اَمۡ لَہُمۡ نَصِیۡبٌ مِّنَ الۡمُلۡکِ فَاِذًا لَّا یُؤۡتُوۡنَ النَّاسَ نَقِیۡرًا ﴿ۙ۵۴﴾
أَمۡ لَهُمۡ نَصِيبٞ مِّنَ ٱلۡمُلۡكِ فَإِذٗا لَّا يُؤۡتُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ نَقِيرًا
528. Important Words:
نقیرا (the little hollow in the back of a date-stone) is derived from نقر meaning, it (a bird) pecked at or picked up a grain from this place or that with its beak; he (a person) hit the butt with an arrow without making his arrow pass through it wholly or partly; he struck a thing with a pointed instrument; he engraved a writing upon a stone; he struck a lute or a tambourine with his finger; he bored, perforated or made a hole in a thing; he hollowed or excavated a piece of wood, etc. نقیر means, (1) what is bored or perforated; and what is hollowed out or excavated; (2) a piece of wood, or a block of wood, or a stump or the lower part of a palm-tree which is hollowed out; (3) the little hollow in the back of a date-stone (Lane & Aqrab). The word is figuratively used to denote the smallest quantity. (close)
اَمۡ یَحۡسُدُوۡنَ النَّاسَ عَلٰی مَاۤ اٰتٰہُمُ اللّٰہُ مِنۡ فَضۡلِہٖ ۚ فَقَدۡ اٰتَیۡنَاۤ اٰلَ اِبۡرٰہِیۡمَ الۡکِتٰبَ وَ الۡحِکۡمَۃَ وَ اٰتَیۡنٰہُمۡ مُّلۡکًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۵۵﴾
أَمۡ يَحۡسُدُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ عَلَىٰ مَآ ءَاتَىٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦۖ فَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَآ ءَالَ إِبۡرَٰهِيمَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ وَٱلۡحِكۡمَةَ وَءَاتَيۡنَٰهُم مُّلۡكًا عَظِيمٗا
Jews, who are the children of Abraham, were given the Book and Wisdom and a great kingdom. Now if God has bestowed the same boons upon another people who are similarly descended from Abraham, as the Arabs are, the Jews should have no cause to begrudge them.
At the time when this verse was revealed, Muslims had received only a part of the "great kingdom" and the rest was yet to follow, but the Quran speaks of the giving of a great kingdom as an accomplished fact, because the promises of God are as good as fulfilled. (close)
فَمِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ اٰمَنَ بِہٖ وَ مِنۡہُمۡ مَّنۡ صَدَّ عَنۡہُ ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِجَہَنَّمَ سَعِیۡرًا ﴿۵۶﴾
فَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ ءَامَنَ بِهِۦ وَمِنۡهُم مَّن صَدَّ عَنۡهُۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيرًا
b. 2:254 (close)
a. 2:254; 10:41; 61:15. (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا بِاٰیٰتِنَا سَوۡفَ نُصۡلِیۡہِمۡ نَارًا ؕ کُلَّمَا نَضِجَتۡ جُلُوۡدُہُمۡ بَدَّلۡنٰہُمۡ جُلُوۡدًا غَیۡرَہَا لِیَذُوۡقُوا الۡعَذَابَ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ عَزِیۡزًا حَکِیۡمًا ﴿۵۷﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا سَوۡفَ نُصۡلِيهِمۡ نَارٗا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتۡ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلۡنَٰهُمۡ جُلُودًا غَيۡرَهَا لِيَذُوقُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمٗا
619. Medical science has now established the fact that the skin is much more sensitive to pain than the flesh, there being a larger number of nerves in the former. The Qur’an revealed this great truth about fourteen hundred years ago by saying that the skin and not the flesh of the inmates of Hell will be renewed after being burnt up.
