اَیۡنَ مَا تَکُوۡنُوۡا یُدۡرِکۡکُّمُ الۡمَوۡتُ وَ لَوۡ کُنۡتُمۡ فِیۡ بُرُوۡجٍ مُّشَیَّدَۃٍ ؕ وَ اِنۡ تُصِبۡہُمۡ حَسَنَۃٌ یَّقُوۡلُوۡا ہٰذِہٖ مِنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ ۚ وَ اِنۡ تُصِبۡہُمۡ سَیِّئَۃٌ یَّقُوۡلُوۡا ہٰذِہٖ مِنۡ عِنۡدِکَ ؕ قُلۡ کُلٌّ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ ؕ فَمَالِ ہٰۤؤُلَآءِ الۡقَوۡمِ لَا یَکَادُوۡنَ یَفۡقَہُوۡنَ حَدِیۡثًا ﴿۷۹﴾
أَيۡنَمَا تَكُونُواْ يُدۡرِككُّمُ ٱلۡمَوۡتُ وَلَوۡ كُنتُمۡ فِي بُرُوجٖ مُّشَيَّدَةٖۗ وَإِن تُصِبۡهُمۡ حَسَنَةٞ يَقُولُواْ هَٰذِهِۦ مِنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِۖ وَإِن تُصِبۡهُمۡ سَيِّئَةٞ يَقُولُواْ هَٰذِهِۦ مِنۡ عِندِكَۚ قُلۡ كُلّٞ مِّنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِۖ فَمَالِ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ لَا يَكَادُونَ يَفۡقَهُونَ حَدِيثٗا
a. 62:9. (close)
635. The words either refer to the general physical law about the inevitability of death, or they may be taken as particularly addressed to the Hypocrites, who disobeyed the Divine command to fight, thinking that in this way they could avoid death. (close)
636. The expression, All is from Allah, is true in this sense that God is the Final Controlling Power in the universe and whatever good or evil befalls man is attributable either to a general law of nature or to one or other of His special decrees. (close)
e. 62:9. (close)
547. Important Words:
مشیدة (strongly built) is derived from شاد meaning, he plastered (a wall, etc.) with the requisite material. شاد البناء means, he raised the building high. شادوا الدین means, they strengthened and exalted the religion. شیدہ means, he raised it high, namely, a place or a building; or he built it firmly and strongly and raised it high (Lane & Aqrab).
The words, Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you, may either refer to the general physical law about the inevitability of death, meaning that when one must die sooner or later, there is no reason why one should be so afraid of death as to refuse to fight in a just cause; or they may be taken as particularly addressed to the hypocrites, who disobeyed the Divine command to fight, thinking that in this way they would be able to avoid death. The verse purports to say that God had decreed that they should suffer death and destruction, however well protected they might be.
It was customary with the hypocrites that when Muslims achieved a success, they attributed it to God, saying that since Islam was a divine religion, it was bound to prosper and succeed. But when a misfortune overtook Muslims, they declared that it was due to mistakes committed by the Prophet. The Quran says that from the viewpoint from which they ascribe success to God, failures are also ascribable to Him. By attributing success to God and failure to the Prophet, the hypocrites sought to discredit the Prophet and to lower him in the estimation of Muslims.
The words, Say, All is from Allah, point to the fact that both successes and misfortunes were foretold by the Holy Prophet (e.g. see 2:156-158). So even the failures which the hypocrites attributed to the Holy Prophet really constituted a proof of his truth. The expression, All is from Allah, is also true in this sense that God is the final controlling power in the universe and whatever good or evil befalls man is attributable either to the general law of nature ordained by God or to one or other of His special decrees. (close)
مَاۤ اَصَابَکَ مِنۡ حَسَنَۃٍ فَمِنَ اللّٰہِ ۫ وَ مَاۤ اَصَابَکَ مِنۡ سَیِّئَۃٍ فَمِنۡ نَّفۡسِکَ ؕ وَ اَرۡسَلۡنٰکَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُوۡلًا ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِاللّٰہِ شَہِیۡدًا ﴿۸۰﴾
مَّآ أَصَابَكَ مِنۡ حَسَنَةٖ فَمِنَ ٱللَّهِۖ وَمَآ أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٖ فَمِن نَّفۡسِكَۚ وَأَرۡسَلۡنَٰكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُولٗاۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ شَهِيدٗا
637. God has endowed man with natural powers and faculties by making right use of which he can achieve success in life and by making wrong use of them involves himself in trouble. Thus all good is here attributed to God and all evil to man. (close)
The verse appears to run counter to what has been said in the preceding verse but it is not really so. God has endowed man with natural powers and faculties by making a right use of which he can achieve success; but when he makes a wrong use of them, he is involved in trouble. Hence, from this point of view, all good is ascribable to God, and all evil to man.
