یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا خُذُوۡا حِذۡرَکُمۡ فَانۡفِرُوۡا ثُبَاتٍ اَوِ انۡفِرُوۡا جَمِیۡعًا ﴿۷۲﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ خُذُواْ حِذۡرَكُمۡ فَٱنفِرُواْ ثُبَاتٍ أَوِ ٱنفِرُواْ جَمِيعٗا
630. Hidhr means, caution or precaution; vigilance; guard; state of preparation; or of fear (Lane). The word extends to all kinds of precautions and preparations necessary for defence, and has been understood to include the putting on of weapons of defence. (close)
631. Ath-Thubah means, a company or body of men; a distinct body or company of men; a troop of horsemen (Lane). (close)
543. Important Words:
ثبات (separate parties) is derived from ثبی and not from ثبت as some wrongly suppose. They say ثبی الشیء i.e. he collected the thing and added to it. ثبوت له خیرا means, I mentioned his qualities one after the other. ثبة of which ثبات is plural means, a company or body of men; a distinct body or company of men; a troop of horsemen; the place where water collects in a valley or ground (Lane & Aqrab).
حذر (precautions). The verb حذر means, he was cautious or vigilant or on his guard; he took care; he prepared himself against; he feared. حذر means, caution or precaution; vigilance; guard; state of preparation; or of fear (Lane). The word extends to all kinds of precautions and preparations necessary for defence, and has been taken to include the putting on of weapons of defence.
The Muslims are warned to be always vigilant and on their guard and in a perfect state of preparation even when they march out in force. The verse may also be taken in the figurative sense, applying to missionary and cultural activities. (close)
وَ اِنَّ مِنۡکُمۡ لَمَنۡ لَّیُبَطِّئَنَّ ۚ فَاِنۡ اَصَابَتۡکُمۡ مُّصِیۡبَۃٌ قَالَ قَدۡ اَنۡعَمَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیَّ اِذۡ لَمۡ اَکُنۡ مَّعَہُمۡ شَہِیۡدًا ﴿۷۳﴾
وَإِنَّ مِنكُمۡ لَمَن لَّيُبَطِّئَنَّ فَإِنۡ أَصَٰبَتۡكُم مُّصِيبَةٞ قَالَ قَدۡ أَنۡعَمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيَّ إِذۡ لَمۡ أَكُن مَّعَهُمۡ شَهِيدٗا
632. The verse refers to Hypocrites or the internal enemies of Islam and mentions their two prominent traits. (close)
544. Important Words:
لیبطئن (tarries behind) is derived from بطؤ meaning, he was or became slow, late or backward. بطأ means, it made him slow, late or backward. But بطأ is also used intransitively, as in the tradition من بطأبه عمله i.e. he whom his evil deeds hold back (lit. he whose evil deeds keep back along with him). So بطأ would mean, (1) he held back or tarried behind, and (2) he made others hold back and tarry behind (Aqrab, Lane, Mufradat & Kashshaf).
This verse refers to the internal enemies of Islam. It gives two characteristics of hypocrites: (1) they fail to march out with Muslims and are glad to do so; (2) they do not share with Muslims their joys and sorrows. They are more anxious about their own selves than about the success of Islam. If Muslims meet with trouble, they rejoice that they themselves escaped it by remaining behind, and exultingly remind Muslims of the advice which they gave them and by acting against which the Muslims came to grief, as they did after the Battle of Uhud.