Medical science has now established the fact that the skin is much more sensitive to pain than the flesh, there being a larger number of nerves in the former. The Quran revealed this great truth about 1400 years ago by saying that the skin and not the flesh of the inmates of Hell would be renewed after being burnt up. (close)
وَ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ سَنُدۡخِلُہُمۡ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِیۡ مِنۡ تَحۡتِہَا الۡاَنۡہٰرُ خٰلِدِیۡنَ فِیۡہَاۤ اَبَدًا ؕ لَہُمۡ فِیۡہَاۤ اَزۡوَاجٌ مُّطَہَّرَۃٌ ۫ وَّ نُدۡخِلُہُمۡ ظِلًّا ظَلِیۡلًا ﴿۵۸﴾
وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ سَنُدۡخِلُهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٖ تَجۡرِي مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدٗاۖ لَّهُمۡ فِيهَآ أَزۡوَٰجٞ مُّطَهَّرَةٞۖ وَنُدۡخِلُهُمۡ ظِلّٗا ظَلِيلًا
a. 4:123 (close)
b. 13:36; 56:31. (close)
620. The expression, plenteous shade, signifies an atmosphere of peace and calm, free from all pain-giving elements. (close)
a. 4:123; 16:30; 14:24; 22:24; See lso 2:26. (close)
b. 13:36; 56:31. (close)
The word مطھرة (pure) does not literally mean "pure" but "made pure," signifying that the spouses whom pious believers will have in Heaven will be made as highly pure as the environment of Heaven demands.
The expression, pleasant and plenteous shade, signifies an atmosphere of peace and calm, free from all pain-giving element. Elsewhere the Quran says: They will know there (in Heaven) neither extreme heat nor extreme cold (76:14). (close)
اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَاۡمُرُکُمۡ اَنۡ تُؤَدُّوا الۡاَمٰنٰتِ اِلٰۤی اَہۡلِہَا ۙ وَ اِذَا حَکَمۡتُمۡ بَیۡنَ النَّاسِ اَنۡ تَحۡکُمُوۡا بِالۡعَدۡلِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ نِعِمَّا یَعِظُکُمۡ بِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ سَمِیۡعًۢا بَصِیۡرًا ﴿۵۹﴾
۞إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡمُرُكُمۡ أَن تُؤَدُّواْ ٱلۡأَمَٰنَٰتِ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمۡتُم بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ أَن تَحۡكُمُواْ بِٱلۡعَدۡلِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُم بِهِۦٓۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعَۢا بَصِيرٗا
c. 8:28 (close)
621. Authority or power to rule has been here described as a "trust" of the people in order to point out that it belongs to the people and is not the birthright of any individual or dynasty. The Qur’an disapproves of dynastic or hereditary rule and institutes instead a representative form of government. The Chief is to be elected; and in electing him the people are bidden to vote for one best fitted for the office. (close)
622. The Head of the Muslim State and all those persons who are entrusted with the duty of administration are enjoined to use their authority equitably and well. (close)
c. 8:28. (close)
532. Important Words:
امانات (trusts) is the plural of امانة which is derived from امن. They say امنه i.e. he trusted in him; he entrusted him with power and authority, control or a charge; he gave him a charge over a thing or person. امانة means, trustiness or faithfulness or fidelity; a thing committed to the care or trust of a person; a trust or deposit; a duty or task allotted to a person; the commandment of God given to His servants; a man’s family or household (Lane). The Holy Prophet is reported to have said that a position or office of authority is also an امانة or a trust (Muslim, ch. on Imarat).
As in the previous verses authority and dominion were promised to Muslims, the Quran in the present verse proceeds to bid them entrust authority to such persons as possess the necessary qualifications to rule. Authority or power to rule has been here described as a "trust" of the people in order to point out that, truly speaking, it belongs to the people and is not the birth right of any particular individual or dynasty.
The verse also draws the attention of the Muslim people to their heavy responsibility in respect of the very important matter of electing their Chief or Khalifah. They are warned that if in electing a Khalifah or a Chief they allowed considerations of personal liking or nepotism to prevail against the interests of the State or the community or those of religion and displayed lack of conscientiousness, they would be called to account like one false to his trust. The verse also condemns dynastic or hereditary rule and institutes instead a representative form of government. The Khalifah or the ruler is to be elected; and in electing him, the people are bidden to vote for one best fitted for the office. The Khalifah or the ruler in his turn is bidden to be fair and just in his administration fair to individuals, fair to communities and fair to the State as a whole.
The words, that you judge with justice, apply both to the head of the Muslim State and to all those persons who are entrusted with the work of administration. They are all enjoined to use their authority equitably and well.