As the verse embodies a general law applicable to all men, therefore the address is made to the Holy Prophet, this being a particular Quranic way of addressing mankind in general. But that it is not the person of the Holy Prophet, but mankind collectively to whom the address is made in this verse, is clear from the fact that the Holy Prophet has been addressed distinctly and separately in the latter part of the verse, and also in the verse that follows. (close)
مَنۡ یُّطِعِ الرَّسُوۡلَ فَقَدۡ اَطَاعَ اللّٰہَ ۚ وَ مَنۡ تَوَلّٰی فَمَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنٰکَ عَلَیۡہِمۡ حَفِیۡظًا ﴿ؕ۸۱﴾
مَّن يُطِعِ ٱلرَّسُولَ فَقَدۡ أَطَاعَ ٱللَّهَۖ وَمَن تَوَلَّىٰ فَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَٰكَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ حَفِيظٗا
549. Important Words:
حفیظ (keeper) is derived from حفظ. They say حفظ الشیء i.e. he kept the thing or preserved it or guarded it or protected it or took care of it; he prevented it from becoming lost. حافظ or حفیظ (the latter having more intensive meaning) means, keeper, preserver or guardian. When used about God, the attributive name besides giving the above meanings, also means, the Preserver of all things; One Who preserves the good and evil works of His creatures (Lane).
The words, Whoso obeys the Messenger obeys Allah indeed, further explain the meaning of the expression, Say, All is from Allah, occurring in 4:79 above. The verse purports to say that obedience to the Prophet is really obedience to God, and if Muslims get into trouble by obeying the Prophet, it is all subject to God’s own will and must not be attributed to the Prophet and such trouble can never result in evil; God’s dealings with the Prophet come under His special providence, and, therefore, he who finds fault with him really finds fault with God. (close)
وَ یَقُوۡلُوۡنَ طَاعَۃٌ ۫ فَاِذَا بَرَزُوۡا مِنۡ عِنۡدِکَ بَیَّتَ طَآئِفَۃٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ غَیۡرَ الَّذِیۡ تَقُوۡلُ ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ یَکۡتُبُ مَا یُبَیِّتُوۡنَ ۚ فَاَعۡرِضۡ عَنۡہُمۡ وَ تَوَکَّلۡ عَلَی اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ کَفٰی بِاللّٰہِ وَکِیۡلًا ﴿۸۲﴾
وَيَقُولُونَ طَاعَةٞ فَإِذَا بَرَزُواْ مِنۡ عِندِكَ بَيَّتَ طَآئِفَةٞ مِّنۡهُمۡ غَيۡرَ ٱلَّذِي تَقُولُۖ وَٱللَّهُ يَكۡتُبُ مَا يُبَيِّتُونَۖ فَأَعۡرِضۡ عَنۡهُمۡ وَتَوَكَّلۡ عَلَى ٱللَّهِۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ وَكِيلًا
a. 4:109. (close)
638. The reference is to secret plotting, whether by night or during the day. As generally secret plotting is done at night, the word Bayyata has been used here, the night time affording a sort of cover and secrecy. (close)
550. Important Words:
بیت (spends the night scheming) is derived from بات meaning, he passed or spent the night. بات زید نائما means, Zaid passed the night sleeping. بیت الامر means, he did or designed or schemed the thing at night. بیت رأیه means, he thought upon his opinion and concealed it, or he conceived it in his mind. بیت العدو means, he attacked the enemy, and took him by surprise by night (Lane & Aqrab).
