اِنَّ اللّٰہَ یَاۡمُرُکُمۡ اَنۡ تُؤَدُّوا الۡاَمٰنٰتِ اِلٰۤی اَہۡلِہَا ۙ وَ اِذَا حَکَمۡتُمۡ بَیۡنَ النَّاسِ اَنۡ تَحۡکُمُوۡا بِالۡعَدۡلِ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ نِعِمَّا یَعِظُکُمۡ بِہٖ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ سَمِیۡعًۢا بَصِیۡرًا ﴿۵۹﴾
۞إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡمُرُكُمۡ أَن تُؤَدُّواْ ٱلۡأَمَٰنَٰتِ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمۡتُم بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ أَن تَحۡكُمُواْ بِٱلۡعَدۡلِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُم بِهِۦٓۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعَۢا بَصِيرٗا
c. 8:28 (close)
621. Authority or power to rule has been here described as a "trust" of the people in order to point out that it belongs to the people and is not the birthright of any individual or dynasty. The Qur’an disapproves of dynastic or hereditary rule and institutes instead a representative form of government. The Chief is to be elected; and in electing him the people are bidden to vote for one best fitted for the office. (close)
622. The Head of the Muslim State and all those persons who are entrusted with the duty of administration are enjoined to use their authority equitably and well. (close)
c. 8:28. (close)
532. Important Words:
امانات (trusts) is the plural of امانة which is derived from امن. They say امنه i.e. he trusted in him; he entrusted him with power and authority, control or a charge; he gave him a charge over a thing or person. امانة means, trustiness or faithfulness or fidelity; a thing committed to the care or trust of a person; a trust or deposit; a duty or task allotted to a person; the commandment of God given to His servants; a man’s family or household (Lane). The Holy Prophet is reported to have said that a position or office of authority is also an امانة or a trust (Muslim, ch. on Imarat).
As in the previous verses authority and dominion were promised to Muslims, the Quran in the present verse proceeds to bid them entrust authority to such persons as possess the necessary qualifications to rule. Authority or power to rule has been here described as a "trust" of the people in order to point out that, truly speaking, it belongs to the people and is not the birth right of any particular individual or dynasty.
The verse also draws the attention of the Muslim people to their heavy responsibility in respect of the very important matter of electing their Chief or Khalifah. They are warned that if in electing a Khalifah or a Chief they allowed considerations of personal liking or nepotism to prevail against the interests of the State or the community or those of religion and displayed lack of conscientiousness, they would be called to account like one false to his trust. The verse also condemns dynastic or hereditary rule and institutes instead a representative form of government. The Khalifah or the ruler is to be elected; and in electing him, the people are bidden to vote for one best fitted for the office. The Khalifah or the ruler in his turn is bidden to be fair and just in his administration fair to individuals, fair to communities and fair to the State as a whole.
The words, that you judge with justice, apply both to the head of the Muslim State and to all those persons who are entrusted with the work of administration. They are all enjoined to use their authority equitably and well.
The addition of the Divine attributes of "All-Hearing and All-Seeing" at the end of the verse is meant to remind Muslims that if at any time they find it difficult to carry out His commandment, then instead of violating it, they should pray to God and He will hear their prayer and will see to it that they get their rights. (See General Introduction for the detailed discussion of the institution of Khilafat). (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اَطِیۡعُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اَطِیۡعُوا الرَّسُوۡلَ وَ اُولِی الۡاَمۡرِ مِنۡکُمۡ ۚ فَاِنۡ تَنَازَعۡتُمۡ فِیۡ شَیۡءٍ فَرُدُّوۡہُ اِلَی اللّٰہِ وَ الرَّسُوۡلِ اِنۡ کُنۡتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ بِاللّٰہِ وَ الۡیَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ خَیۡرٌ وَّ اَحۡسَنُ تَاۡوِیۡلًا ﴿٪۶۰﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي ٱلۡأَمۡرِ مِنكُمۡۖ فَإِن تَنَٰزَعۡتُمۡ فِي شَيۡءٖ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيۡرٞ وَأَحۡسَنُ تَأۡوِيلًا
623. The word "obey" which has been repeated before the words "Allah" and "Messenger" has been omitted before the words, those who are in authority, in order to point out that obedience to the authority properly constituted by Law amounts to obedience to God and His Messenger. The injunction embodied in the words, "refer it to Allah and His Messenger" may either relate to differences between the rulers and the ruled or to those among the ruled themselves. In the former case the significance is that if there is a matter on which disagreement arises between the rulers and the ruled, it should be decided in the light of the Quranic teaching, or failing that, in that of the Sunnah and the Hadith. If, however, the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the Hadith are silent on the question, it should be left to those in whom is vested the authority to manage the affairs of Muslims. The verse seems to refer to matters concerning particularly the affairs of the State. The basic commandment in this respect is that all obedience to authority is subject to the obedience to God and His Messenger. In case, however, of differences and disputes regarding social matters, etc., to which the words if you differ seem to refer, the Muslims should be guided by Islamic Law and not by any other law. (close)
a. 4:84 (close)
b. 4:66 (close)
a. 4:84. (close)
b. 4:66. (close)
533. Important Words:
اولی الامر (those in authority) is made up of two words: (1) اولی which is originally اولوا meaning, possessors of or possessing or having; and (2) امر meaning, rule, authority, command, affair or matter, etc. اولی الامر means: (1) those who possess or hold authority command or rule; and (2) the learned men who, as it were, possess authority in knowledge (Taj & Aqrab).