The addition of the Divine attributes of "All-Hearing and All-Seeing" at the end of the verse is meant to remind Muslims that if at any time they find it difficult to carry out His commandment, then instead of violating it, they should pray to God and He will hear their prayer and will see to it that they get their rights. (See General Introduction for the detailed discussion of the institution of Khilafat). (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اَطِیۡعُوا الرَّسُوۡلَ وَ اُولِی الۡاَمۡرِ مِنۡکُمۡ ۚ فَاِنۡ تَنَازَعۡتُمۡ فِیۡ شَیۡءٍ فَرُدُّوۡہُ اِلَی اللّٰہِ وَ الرَّسُوۡلِ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ خَیۡرٌ وَّ اَحۡسَنُ تَاۡوِیۡلًا ﴿٪۶۰﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي ٱلۡأَمۡرِ مِنكُمۡۖ فَإِن تَنَٰزَعۡتُمۡ فِي شَيۡءٖ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيۡرٞ وَأَحۡسَنُ تَأۡوِيلًا
623. The word "obey" which has been repeated before the words "Allah" and "Messenger" has been omitted before the words, those who are in authority, in order to point out that obedience to the authority properly constituted by Law amounts to obedience to God and His Messenger. The injunction embodied in the words, "refer it to Allah and His Messenger" may either relate to differences between the rulers and the ruled or to those among the ruled themselves. In the former case the significance is that if there is a matter on which disagreement arises between the rulers and the ruled, it should be decided in the light of the Quranic teaching, or failing that, in that of the Sunnah and the Hadith. If, however, the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the Hadith are silent on the question, it should be left to those in whom is vested the authority to manage the affairs of Muslims. The verse seems to refer to matters concerning particularly the affairs of the State. The basic commandment in this respect is that all obedience to authority is subject to the obedience to God and His Messenger. In case, however, of differences and disputes regarding social matters, etc., to which the words if you differ seem to refer, the Muslims should be guided by Islamic Law and not by any other law. (close)
a. 4:84 (close)
b. 4:66 (close)
a. 4:84. (close)
b. 4:66. (close)
533. Important Words:
اولی الامر (those in authority) is made up of two words: (1) اولی which is originally اولوا meaning, possessors of or possessing or having; and (2) امر meaning, rule, authority, command, affair or matter, etc. اولی الامر means: (1) those who possess or hold authority command or rule; and (2) the learned men who, as it were, possess authority in knowledge (Taj & Aqrab).
The word "obey" which has been repeated before the words "Allah" and "Messenger" has been omitted before the words, those who are in authority, in order to point out that obedience to the authority properly constituted by Law is in reality obedience to God and His Messenger.
The clause, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, means that in case of difference, the matter should be referred to the Quran and the authentic Sunnah and Hadith of the Holy Prophet. The injunction may either relate to differences between the rulers and the ruled or to those among the ruled themselves. In the former case, the significance is that if there is a matter on which disagreement arises between the rulers and the ruled, it should be decided in the light of the Quranic teaching, or failing that, in that of the authentic Sunnah and Hadith. If, however, the Quran, the Sunnah and Hadith are silent on the question, it should be left in the hands of those in whom is vested the authority to manage the affairs of Muslims; and the latter are enjoined to abide by their decision even if they do not see eye to eye with them, because true obedience consists in obeying against one’s will and judgement. The words, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, may also mean that in case of a difference between the people and those in authority, the former are enjoined to do as Allah and His Messenger have bidden them to do on such occasions, i.e. that in such a case they should obey those in authority.
Primarily, however, the words, if you differ, do not refer to any differences between the rulers and the ruled but to disagreements arising among the ruled themselves. In this case the injunction embodied in the verse is that in matters pertaining to discipline and administration, Muslims should obey those in authority, but in disputes and differences regarding social matters, etc. they should be guided by the Law of Islam and not by other laws. This is the interpretation which Ibn Kathir (iii. 130-31) has adopted and which is in keeping with the context. The next verse also refers only to disputes among the ruled, and not to those between rulers and ruled.