The word "night" or "scheming by night" should not be taken too literally. The reference is to secret plotting, whether by night or during the daytime. As generally secret plotting is done at night, the word بیت has been used, the night time affording a sort of cover and secrecy. (close)
اَفَلَا یَتَدَبَّرُوۡنَ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ ؕ وَ لَوۡ کَانَ مِنۡ عِنۡدِ غَیۡرِ اللّٰہِ لَوَجَدُوۡا فِیۡہِ اخۡتِلَافًا کَثِیۡرًا ﴿۸۳﴾
أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَۚ وَلَوۡ كَانَ مِنۡ عِندِ غَيۡرِ ٱللَّهِ لَوَجَدُواْ فِيهِ ٱخۡتِلَٰفٗا كَثِيرٗا
b. 47:25. (close)
639. "Discrepancy" may either refer to contradictions in the text of the Qur’an and the teachings contained therein; or to lack of agreement between the Quranic announcements in the form of prophecies and their result or fulfilment. (close)
The word اختلاف (disagreement) may have two meanings: (1) either it may refer to contradictions in the text of the Quranand the teachings contained therein; or (2) it may refer to the non-agreement between the Quranic announcements in the form of prophecies and their result or fulfilment. The Quran is free from اختلاف (disagreement) in both these respects. In spite of covering an extremely vast field of reform—spiritual, moral, social, economic, political, legal, etc.—its teachings are perfectly harmonious, no part clashing in letter or spirit with another, no section nourished at the cost of another.
Taken in the second sense, the verse means that all the different announcements and prophecies made by the Quran are proving, and will prove, to be true; and there can be no disagreement in this respect either. If the Quran had not been the Word of God, but the fabrication of man, most of the prophecies and promises made by it under extremely adverse conditions would have failed to materialize.
So the fact that the prophecies made in the Quran have been, and are being, fulfilled against all calculations and all expectations and in a most wonderful manner is a proof positive of the fact that it is the revealed Word of God.
The word, much, qualifying the word disagreement should not be construed to mean that some disagreement in the Quran is possible. The expression is simply intended to mean that, whereas otherwise there would have been much disagreement, the Quran being the Word of God, there is, in fact, none. (close)
وَ اِذَا جَآءَہُمۡ اَمۡرٌ مِّنَ الۡاَمۡنِ اَوِ الۡخَوۡفِ اَذَاعُوۡا بِہٖ ؕ وَ لَوۡ رَدُّوۡہُ اِلَی الرَّسُوۡلِ وَ اِلٰۤی اُولِی الۡاَمۡرِ مِنۡہُمۡ لَعَلِمَہُ الَّذِیۡنَ یَسۡتَنۡۢبِطُوۡنَہٗ مِنۡہُمۡ ؕ وَ لَوۡ لَا فَضۡلُ اللّٰہِ عَلَیۡکُمۡ وَ رَحۡمَتُہٗ لَاتَّبَعۡتُمُ الشَّیۡطٰنَ اِلَّا قَلِیۡلًا ﴿۸۴﴾
وَإِذَا جَآءَهُمۡ أَمۡرٞ مِّنَ ٱلۡأَمۡنِ أَوِ ٱلۡخَوۡفِ أَذَاعُواْ بِهِۦۖ وَلَوۡ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ وَإِلَىٰٓ أُوْلِي ٱلۡأَمۡرِ مِنۡهُمۡ لَعَلِمَهُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَسۡتَنۢبِطُونَهُۥ مِنۡهُمۡۗ وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَرَحۡمَتُهُۥ لَٱتَّبَعۡتُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنَ إِلَّا قَلِيلٗا
640. The reason why tidings relating to peace have been mentioned before those relating to fear is that the Qur’an is here speaking of war, and during war it is sometimes more dangerous to give publicity to matters likely to lead to happy results than to matters of fear. Under normal conditions, too, the injunction mentioned is very important, exercising direct influence on the discipline and well-being of society. The words, those in authority, refer to the Holy Prophet or his Successors or to the Chiefs appointed by them. (close)
c. 4:60. (close)
a. 4:60. (close)
The reason why tidings or matters relating to peace have been mentioned before those relating to fear is that the Quranis here speaking of war, and during war it is sometimes more dangerous to give publicity to matters likely to lead to happy results than to matters of fear. For instance, if any information comes that the forces of the enemy are about to attack, the publication of this news among the people may not prove so dangerous as disclosure of, for example, the news that the Muslim army was going to attack the enemy at a certain weak point of the latter. The latter class of news would disclose the intentions of the Muslim army to the enemy and he would take immediate steps to strengthen his position at the threatened point. Under normal conditions too the injunction is very important, exercising direct influence on the discipline and well-being of society.