It is worthy of note here that though in connection with the Battle of Uhud, the Holy Prophet himself was at first in favour of fighting the enemy by staying in Medina, he did not rebuke the Muslims when they suffered a reverse by telling them that they had met with a disaster by going against his wish. But the hypocrites did taunt the Muslims that they had suffered defeat by defying their advice. It is for this taunting that the hypocrites have been reprimanded in this verse, because such a course, if allowed, is calculated to prove detrimental to the cause of communal unity and concord. (close)
وَ لَئِنۡ اَصَابَکُمۡ فَضۡلٌ مِّنَ اللّٰہِ لَیَقُوۡلَنَّ کَاَنۡ لَّمۡ تَکُنۡۢ بَیۡنَکُمۡ وَ بَیۡنَہٗ مَوَدَّۃٌ یّٰلَیۡتَنِیۡ کُنۡتُ مَعَہُمۡ فَاَفُوۡزَ فَوۡزًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۷۴﴾
وَلَئِنۡ أَصَٰبَكُمۡ فَضۡلٞ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ لَيَقُولَنَّ كَأَن لَّمۡ تَكُنۢ بَيۡنَكُمۡ وَبَيۡنَهُۥ مَوَدَّةٞ يَٰلَيۡتَنِي كُنتُ مَعَهُمۡ فَأَفُوزَ فَوۡزًا عَظِيمٗا
فَلۡیُقَاتِلۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ الَّذِیۡنَ یَشۡرُوۡنَ الۡحَیٰوۃَ الدُّنۡیَا بِالۡاٰخِرَۃِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یُّقَاتِلۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ فَیُقۡتَلۡ اَوۡ یَغۡلِبۡ فَسَوۡفَ نُؤۡتِیۡہِ اَجۡرًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۷۵﴾
۞فَلۡيُقَٰتِلۡ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِينَ يَشۡرُونَ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا بِٱلۡأٓخِرَةِۚ وَمَن يُقَٰتِلۡ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ فَيُقۡتَلۡ أَوۡ يَغۡلِبۡ فَسَوۡفَ نُؤۡتِيهِ أَجۡرًا عَظِيمٗا
a. 9:111. (close)
b. 9:52. (close)
وَ مَا لَکُمۡ لَا تُقَاتِلُوۡنَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ وَ الۡمُسۡتَضۡعَفِیۡنَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَ النِّسَآءِ وَ الۡوِلۡدَانِ الَّذِیۡنَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ رَبَّنَاۤ اَخۡرِجۡنَا مِنۡ ہٰذِہِ الۡقَرۡیَۃِ الظَّالِمِ اَہۡلُہَا ۚ وَ اجۡعَلۡ لَّنَا مِنۡ لَّدُنۡکَ وَلِیًّا ۚۙ وَّ اجۡعَلۡ لَّنَا مِنۡ لَّدُنۡکَ نَصِیۡرًا ﴿ؕ۷۶﴾
وَمَا لَكُمۡ لَا تُقَٰتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡمُسۡتَضۡعَفِينَ مِنَ ٱلرِّجَالِ وَٱلنِّسَآءِ وَٱلۡوِلۡدَٰنِ ٱلَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَآ أَخۡرِجۡنَا مِنۡ هَٰذِهِ ٱلۡقَرۡيَةِ ٱلظَّالِمِ أَهۡلُهَا وَٱجۡعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيّٗا وَٱجۡعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ نَصِيرًا
632A. The words also mean, what is the matter with you that you fight not. (close)
c. 4:99. (close)
633. The verse is a clear proof of the fact that Muslims never started hostilities. They only fought in self-defence in order to protect their religion and save their weaker co-religionists. (close)
a. 4:99. (close)
The verse is a clear proof of the fact that Muslims were not the first to open hostilities. They only fought a war of defence with a view to protecting their religion and saving their weaker co-religionists. (close)
اَلَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا یُقَاتِلُوۡنَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا یُقَاتِلُوۡنَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ الطَّاغُوۡتِ فَقَاتِلُوۡۤا اَوۡلِیَآءَ الشَّیۡطٰنِ ۚ اِنَّ کَیۡدَ الشَّیۡطٰنِ کَانَ ضَعِیۡفًا ﴿٪۷۷﴾
ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ يُقَٰتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُقَٰتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتِ فَقَٰتِلُوٓاْ أَوۡلِيَآءَ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِۖ إِنَّ كَيۡدَ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِ كَانَ ضَعِيفًا
545A. Important Words:
الطاغوت (the Evil One). See 2:257. (close)