The word "obey" which has been repeated before the words "Allah" and "Messenger" has been omitted before the words, those who are in authority, in order to point out that obedience to the authority properly constituted by Law is in reality obedience to God and His Messenger.
The clause, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, means that in case of difference, the matter should be referred to the Quran and the authentic Sunnah and Hadith of the Holy Prophet. The injunction may either relate to differences between the rulers and the ruled or to those among the ruled themselves. In the former case, the significance is that if there is a matter on which disagreement arises between the rulers and the ruled, it should be decided in the light of the Quranic teaching, or failing that, in that of the authentic Sunnah and Hadith. If, however, the Quran, the Sunnah and Hadith are silent on the question, it should be left in the hands of those in whom is vested the authority to manage the affairs of Muslims; and the latter are enjoined to abide by their decision even if they do not see eye to eye with them, because true obedience consists in obeying against one’s will and judgement. The words, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, may also mean that in case of a difference between the people and those in authority, the former are enjoined to do as Allah and His Messenger have bidden them to do on such occasions, i.e. that in such a case they should obey those in authority.
Primarily, however, the words, if you differ, do not refer to any differences between the rulers and the ruled but to disagreements arising among the ruled themselves. In this case the injunction embodied in the verse is that in matters pertaining to discipline and administration, Muslims should obey those in authority, but in disputes and differences regarding social matters, etc. they should be guided by the Law of Islam and not by other laws. This is the interpretation which Ibn Kathir (iii. 130-31) has adopted and which is in keeping with the context. The next verse also refers only to disputes among the ruled, and not to those between rulers and ruled.
The words, those in authority, in their wider significance include even such non-Muslims as may happen to be in authority over Muslims. In this case the additional words منکم would not mean "from among you" but simply "among you", i.e. "over you". The practice of the Holy Prophet as well as his sayings make it clear that in secular matters Muslims should obey even such of their rulers as are not Muslims. (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اِلَی الَّذِیۡنَ یَزۡعُمُوۡنَ اَنَّہُمۡ اٰمَنُوۡا بِمَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَیۡکَ وَ مَاۤ اُنۡزِلَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِکَ یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ یَّتَحَاکَمُوۡۤا اِلَی الطَّاغُوۡتِ وَ قَدۡ اُمِرُوۡۤا اَنۡ یَّکۡفُرُوۡا بِہٖ ؕ وَ یُرِیۡدُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اَنۡ یُّضِلَّہُمۡ ضَلٰلًۢا بَعِیۡدًا ﴿۶۱﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يَزۡعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمۡ ءَامَنُواْ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبۡلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلطَّـٰغُوتِ وَقَدۡ أُمِرُوٓاْ أَن يَكۡفُرُواْ بِهِۦۖ وَيُرِيدُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنُ أَن يُضِلَّهُمۡ ضَلَٰلَۢا بَعِيدٗا
The words, They desire to seek judgement from the rebellious, need not be taken as referring to any particular incident; they speak of a general tendency among hypocrites. (close)
وَ اِذَا قِیۡلَ لَہُمۡ تَعَالَوۡا اِلٰی مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰہُ وَ اِلَی الرَّسُوۡلِ رَاَیۡتَ الۡمُنٰفِقِیۡنَ یَصُدُّوۡنَ عَنۡکَ صُدُوۡدًا ﴿ۚ۶۲﴾
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمۡ تَعَالَوۡاْ إِلَىٰ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ وَإِلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ رَأَيۡتَ ٱلۡمُنَٰفِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنكَ صُدُودٗا
a. 63:6 (close)
a. 63:6. (close)
فَکَیۡفَ اِذَاۤ اَصَابَتۡہُمۡ مُّصِیۡبَۃٌۢ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ اَیۡدِیۡہِمۡ ثُمَّ جَآءُوۡکَ یَحۡلِفُوۡنَ ٭ۖ بِاللّٰہِ اِنۡ اَرَدۡنَاۤ اِلَّاۤ اِحۡسَانًا وَّ تَوۡفِیۡقًا ﴿۶۳﴾
فَكَيۡفَ إِذَآ أَصَٰبَتۡهُم مُّصِيبَةُۢ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ ثُمَّ جَآءُوكَ يَحۡلِفُونَ بِٱللَّهِ إِنۡ أَرَدۡنَآ إِلَّآ إِحۡسَٰنٗا وَتَوۡفِيقًا
535. Important Words:
توفیقا (reconciliation) is noun-infinitive from وفق (waffaqa) which is derived from وفق (wafiqa). They say وفق امرہ i.e. his affair or case was right or agreeable with what was desired. وفقه لامر means, he disposed or adapted him to a thing or made him fit for it.