The words, those in authority, in their wider significance include even such non-Muslims as may happen to be in authority over Muslims. In this case the additional words منکم would not mean "from among you" but simply "among you", i.e. "over you". The practice of the Holy Prophet as well as his sayings make it clear that in secular matters Muslims should obey even such of their rulers as are not Muslims. (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اِلَی الَّذِیۡنَ یَزۡعُمُوۡنَ اَنَّہُمۡ اٰمَنُوۡا بِمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ وَ مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکَ یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ یَّتَحَاکَمُوۡۤا اِلَی الطَّاغُوۡتِ وَ قَدۡ اُمِرُوۡۤا اَنۡ یَّکۡفُرُوۡا بِہٖ ؕ وَ یُرِیۡدُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اَنۡ یُّضِلَّہُمۡ ضَلٰلًۢا بَعِیۡدًا ﴿۶۱﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يَزۡعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمۡ ءَامَنُواْ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبۡلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلطَّـٰغُوتِ وَقَدۡ أُمِرُوٓاْ أَن يَكۡفُرُواْ بِهِۦۖ وَيُرِيدُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ أَن يُضِلَّهُمۡ ضَلَٰلَۢا بَعِيدٗا
The words, They desire to seek judgement from the rebellious, need not be taken as referring to any particular incident; they speak of a general tendency among hypocrites. (close)
وَ اِذَا قِیۡلَ لَہُمۡ تَعَالَوۡا اِلٰی مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ وَ اِلَی الرَّسُوۡلِ رَاَیۡتَ الۡمُنٰفِقِیۡنَ یَصُدُّوۡنَ عَنۡکَ صُدُوۡدًا ﴿ۚ۶۲﴾
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمۡ تَعَالَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ وَإِلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ رَأَيۡتَ ٱلۡمُنَٰفِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنكَ صُدُودٗا
a. 63:6 (close)
a. 63:6. (close)
فَکَیۡفَ اِذَاۤ اَصَابَتۡہُمۡ مُّصِیۡبَۃٌۢ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ ثُمَّ جَآءُوۡکَ یَحۡلِفُوۡنَ ٭ۖ بِاللّٰہِ اِنۡ اَرَدۡنَاۤ اِلَّاۤ اِحۡسَانًا وَّ تَوۡفِیۡقًا ﴿۶۳﴾
فَكَيۡفَ إِذَآ أَصَٰبَتۡهُم مُّصِيبَةُۢ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ ثُمَّ جَآءُوكَ يَحۡلِفُونَ بِٱللَّهِ إِنۡ أَرَدۡنَآ إِلَّآ إِحۡسَٰنٗا وَتَوۡفِيقًا
535. Important Words:
توفیقا (reconciliation) is noun-infinitive from وفق (waffaqa) which is derived from وفق (wafiqa). They say وفق امرہ i.e. his affair or case was right or agreeable with what was desired. وفقه لامر means, he disposed or adapted him to a thing or made him fit for it.
وفق بین الشیئین means, he effected an agreement or harmony or reconciliation or adjustment between the two things. وفقت بین القوم means, I effected an agreement or harmony between the people; made peace between them (Lane).
This verse may also be taken as generally applying to the case of hypocrites generally. An incident, however, is related in traditions in connection with this verse which, though not reliable, may be mentioned here. There was some dispute between a Jew and one who hypocritically professed to be a Muslim. The latter, thinking that the Holy Prophet would decide the case in his favour, proposed to the Jew that they should go to him for decision. The Holy Prophet, however, contrary to the expectation of the hypocrite, decided the case in favour of the Jew who happened to be in the right. Being disappointed there, the hypocrite proposed to the Jew that they should go to Abu Bakr, hoping that though the Holy Prophet had shown him no favour, Abu Bakr at least would favour him. But Abu Bakr also decided in favour of the Jew. Being disappointed a second time, the hypocrite thought that ‘Umar, who was a jealous Muslim, would never decide in favour of a Jew. So he proposed to his rival that they should go to ‘Umar for decision.
But ‘Umar, says the tradition, on learning from the Jew that the case had already been decided in his favour by the Holy Prophet, cut off the head of the hypocrite, because he professed Islam and yet would not accept the Prophet’s verdict. Thereupon the hypocrites gathered together and went to the Holy Prophet and told him that in going to ‘Umar the object was only to bring about a compromise and reconciliation (Muhit, iii. 279).
The words, We meant nothing but the doing of good and reconciliation, reported to have been uttered by the hypocrites, show that there was an intrigue. The incident, however, is highly improbable and lacks proper authority. (close)