اَلَمۡ تَرَ اِلَی الَّذِیۡنَ قِیۡلَ لَہُمۡ کُفُّوۡۤا اَیۡدِیَکُمۡ وَ اَقِیۡمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتُوا الزَّکٰوۃَ ۚ فَلَمَّا کُتِبَ عَلَیۡہِمُ الۡقِتَالُ اِذَا فَرِیۡقٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ یَخۡشَوۡنَ النَّاسَ کَخَشۡیَۃِ اللّٰہِ اَوۡ اَشَدَّ خَشۡیَۃً ۚ وَ قَالُوۡا رَبَّنَا لِمَ کَتَبۡتَ عَلَیۡنَا الۡقِتَالَ ۚ لَوۡ لَاۤ اَخَّرۡتَنَاۤ اِلٰۤی اَجَلٍ قَرِیۡبٍ ؕ قُلۡ مَتَاعُ الدُّنۡیَا قَلِیۡلٌ ۚ وَ الۡاٰخِرَۃُ خَیۡرٌ لِّمَنِ اتَّقٰی ۟ وَ لَا تُظۡلَمُوۡنَ فَتِیۡلًا ﴿۷۸﴾
أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ قِيلَ لَهُمۡ كُفُّوٓاْ أَيۡدِيَكُمۡ وَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُواْ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلۡقِتَالُ إِذَا فَرِيقٞ مِّنۡهُمۡ يَخۡشَوۡنَ ٱلنَّاسَ كَخَشۡيَةِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡ أَشَدَّ خَشۡيَةٗۚ وَقَالُواْ رَبَّنَا لِمَ كَتَبۡتَ عَلَيۡنَا ٱلۡقِتَالَ لَوۡلَآ أَخَّرۡتَنَآ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٖ قَرِيبٖۗ قُلۡ مَتَٰعُ ٱلدُّنۡيَا قَلِيلٞ وَٱلۡأٓخِرَةُ خَيۡرٞ لِّمَنِ ٱتَّقَىٰ وَلَا تُظۡلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا
a. 2:247; 4:67. (close)
b. 14:45; 63:11. (close)
634. The verse refers to a class of men who show eagerness to fight when they are told not to fight, but when the actual time for fighting arrives, they refuse to fight or try to avoid it by various pretexts, thus showing that their former eagerness for fighting was either insincere or was due to temporary excitement. (close)
c. 9:38; 57:21. (close)
d. See 4:50. (close)
This verse refers to a class of men who show eagerness to fight when they are told not to fight, but when the actual time for fighting arrives, they refuse to fight or try to avoid it by various pretexts, thus showing that their former eagerness for fighting was either insincere or was only due to a temporary excitement.
The verse may also be regarded as referring to انصار (Helpers) of Medina who, before the advent of Islam to that city, were constantly at war among themselves. But when they accepted Islam, they were asked to cease fighting. When, however, they were called upon to take up arms to defend Islam, a section of them, who were always fighting among themselves before they embraced Islam, became afraid of fighting in the cause of God. (close)
اَیۡنَ مَا تَکُوۡنُوۡا یُدۡرِکۡکُّمُ الۡمَوۡتُ وَ لَوۡ کُنۡتُمۡ فِیۡ بُرُوۡجٍ مُّشَیَّدَۃٍ ؕ وَ اِنۡ تُصِبۡہُمۡ حَسَنَۃٌ یَّقُوۡلُوۡا ہٰذِہٖ مِنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ اِنۡ تُصِبۡہُمۡ سَیِّئَۃٌ یَّقُوۡلُوۡا ہٰذِہٖ مِنۡ عِنۡدِکَ ؕ قُلۡ کُلٌّ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ ؕ فَمَالِ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ الۡقَوۡمِ لَا یَکَادُوۡنَ یَفۡقَہُوۡنَ حَدِیۡثًا ﴿۷۹﴾
أَيۡنَمَا تَكُونُواْ يُدۡرِككُّمُ ٱلۡمَوۡتُ وَلَوۡ كُنتُمۡ فِي بُرُوجٖ مُّشَيَّدَةٖۗ وَإِن تُصِبۡهُمۡ حَسَنَةٞ يَقُولُواْ هَٰذِهِۦ مِنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِۖ وَإِن تُصِبۡهُمۡ سَيِّئَةٞ يَقُولُواْ هَٰذِهِۦ مِنۡ عِندِكَۚ قُلۡ كُلّٞ مِّنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِۖ فَمَالِ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ لَا يَكَادُونَ يَفۡقَهُونَ حَدِيثٗا
a. 62:9. (close)
635. The words either refer to the general physical law about the inevitability of death, or they may be taken as particularly addressed to the Hypocrites, who disobeyed the Divine command to fight, thinking that in this way they could avoid death. (close)
636. The expression, All is from Allah, is true in this sense that God is the Final Controlling Power in the universe and whatever good or evil befalls man is attributable either to a general law of nature or to one or other of His special decrees. (close)
e. 62:9. (close)
547. Important Words:
مشیدة (strongly built) is derived from شاد meaning, he plastered (a wall, etc.) with the requisite material. شاد البناء means, he raised the building high. شادوا الدین means, they strengthened and exalted the religion. شیدہ means, he raised it high, namely, a place or a building; or he built it firmly and strongly and raised it high (Lane & Aqrab).