The words, those in authority, refer to the Holy Prophet or his Successors or the chiefs appointed by both. (close)
فَقَاتِلۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ ۚ لَا تُکَلَّفُ اِلَّا نَفۡسَکَ وَ حَرِّضِ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ ۚ عَسَی اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یَّکُفَّ بَاۡسَ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا ؕ وَ اللّٰہُ اَشَدُّ بَاۡسًا وَّ اَشَدُّ تَنۡکِیۡلًا ﴿۸۵﴾
فَقَٰتِلۡ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ لَا تُكَلَّفُ إِلَّا نَفۡسَكَۚ وَحَرِّضِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَۖ عَسَى ٱللَّهُ أَن يَكُفَّ بَأۡسَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْۚ وَٱللَّهُ أَشَدُّ بَأۡسٗا وَأَشَدُّ تَنكِيلٗا
641. The command to fight does not relate to the Holy Prophet alone. If that had been the case, the second clause in the verse would have read as Illa Nafsuka, i.e. none is made responsible except thyself, and not as Illa Nafsaka, i.e. thou art not made responsible except for thyself, as in the verse. What the verse means is that every Muslim, not excluding the Holy Prophet, was individually answerable to God. But the duty of the Holy Prophet was twofold, (1) to fight himself, and (2) to urge his followers to fight, though he was not responsible for them. (close)
a. 8:66. (close)
The words, Fight therefore in the cause of Allah, do not mean that the command to fight is related to the Holy Prophet alone. If that had been the case, the second clause in the verse would have read as لا تکلف الا نفسك (illa nafsuka), i.e. none is made responsible except thyself, and not as لاتکلف الانفسك (illa nafsaka), i.e. Thou art not made responsible except for thyself, as in the verse. What the verse means is that every Muslim, not excluding the Prophet, was individually answerable to God. But the duty of the Holy Prophet was twofold: (1) to fight, and (2) to urge his followers to fight. He was, however, not answerable for them. He was only to communicate to them the divine behests, and if they disobeyed, they themselves were answerable for it. The commandment making jihad obligatory on Muslims had already been revealed (4:78).
The clause, It may be that Allah will restrain the might of those that disbelieve, means that God will bring into existence such circumstances as will make war cease of itself, or that the enemy will fail to exert his power to the full and will finally collapse. Thus we see that at the Battle of the Ditch and at the Fall of Mecca providential circumstances helped the Muslims. (close)
مَنۡ یَّشۡفَعۡ شَفَاعَۃً حَسَنَۃً یَّکُنۡ لَّہٗ نَصِیۡبٌ مِّنۡہَا ۚ وَ مَنۡ یَّشۡفَعۡ شَفَاعَۃً سَیِّئَۃً یَّکُنۡ لَّہٗ کِفۡلٌ مِّنۡہَا ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ مُّقِیۡتًا ﴿۸۶﴾
مَّن يَشۡفَعۡ شَفَٰعَةً حَسَنَةٗ يَكُن لَّهُۥ نَصِيبٞ مِّنۡهَاۖ وَمَن يَشۡفَعۡ شَفَٰعَةٗ سَيِّئَةٗ يَكُن لَّهُۥ كِفۡلٞ مِّنۡهَاۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ مُّقِيتٗا
642. The verse signifies that the act of intercession or recommendation should not be treated lightly; for the person who intercedes on behalf of another is answerable for his act. If the intercession or recommendation is right and just, he will have a suitable reward; otherwise he will be held responsible for the evil consequences thereof. It is further noteworthy that in connection with "righteous intercession" the word used is Nasib (share or fixed share) whereas in connection with "evil intercession" the word is Kifl (like portion). This is to point out that whereas the punishment of an evil intercession will only be the like thereof, the good reward of a righteous intercession will have no such restriction but will be as large as God has fixed it, i.e. ten times greater. (close)
554. Important Words:
For the significance of the words شفیع and شفاعة see under 2:49.
Read in the light of the context the words, Whoso makes a righteous intercession…may mean that a person who persuades others to fight in the cause of God shall have an ample reward, while he who dissuades them from fighting shall suffer punishment for doing so. The verse also signifies that people should not look upon the subject of intercession or recommendation lightly; for the person who intercedes on behalf of, or recommends, another is answerable for his act. If the intercession or recommendation is right and just, he will have a suitable reward; otherwise he will share and be responsible for the evil consequence thereof.
