اِلَّا الَّذِیۡنَ یَصِلُوۡنَ اِلٰی قَوۡمٍۭ بَیۡنَکُمۡ وَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ مِّیۡثَاقٌ اَوۡ جَآءُوۡکُمۡ حَصِرَتۡ صُدُوۡرُہُمۡ اَنۡ یُّقَاتِلُوۡکُمۡ اَوۡ یُقَاتِلُوۡا قَوۡمَہُمۡ ؕ وَ لَوۡ شَآءَ اللّٰہُ لَسَلَّطَہُمۡ عَلَیۡکُمۡ فَلَقٰتَلُوۡکُمۡ ۚ فَاِنِ اعۡتَزَلُوۡکُمۡ فَلَمۡ یُقَاتِلُوۡکُمۡ وَ اَلۡقَوۡا اِلَیۡکُمُ السَّلَمَ ۙ فَمَا جَعَلَ اللّٰہُ لَکُمۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿۹۱﴾
إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ إِلَىٰ قَوۡمِۭ بَيۡنَكُمۡ وَبَيۡنَهُم مِّيثَٰقٌ أَوۡ جَآءُوكُمۡ حَصِرَتۡ صُدُورُهُمۡ أَن يُقَٰتِلُوكُمۡ أَوۡ يُقَٰتِلُواْ قَوۡمَهُمۡۚ وَلَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَسَلَّطَهُمۡ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فَلَقَٰتَلُوكُمۡۚ فَإِنِ ٱعۡتَزَلُوكُمۡ فَلَمۡ يُقَٰتِلُوكُمۡ وَأَلۡقَوۡاْ إِلَيۡكُمُ ٱلسَّلَمَ فَمَا جَعَلَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡ سَبِيلٗا
559. Important Words:
یصلون (are connected) is derived from وصل. They say وصل الشیء بالشیء i.e. he joined or connected this thing with that; he brought the two things together. وصله means, he had close and friendly relations with him. وصل الیه means, he or it arrived at, or came to, or reached him or it. اتصل الی بنی فلان means, he belonged to, or was connected with, that tribe (Aqrab).
سلطھم علیکم (given them power against you). سلط (sallata) is derived from سلط (salata) for which see the succeeding verse. سلط علیه (sallata) means, he made him to overcome him or to prevail over him or to have power or force over him, etc. They also say سلط علیه الکلاب i.e. he set the dogs upon him (Lane).
The preceding verses enjoined the taking of disciplinary action against the Bedouin hypocrites of the countryside around Medina. This verse makes exceptions in the case of: (1) those who went over to, or were connected with, some tribe having an alliance with the Muslims; and (2) those who came over to Medina and had leanings towards Islam, though their attitude was still one of hesitancy and vacillation. In fact, Islam attaches great importance to pacts, express or implied, and would in no case tolerate their breach. Incidentally, the verse also shows that جھاد (jihad) is permitted only against those who first make war upon the Muslims or their allies or from whom an attack is apprehended. (close)
سَتَجِدُوۡنَ اٰخَرِیۡنَ یُرِیۡدُوۡنَ اَنۡ یَّاۡمَنُوۡکُمۡ وَ یَاۡمَنُوۡا قَوۡمَہُمۡ ؕ کُلَّمَا رُدُّوۡۤا اِلَی الۡفِتۡنَۃِ اُرۡکِسُوۡا فِیۡہَا ۚ فَاِنۡ لَّمۡ یَعۡتَزِلُوۡکُمۡ وَ یُلۡقُوۡۤا اِلَیۡکُمُ السَّلَمَ وَ یَکُفُّوۡۤا اَیۡدِیَہُمۡ فَخُذُوۡہُمۡ وَ اقۡتُلُوۡہُمۡ حَیۡثُ ثَقِفۡتُمُوۡہُمۡ ؕ وَ اُولٰٓئِکُمۡ جَعَلۡنَا لَکُمۡ عَلَیۡہِمۡ سُلۡطٰنًا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿٪۹۲﴾
سَتَجِدُونَ ءَاخَرِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَأۡمَنُوكُمۡ وَيَأۡمَنُواْ قَوۡمَهُمۡ كُلَّ مَا رُدُّوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلۡفِتۡنَةِ أُرۡكِسُواْ فِيهَاۚ فَإِن لَّمۡ يَعۡتَزِلُوكُمۡ وَيُلۡقُوٓاْ إِلَيۡكُمُ ٱلسَّلَمَ وَيَكُفُّوٓاْ أَيۡدِيَهُمۡ فَخُذُوهُمۡ وَٱقۡتُلُوهُمۡ حَيۡثُ ثَقِفۡتُمُوهُمۡۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكُمۡ جَعَلۡنَا لَكُمۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡ سُلۡطَٰنٗا مُّبِينٗا
647. The reference seems to be to the two tribes, Asad and Ghatfan who had no treaty of alliance with the Muslims. They played a double game and awaited their opportunity. When invited by their people to join them in fighting against the Muslims, they readily accepted the invitation. The directions contained in these verses come into operation when a virtual state of war exists and danger stalks along the land. (close)