The words, Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you, may either refer to the general physical law about the inevitability of death, meaning that when one must die sooner or later, there is no reason why one should be so afraid of death as to refuse to fight in a just cause; or they may be taken as particularly addressed to the hypocrites, who disobeyed the Divine command to fight, thinking that in this way they would be able to avoid death. The verse purports to say that God had decreed that they should suffer death and destruction, however well protected they might be.
It was customary with the hypocrites that when Muslims achieved a success, they attributed it to God, saying that since Islam was a divine religion, it was bound to prosper and succeed. But when a misfortune overtook Muslims, they declared that it was due to mistakes committed by the Prophet. The Quran says that from the viewpoint from which they ascribe success to God, failures are also ascribable to Him. By attributing success to God and failure to the Prophet, the hypocrites sought to discredit the Prophet and to lower him in the estimation of Muslims.
The words, Say, All is from Allah, point to the fact that both successes and misfortunes were foretold by the Holy Prophet (e.g. see 2:156-158). So even the failures which the hypocrites attributed to the Holy Prophet really constituted a proof of his truth. The expression, All is from Allah, is also true in this sense that God is the final controlling power in the universe and whatever good or evil befalls man is attributable either to the general law of nature ordained by God or to one or other of His special decrees. (close)
مَاۤ اَصَابَکَ مِنۡ حَسَنَۃٍ فَمِنَ اللّٰہِ ۫ وَ مَاۤ اَصَابَکَ مِنۡ سَیِّئَۃٍ فَمِنۡ نَّفۡسِکَ ؕ وَ اَرۡسَلۡنٰکَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُوۡلًا ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِاللّٰہِ شَہِیۡدًا ﴿۸۰﴾
مَّآ أَصَابَكَ مِنۡ حَسَنَةٖ فَمِنَ ٱللَّهِۖ وَمَآ أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٖ فَمِن نَّفۡسِكَۚ وَأَرۡسَلۡنَٰكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُولٗاۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ شَهِيدٗا
637. God has endowed man with natural powers and faculties by making right use of which he can achieve success in life and by making wrong use of them involves himself in trouble. Thus all good is here attributed to God and all evil to man. (close)
The verse appears to run counter to what has been said in the preceding verse but it is not really so. God has endowed man with natural powers and faculties by making a right use of which he can achieve success; but when he makes a wrong use of them, he is involved in trouble. Hence, from this point of view, all good is ascribable to God, and all evil to man.
As the verse embodies a general law applicable to all men, therefore the address is made to the Holy Prophet, this being a particular Quranic way of addressing mankind in general. But that it is not the person of the Holy Prophet, but mankind collectively to whom the address is made in this verse, is clear from the fact that the Holy Prophet has been addressed distinctly and separately in the latter part of the verse, and also in the verse that follows. (close)
مَنۡ یُّطِعِ الرَّسُوۡلَ فَقَدۡ اَطَاعَ اللّٰہَ ۚ وَ مَنۡ تَوَلّٰی فَمَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنٰکَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ حَفِیۡظًا ﴿ؕ۸۱﴾
مَّن يُطِعِ ٱلرَّسُولَ فَقَدۡ أَطَاعَ ٱللَّهَۖ وَمَن تَوَلَّىٰ فَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَٰكَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ حَفِيظٗا
549. Important Words:
حفیظ (keeper) is derived from حفظ. They say حفظ الشیء i.e. he kept the thing or preserved it or guarded it or protected it or took care of it; he prevented it from becoming lost. حافظ or حفیظ (the latter having more intensive meaning) means, keeper, preserver or guardian. When used about God, the attributive name besides giving the above meanings, also means, the Preserver of all things; One Who preserves the good and evil works of His creatures (Lane).
The words, Whoso obeys the Messenger obeys Allah indeed, further explain the meaning of the expression, Say, All is from Allah, occurring in 4:79 above. The verse purports to say that obedience to the Prophet is really obedience to God, and if Muslims get into trouble by obeying the Prophet, it is all subject to God’s own will and must not be attributed to the Prophet and such trouble can never result in evil; God’s dealings with the Prophet come under His special providence, and, therefore, he who finds fault with him really finds fault with God. (close)