وفق بین الشیئین means, he effected an agreement or harmony or reconciliation or adjustment between the two things. وفقت بین القوم means, I effected an agreement or harmony between the people; made peace between them (Lane).
This verse may also be taken as generally applying to the case of hypocrites generally. An incident, however, is related in traditions in connection with this verse which, though not reliable, may be mentioned here. There was some dispute between a Jew and one who hypocritically professed to be a Muslim. The latter, thinking that the Holy Prophet would decide the case in his favour, proposed to the Jew that they should go to him for decision. The Holy Prophet, however, contrary to the expectation of the hypocrite, decided the case in favour of the Jew who happened to be in the right. Being disappointed there, the hypocrite proposed to the Jew that they should go to Abu Bakr, hoping that though the Holy Prophet had shown him no favour, Abu Bakr at least would favour him. But Abu Bakr also decided in favour of the Jew. Being disappointed a second time, the hypocrite thought that ‘Umar, who was a jealous Muslim, would never decide in favour of a Jew. So he proposed to his rival that they should go to ‘Umar for decision.
But ‘Umar, says the tradition, on learning from the Jew that the case had already been decided in his favour by the Holy Prophet, cut off the head of the hypocrite, because he professed Islam and yet would not accept the Prophet’s verdict. Thereupon the hypocrites gathered together and went to the Holy Prophet and told him that in going to ‘Umar the object was only to bring about a compromise and reconciliation (Muhit, iii. 279).
The words, We meant nothing but the doing of good and reconciliation, reported to have been uttered by the hypocrites, show that there was an intrigue. The incident, however, is highly improbable and lacks proper authority. (close)
اُولٰٓئِکَ الَّذِیۡنَ یَعۡلَمُ اللّٰہُ مَا فِیۡ قُلُوۡبِہِمۡ ٭ فَاَعۡرِضۡ عَنۡہُمۡ وَ عِظۡہُمۡ وَ قُلۡ لَّہُمۡ فِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ قَوۡلًۢا بَلِیۡغًا ﴿۶۴﴾
أُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَعۡلَمُ ٱللَّهُ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمۡ فَأَعۡرِضۡ عَنۡهُمۡ وَعِظۡهُمۡ وَقُل لَّهُمۡ فِيٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ قَوۡلَۢا بَلِيغٗا
624. The Prophet was enjoined to deal kindly with the Hypocrites. They were not yet beyond redemption. It was possible that they might one day see the error of their ways and become sincere and true Muslims. War was never waged against them. (close)
In the words, speak to them an effective word, the Prophet is enjoined to deal kindly with hypocrites. The injunction is to the effect that God knows that the hearts of hypocrites are afflicted with the disease of hypocrisy but He gives them respite that they may repent and mend their ways. The Prophet was also to treat them leniently and not punish them for their secret doings against Islam. They were not yet beyond redemption. It was possible they might one day see the error of their ways and become sincere and true Muslims. (close)
وَ مَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنَا مِنۡ رَّسُوۡلٍ اِلَّا لِیُطَاعَ بِاِذۡنِ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ لَوۡ اَنَّہُمۡ اِذۡ ظَّلَمُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَہُمۡ جَآءُوۡکَ فَاسۡتَغۡفَرُوا اللّٰہَ وَ اسۡتَغۡفَرَ لَہُمُ الرَّسُوۡلُ لَوَجَدُوا اللّٰہَ تَوَّابًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿۶۵﴾
وَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِۚ وَلَوۡ أَنَّهُمۡ إِذ ظَّلَمُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ جَآءُوكَ فَٱسۡتَغۡفَرُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱسۡتَغۡفَرَ لَهُمُ ٱلرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُواْ ٱللَّهَ تَوَّابٗا رَّحِيمٗا
625. It is sometimes sought to be inferred from these words that though a Prophet is to be always obeyed by the people to whom he preaches his Message, yet he himself does not give allegiance to any other Prophet. This is evidently a wrong inference. The fact that a Prophet is the object of other people’s obedience does not preclude the possibility of his being himself subordinate to, and a follower of, another Prophet. Aaron was a subordinate Prophet to Moses (20:94). (close)
a. 4:111 (close)
a. 4:111. (close)