Taking the word شفاعة in the sense of connection, the verse may also be rendered as, "whoso forms a good connection shall have a share thereof and whoso forms a bad connection shall have a like portion thereof," thus emphasizing the importance of forming a good connection whether with God or with His Prophets or with other people. Whereas a good connection may be the cause of rise and progress, a bad one may result in downfall and ruin. For a full discussion of the subject of شفاعة (intercession) see detailed note under 2:49.
It is noteworthy that in connection with "righteous intercession", the word used is نصیب (share or fixed share) whereas in connection with "evil intercession" the word used is کفل (like portion). This is to point out that, whereas the punishment of an evil intercession will only be the like thereof, the good reward of a righteous intercession will have no such restriction but will be as large as God has fixed it, i.e. ten times greater. (close)
وَ اِذَا حُیِّیۡتُمۡ بِتَحِیَّۃٍ فَحَیُّوۡا بِاَحۡسَنَ مِنۡہَاۤ اَوۡ رُدُّوۡہَا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیۡءٍ حَسِیۡبًا ﴿۸۷﴾
وَإِذَا حُيِّيتُم بِتَحِيَّةٖ فَحَيُّواْ بِأَحۡسَنَ مِنۡهَآ أَوۡ رُدُّوهَآۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٍ حَسِيبًا
643. The verse points to a social duty. (close)
555. Important Words:
حییتم (when you are greeted) and تحیة (prayer) and حیوا are all derived from حیی i.e. he lived or he had life; or he was or became in good condition. حیاہ means, he greeted him with a prayer for long and good life; or he prayed for his life; or simply he prayed for him. حیاك الله means, may God prolong thy life or preserve thy life; or may He make thy life free from harm and evil; or may He honour thee and bestow favour on thee; or may He grant thee dominion and kingship. حیاہ بتحیة المؤمن means, he greeted him with the usual greetings of a believer, i.e. said السلام علیکم to him viz. peace be on you. تحیة means greeting or salutation or benediction; endless or everlasting life; freedom and security from all evils; also dominion and kingship (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse, besides being general in its significance, also draws the attention of Muslim to the great boons and blessings that have come to them through the Holy Prophet and tells them that they are now morally bound to return the good they have received, by helping him to the best of their power in the furtherance of the cause he holds so dear. This would be a token of gratitude for the numerous and manifold divine favours received by them through him. The Prophet’s message of life was a greeting on his part, so let the Faithful respond to it in a befitting manner.
The verse also enjoins on Muslims that they should greet and return each other’s greeting in a most becoming manner when they meet. This is a social and moral duty, the neglect of which will render one guilty of it accountable before God, as the concluding words of the verse point out.
The usual formula of greeting prescribed by Islam is السلام علیکم i.e. "peace be on you", to which are often added the words ورحمة الله وبرکاته "and God’s mercy and His blessings." Pious Muslims would often add to the formula some additional prayer in compliance with the injunction, greet ye with a better prayer or at least return it. But the verse is much more general in its significance and extends to all forms of greetings, wishes, prayers, etc.
The words, return it, signify that if one cannot respond with a better greeting, one should at least respond with a similar one. (close)
اَللّٰہُ لَاۤ اِلٰہَ اِلَّا ہُوَ ؕ لَیَجۡمَعَنَّکُمۡ اِلٰی یَوۡمِ الۡقِیٰمَۃِ لَا رَیۡبَ فِیۡہِ ؕ وَ مَنۡ اَصۡدَقُ مِنَ اللّٰہِ حَدِیۡثًا ﴿٪۸۸﴾
ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَۚ لَيَجۡمَعَنَّكُمۡ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ لَا رَيۡبَ فِيهِۗ وَمَنۡ أَصۡدَقُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ حَدِيثٗا
Taking the particle الی (till) in the sense of فی (in or on for which see Lane), the clause لیجمعنکم الی یوم القیامة may also be rendered as, "He will certainly assemble you on the Day of Resurrection" but the more correct rendering is that given in the text, i.e. He will certainly (continue to) assemble you till the Day of Resurrection. The difference in meaning is obvious. People are born and die and will go on doing so till the Last Day. Thus the process of assembling is always going on and will continue till the Day of Resurrection, when God will call all to account. (close)