648. By Fitnah is here meant, war with the Muslims. (close)
a. 33:15. (close)
b. 9:5. (close)
a. 33:15. (close)
560. Important Words:
ارکسوا (fall headlong) is in the passive voice and the right translation of it would be, "are made to fall headlong", or "are overthrown" etc. but for the sake of clearness the word has been translated here in the active voice. ارکسوا is formed from رکس. They say رکس الشیء i.e. he turned the thing over or upside down. ارکس الشیء means, he turned the thing to its former state; he turned or threw it over upon its head; he reversed it or turned it back; he made the first part of it to be the last. أرکس الله عدوك means, may God turn thine enemy upon his head; or may He overthrow him or change or reverse his condition (Lane & Aqrab).
الفتنة (hostility) generally meaning, (1) persecution, (2) mischief, (3) discord and dissension, (4) civil war, etc., also means war, i.e. hostility (Lane). See also 2:192.
سلطان (authority) is the noun-infinitive from سلط which means, he or it overcame, prevailed or predominated; he became firm or established in superior power; he possessed power or dominion or sovereignty; he was or became sharp; it was or became hard or strong; he was or became chaste or perspicuous in speech, or eloquent and sharp in tongue. They say قد جعلت لك سلطانا علی اخذ حقی من فلان i.e. I have given you the power or authority to take my dues from such a one. سلطان means, strength, might, force or power; predominance; power or authority; the sovereign or ruling power; king or ruler; sharpness; hardness; proof or argument; evidence; plea (Lane & Aqrab).
The reference in this verse is to those people who had no alliance with Muslims or any tribe having an alliance with them. They were time-servers who awaited their opportunity. The difference between these people and those mentioned in the previous verse is that the latter had some sort of alliance with this or that party though they did not
possess the strength to assert themselves, while the former only sought security by deceitful means and hastened to make common cause with the enemies of Islam whenever invited to do so. Fighting was enjoined against this class of people, unless they entered into a treaty of peace with Muslims and loyally observed its terms. (close)
وَ مَا کَانَ لِمُؤۡمِنٍ اَنۡ یَّقۡتُلَ مُؤۡمِنًا اِلَّا خَطَـًٔا ۚ وَ مَنۡ قَتَلَ مُؤۡمِنًا خَطَـًٔا فَتَحۡرِیۡرُ رَقَبَۃٍ مُّؤۡمِنَۃٍ وَّ دِیَۃٌ مُّسَلَّمَۃٌ اِلٰۤی اَہۡلِہٖۤ اِلَّاۤ اَنۡ یَّصَّدَّقُوۡا ؕ فَاِنۡ کَانَ مِنۡ قَوۡمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَّکُمۡ وَ ہُوَ مُؤۡمِنٌ فَتَحۡرِیۡرُ رَقَبَۃٍ مُّؤۡمِنَۃٍ ؕ وَ اِنۡ کَانَ مِنۡ قَوۡمٍۭ بَیۡنَکُمۡ وَ بَیۡنَہُمۡ مِّیۡثَاقٌ فَدِیَۃٌ مُّسَلَّمَۃٌ اِلٰۤی اَہۡلِہٖ وَ تَحۡرِیۡرُ رَقَبَۃٍ مُّؤۡمِنَۃٍ ۚ فَمَنۡ لَّمۡ یَجِدۡ فَصِیَامُ شَہۡرَیۡنِ مُتَتَابِعَیۡنِ ۫ تَوۡبَۃً مِّنَ اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ عَلِیۡمًا حَکِیۡمًا ﴿۹۳﴾
وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤۡمِنٍ أَن يَقۡتُلَ مُؤۡمِنًا إِلَّا خَطَـٔٗاۚ وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤۡمِنًا خَطَـٔٗا فَتَحۡرِيرُ رَقَبَةٖ مُّؤۡمِنَةٖ وَدِيَةٞ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهِۦٓ إِلَّآ أَن يَصَّدَّقُواْۚ فَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوۡمٍ عَدُوّٖ لَّكُمۡ وَهُوَ مُؤۡمِنٞ فَتَحۡرِيرُ رَقَبَةٖ مُّؤۡمِنَةٖۖ وَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوۡمِۭ بَيۡنَكُمۡ وَبَيۡنَهُم مِّيثَٰقٞ فَدِيَةٞ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهِۦ وَتَحۡرِيرُ رَقَبَةٖ مُّؤۡمِنَةٖۖ فَمَن لَّمۡ يَجِدۡ فَصِيَامُ شَهۡرَيۡنِ مُتَتَابِعَيۡنِ تَوۡبَةٗ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمٗا
649. As when actual or virtual state of war exists there is the likelihood that a Muslim may be killed by another Muslim by mistake, the present verse gives a timely warning to Muslims to be always on their guard against such an eventuality. (close)
650. In case the slain person is a believer but happens to belong to a hostile people, then the offender shall only free a believing slave and no blood-money shall be levied on him, because money paid to a hostile people would go to strengthen their military power against Islam. In the expression, and if he be of a people between whom and you is a pact, the words, and he be a believer, have not been repeated, in order to point out that the law with regard to the Dhimmis (disbelievers under the protection of Muslims), or Mu‘ahids (disbelievers belonging to a people in alliance with Muslims) is the same as for the Muslims. (close)
651. It is worthy of note that disbelievers who are in alliance with Muslims have not only been placed on a par with the latter, but even a distinction has been made in their favour. In case a Muslim is slain, the command relating to the payment of penalty has been placed after the injunction to free a slave; while in case one belonging to a people in alliance with Muslims is slain, the order has been reversed; the injunction to pay the penalty to his heirs having been put before the injunction to free a slave. This has been done to impress upon Muslims the need of showing special regard for treaties and pacts. The payment of penalty was an obligation which Muslims owed to disbelievers with whom they had made a pact, and it is in order to bring home to them the lesson that they should have particular regard for their pacts and treaties, that the injunction to pay the penalty has in their case been placed before the injunction to free a slave. (close)
a. 58:5. (close)
a. 58:5. (close)
As the preceding verses contained injunctions which if misconstrued or misapplied, were likely to lead to a Muslim being killed by a Muslim, the present verse gives a timely warning against such an eventuality.
The words, It does not become a believer to kill a believer, have been used to make a touching appeal to believers to abstain from killing each other, since they are like brothers. It, in no case, behoves a brother to kill a brother. The words thus contain an important injunction which forms a fitting sequence to the one contained in the preceding verses concerning the hypocrites. The verse cautions a Muslim to be always on his guard lest in carelessness he should happen to kill a brother Muslim.
In case the slain person is a believer but happens to belong to a hostile people, then the offender shall only free a believing slave and no blood money shall be levied on him, because money paid to a hostile people would go to strengthen their military power against Islam which can in no case be allowed.
In the expression, and if he be of a people between whom and you is a pact, the words, and he be a believer, have not been repeated, in order to point out that the law with regard to the dhimmis (disbelievers under the protection of Muslims), or Mu‘ahids (disbelievers belonging to a people in alliance with Muslims) is the same as for Muslims.