It is sometimes sought to be inferred from the words, We have sent no Messenger but that he should be obeyed by the command of Allah, that though a Prophet is to be always obeyed by the people to whom he preaches his message, yet he himself gives allegiance to no other Prophet nor can he be subject to the Law of any other Prophet. This is evidently a very wrong inference. The simple and straightforward meaning of the words is only this that when God sends a Prophet, He means that those to whom he is sent should obey him. But the fact that a Prophet is the object of other people’s obedience cannot preclude the possibility of his being himself subordinate to, and a follower of another Prophet. A governor is sent to a province to be obeyed but that does not mean that he is not subordinate to the Governor General, if any, or to the king. According to the Quran, Aaron was a subordinate Prophet to Moses. This is why, when Moses went up to the Mount leaving Aaron behind him to look after the Israelites, and the Israelites took to worshipping the calf, Moses severely reprimanded him on his return, saying "Hast thou then disobeyed my command?" (20:94). In this connection see also 5:45. (close)
فَلَا وَ رَبِّکَ لَا یُؤۡمِنُوۡنَ حَتّٰی یُحَکِّمُوۡکَ فِیۡمَا شَجَرَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ ثُمَّ لَا یَجِدُوۡا فِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَیۡتَ وَ یُسَلِّمُوۡا تَسۡلِیۡمًا ﴿۶۶﴾
فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُواْ فِيٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ حَرَجٗا مِّمَّا قَضَيۡتَ وَيُسَلِّمُواْ تَسۡلِيمٗا
b. 4:60. (close)
626. The commandment pertains to the Holy Prophet as Head of the Muslim State and may, therefore, apply also to his Rightly-guided Successors. (close)
538. Important Words:
حرجا (demur) is the noun-infinitive from حرج meaning, it was or became narrow; or he became disquieted and contracted in his bosom; he doubted, because doubt disquiets the mind; he became straitened or in difficulty, particularly owing to the commission of a sin or crime for which he deserved punishment; حرجا therefore means, straitness; difficulty; a sin or crime or an act of disobedience for which one deserves punishment (Lane & Aqrab).
It should be noted that the injunction contained in this verse does not refer to the Holy Prophet alone. The verse speaks of the settlement of disputes, and so the injunction contained in it should be taken to pertain not to the person of the Holy Prophet but to him as Head of the Muslim State and is, therefore, applicable to his Successors as well. Muslims should not only have their disputes settled in accordance with the Law of Islam but should submit to the awards of those in authority with cheerfulness. The injunction is most essential for the maintenance of solidarity among the Muslim community. In fact, the chief cause of discord in a community is that people should regard their own judgement as right and should refuse to give to those in authority their due. The verse requires the Faithful not only to refer their differences to the Holy Prophet, and for that matter to his Successors, deputies and representatives, but to submit to their decisions cheerfully and without demur. (close)
وَ لَوۡ اَنَّا کَتَبۡنَا عَلَیۡہِمۡ اَنِ اقۡتُلُوۡۤا اَنۡفُسَکُمۡ اَوِ اخۡرُجُوۡا مِنۡ دِیَارِکُمۡ مَّا فَعَلُوۡہُ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ ؕ وَ لَوۡ اَنَّہُمۡ فَعَلُوۡا مَا یُوۡعَظُوۡنَ بِہٖ لَکَانَ خَیۡرًا لَّہُمۡ وَ اَشَدَّ تَثۡبِیۡتًا ﴿ۙ۶۷﴾
وَلَوۡ أَنَّا كَتَبۡنَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ أَنِ ٱقۡتُلُوٓاْ أَنفُسَكُمۡ أَوِ ٱخۡرُجُواْ مِن دِيَٰرِكُم مَّا فَعَلُوهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلٞ مِّنۡهُمۡۖ وَلَوۡ أَنَّهُمۡ فَعَلُواْ مَا يُوعَظُونَ بِهِۦ لَكَانَ خَيۡرٗا لَّهُمۡ وَأَشَدَّ تَثۡبِيتٗا
c. 6:78. (close)
627. The words, Uqtulu Anfusakum, do not mean "slay yourselves" but "slay your people" (2:55), or "lay down your lives in the cause of God". (close)
a. 4:78. (close)
This verse refers to the hypocrites of Medina. The words اقتلوا انفسکم (kill your people) do not mean "kill yourselves" because suicide has been declared in Islam to be unlawful.
The expression انفسکم simply means "your people" (see note on 2:55). The Refugees had to leave their hearths and homes and had to kill their own disbelieving kith and kin in the war that had been forced upon them by the latter. (close)
وَّ اِذًا لَّاٰتَیۡنٰہُمۡ مِّنۡ لَّدُنَّـاۤ اَجۡرًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿ۙ۶۸﴾
وَإِذٗا لَّأٓتَيۡنَٰهُم مِّن لَّدُنَّآ أَجۡرًا عَظِيمٗا