the preceding verses that one should be kind to one’s wife, in the present verse the Qur’an directs a Muslim to make his kindness so comprehensive as to include in its scope the whole of mankind, from parents, who are the nearest, to strangers who are the farthest removed. (close)
605. Slaves, bondwomen, servants, subordinates. (close)
b. 6:152; 7:34; 17:24; 23:60. (close)
514. Important Words:
جار الجنب (neighbour that is a stranger) is a compound word made up of جار (neighbour) and جنب (stranger or one distant). The compound word thus means, a neighbour who is not from one’s own tribe or community; a distant neighbour (Aqrab & Mufradat).
صاحب بالجنب (companion by your side) is also a compound word made up of صاحب (companion) and جنب (one’s side). The compound word thus means, the immediate neighbour or the near neighbour; or simply companion or co-worker or colleague (Aqrab, Lisan & Mufradat).
After laying down in the preceding verses that one should be kind to one’s wife, in the present verse the Quran enjoins a Muslim to make his kindness so comprehensive as to include in its scope the whole of mankind, from parents who are the nearest, to strangers who are the farthest removed.
The Arabic expression rendered as, neighbour that is a kinsman, may also mean: (1) the neighbour that lives near; (2) the neighbour that is kindly.
Similarly, the words, neighbour that is a stranger, may also include: (1) the neighbour that lives at a distance; (2) the neighbour that is not kindly.
The expression, companion by your side, may mean:(1) wife or husband; (2) comrade on a journey; (3) fellow-partner in a trade or a co-worker; (4) associate; (5) immediate neighbour.
The words, those whom your right hands possess, may refer to slaves, bondwomen, servants and even subordinates.
A person who does not carry out the Divine commandments contained in this verse is condemned as "proud and boastful" because, instead of doing good to others and being kind to them, he looks down upon them and behaves arrogantly. The very act of abstaining from being kind to one’s fellow beings, whether relations or neighbours or strangers, is an act of pride condemned by Islam. (close)
ۣالَّذِیۡنَ یَبۡخَلُوۡنَ وَ یَاۡمُرُوۡنَ النَّاسَ بِالۡبُخۡلِ وَ یَکۡتُمُوۡنَ مَاۤ اٰتٰہُمُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ؕ وَ اَعۡتَدۡنَا لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَذَابًا مُّہِیۡنًا ﴿ۚ۳۸﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ يَبۡخَلُونَ وَيَأۡمُرُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ بِٱلۡبُخۡلِ وَيَكۡتُمُونَ مَآ ءَاتَىٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦۗ وَأَعۡتَدۡنَا لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٗا مُّهِينٗا
a. 3:181; 17:30; 25:68. (close)
a. 3:181; 17:30; 25:68. (close)
Some persons are so niggardly that, far from spending their wealth for the benefit of others, they do not spend it even upon themselves, lest people should come to know of it. These, as it were, conceal Allah’s bounty. They are not only deprived of the rewards and good results of charity but also become guilty of concealing God’s bounty which He has bestowed upon them for the good of mankind. Elsewhere the Quran says: Acknowledge the bounty of thy Lord in word and deed (93:12). (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ یُنۡفِقُوۡنَ اَمۡوَالَہُمۡ رِئَآءَ النَّاسِ وَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ لَا بِالۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّکُنِ الشَّیۡطٰنُ لَہٗ قَرِیۡنًا فَسَآءَ قَرِیۡنًا ﴿۳۹﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمۡوَٰلَهُمۡ رِئَآءَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَلَا بِٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِۗ وَمَن يَكُنِ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ لَهُۥ قَرِينٗا فَسَآءَ قَرِينٗا
b. 2:265. (close)
c. 43:37, 39. (close)
a. 2:265. (close)
b. 43:37, 39. (close)
516. Important Words:
قرین (companion) is the verbal adjective from قرن. They say قرن شیئا بشییء i.e. he connected, coupled or conjoined a thing with another. قرین means, an associate; a comrade; a companion; also a husband (Lane & Aqrab).
Some people spend their money while they have no faith in God or in the Last Day. They do it to win the applause of men and not the pleasure of God. So, instead of winning reward, they earn God’s displeasure. Sometimes, however, money is spent openly in the cause of God with the object of inducing others to do the same. This display of charity belongs to an altogether different category and is commendable. (close)
وَ مَاذَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ لَوۡ اٰمَنُوۡا بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَ اَنۡفَقُوۡا مِمَّا رَزَقَہُمُ اللّٰہُ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ بِہِمۡ عَلِیۡمًا ﴿۴۰﴾
وَمَاذَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ لَوۡ ءَامَنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ وَأَنفَقُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقَهُمُ ٱللَّهُۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِهِمۡ عَلِيمًا