It is worthy of note here that disbelievers who are in alliance with Muslims have not only been placed on a par with the latter, but even a distinction has been made in favour of the former. In case a Muslim is slain, the command relating to the payment of fine has been placed after the injunction to free a slave; while in case one belonging to a people in alliance with Muslims is slain, the order has been reversed, the injunction to pay the fine to his heirs being put before the injunction to free a slave. This has been done to impress upon Muslims the need of showing special regard for treaties and pacts. The payment of fine was an obligation which Muslims owed to disbelievers with whom they had made a pact, and in order to bring home to Muslims the lesson that they should have particular regard for their pacts and treaties, the injunction to pay the fine has in their case been placed before the injunction to free a slave. (close)
وَ مَنۡ یَّقۡتُلۡ مُؤۡمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَآؤُہٗ جَہَنَّمُ خٰلِدًا فِیۡہَا وَ غَضِبَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہِ وَ لَعَنَہٗ وَ اَعَدَّ لَہٗ عَذَابًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۹۴﴾
وَمَن يَقۡتُلۡ مُؤۡمِنٗا مُّتَعَمِّدٗا فَجَزَآؤُهُۥ جَهَنَّمُ خَٰلِدٗا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِ وَلَعَنَهُۥ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُۥ عَذَابًا عَظِيمٗا
b. 25:69, 70. (close)
a. 25:69-70. (close)
The solidarity of Islam and the tie of brotherhood among believers have been made absolutely inviolable. One who knowingly kills a fellow Muslim is like one who kills a son of his own father under the very eyes of the latter. The father would have nothing to do with such a man. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِذَا ضَرَبۡتُمۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ فَتَبَیَّنُوۡا وَ لَا تَقُوۡلُوۡا لِمَنۡ اَلۡقٰۤی اِلَیۡکُمُ السَّلٰمَ لَسۡتَ مُؤۡمِنًا ۚ تَبۡتَغُوۡنَ عَرَضَ الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا ۫ فَعِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ مَغَانِمُ کَثِیۡرَۃٌ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ کُنۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ قَبۡلُ فَمَنَّ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡکُمۡ فَتَبَیَّنُوۡا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ خَبِیۡرًا ﴿۹۵﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِذَا ضَرَبۡتُمۡ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ فَتَبَيَّنُواْ وَلَا تَقُولُواْ لِمَنۡ أَلۡقَىٰٓ إِلَيۡكُمُ ٱلسَّلَٰمَ لَسۡتَ مُؤۡمِنٗا تَبۡتَغُونَ عَرَضَ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا فَعِندَ ٱللَّهِ مَغَانِمُ كَثِيرَةٞۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كُنتُم مِّن قَبۡلُ فَمَنَّ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فَتَبَيَّنُوٓاْۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرٗا
a. 49:7. (close)
652. When a people offers peace or shows a peaceful attitude towards Muslims, the latter are enjoined to respect that attitude and refrain from hostilities. Moreover, as the Muslim Community at Medina was surrounded by hostile tribes, they were enjoined to presume a person who greeted them with Islamic salutation, to be a Muslim unless proved otherwise by investigation. (close)
653. That is to say, if you hold such a person to be a disbeliever without proper investigation, this would mean that you desire to kill him and take possession of his goods. Such conduct would show that you prefer worldly goods to God’s pleasure. (close)
b. 49:7. (close)
563. Important Words:
السلام (peace) means the Islamic salutation of salam; peace; security; submission, etc. (Aqrab & Lane). See also 2:113, 209; 3:20.
مغانم (good things) is derived from غنم meaning, he got or took spoil, or got a thing as spoil; he acquired or gained a thing without difficulty or inconvenience. غنیمة or مغنم means, spoil, booty or plunder; the acquisition of a thing without difficulty or inconvenience; the thing so acquired; what is obtained from disbelievers in war (Lane & Aqrab).
This verse does not mean that if any person greets a Muslim with the Islamic formula of salutation, he should be regarded as a believer. Many non-Muslims nowadays, and many Jews in the days of the Holy Prophet, greeted Muslims with the prescribed salutation but they cannot be, and indeed never were, regarded as Muslims merely on that ground. What the verse means is that when a people offers peace or shows a peaceful attitude towards Muslims, the latter should respect that attitude and refrain from hostility. The word سلام (peace) may also mean submission or security. Similarly, the word مومن (believer) may also be rendered as giver of security or offerer or afforder of peace.
The word مغانم (good things) does not mean only the spoils of war. It also means the good things of the world. In Bukhari(ch. on Tafsir) we have لحق ناس من المسلمین رجلا معه غنیمة له i.e. "some of the Muslims met a man who had with him some good things belonging to him." As explained under Important Words, any thing acquired without difficulty is also غنیمه.
The words کذالك کنتم (such were you) embody a very strong appeal to both sentiment and reason. The expression signifies that, like disbelievers, Muslims too were disbelievers at first, but God gave them time and opportunity and they were at last able to see the truth. So they should be patient with, and lenient to, others and give them time, so that they too may ponder over the truth and accept it if they choose. (close)
لَا یَسۡتَوِی الۡقٰعِدُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ غَیۡرُ اُولِی الضَّرَرِ وَ الۡمُجٰہِدُوۡنَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ؕ فَضَّلَ اللّٰہُ الۡمُجٰہِدِیۡنَ بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ عَلَی الۡقٰعِدِیۡنَ دَرَجَۃً ؕ وَ کُلًّا وَّعَدَ اللّٰہُ الۡحُسۡنٰی ؕ وَ فَضَّلَ اللّٰہُ الۡمُجٰہِدِیۡنَ عَلَی الۡقٰعِدِیۡنَ اَجۡرًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿ۙ۹۶﴾
لَّا يَسۡتَوِي ٱلۡقَٰعِدُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ غَيۡرُ أُوْلِي ٱلضَّرَرِ وَٱلۡمُجَٰهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ بِأَمۡوَٰلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِهِمۡۚ فَضَّلَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُجَٰهِدِينَ بِأَمۡوَٰلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِهِمۡ عَلَى ٱلۡقَٰعِدِينَ دَرَجَةٗۚ وَكُلّٗا وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰۚ وَفَضَّلَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُجَٰهِدِينَ عَلَى ٱلۡقَٰعِدِينَ أَجۡرًا عَظِيمٗا
b. 9:19, 20; 57:11. (close)
654. The verse speaks of two classes of believers: (1) Those who sincerely accept Islam and then try to live up to its teachings but take no part in the struggle to defend and propagate the Faith. These are, as it were, passive believers—"sitters" as the verse calls them. (2) Those who not only live up to the teachings of Islam but also vigorously participate in the work of its propagation. These are active believers—the "strivers" or Mujahids as they are called. There is, however, a third class of believers who, even though they do not join their brethren in actually fighting disbelievers get an equal reward with those who take part in the actual struggle. They are heart and soul with the Muslims who are Mujahids, wherever the latter go to fight in the cause of God; but their particular circumstances––disease, poverty, etc., do not allow them to join the expeditions in person. (close)
a. 9:19-20; 57:11. (close)
The verse speaks of the different classes of believers only and not of hypocrites. Believers are of two classes: (1) Those who sincerely accept the truth and try to live up to the teachings of Islam but take no part in the struggle to defend and propagate the faith. These are, as it were, passive believers—"sitters" as the verse names them. (2) Those who not only live up to the teachings of Islam but also vigorously participate in the work of its propagation. These are active believers, the "strivers" or mujahids as they are called. The latter are far superior to the former in the sight of God. There is, however, a class of believers who, even though they do not join their brethren in actually fighting disbelievers, get an equal reward with those who take part in the actual struggle. These are referred to in the words "excepting the disabled ones". Their inability to take part in actual fighting is due to circumstances over which they have no control. They are heart and soul with the Muslims who are mujahid, wherever the latter go to fight in the cause of God; but their particular circumstances—disease, poverty, etc.—do not allow them to join the expeditions in person. Of these the Holy Prophet once told his Companions in one of his expeditions that there were men in Medina who were with them in every march they made and in every valley they traversed and who were getting the same reward. The Companions asked the Holy Prophet in surprise how that could be possible and who were those fortunate ones. "They are those of your brethren", replied the Holy Prophet, "who were eager to join us but were prevented from doing so by circumstances beyond their control." These are the ones in whose case the verse makes an exception in the words, excepting the disabled ones. But the actual "sitters", though entitled to good reward if true and sincere in their faith, were in no case on a par with the "strivers", neither in rank nor in reward. (close)
دَرَجٰتٍ مِّنۡہُ وَ مَغۡفِرَۃً وَّ رَحۡمَۃً ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿٪۹۷﴾
دَرَجَٰتٖ مِّنۡهُ وَمَغۡفِرَةٗ وَرَحۡمَةٗۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمًا
This verse further explains and emphasizes the distinction between the "sitters" at home without valid excuse and the "strivers" in the cause of God. The latter are not only superior to the former by "many degrees", but are much more entitled to God’s mercy and forgiveness. (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ تَوَفّٰہُمُ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ ظَالِمِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ قَالُوۡا فِیۡمَ کُنۡتُمۡ ؕ قَالُوۡا کُنَّا مُسۡتَضۡعَفِیۡنَ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ قَالُوۡۤا اَلَمۡ تَکُنۡ اَرۡضُ اللّٰہِ وَاسِعَۃً فَتُہَاجِرُوۡا فِیۡہَا ؕ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ مَاۡوٰٮہُمۡ جَہَنَّمُ ؕ وَ سَآءَتۡ مَصِیۡرًا ﴿ۙ۹۸﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ تَوَفَّىٰهُمُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ ظَالِمِيٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ قَالُواْ فِيمَ كُنتُمۡۖ قَالُواْ كُنَّا مُسۡتَضۡعَفِينَ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ قَالُوٓاْ أَلَمۡ تَكُنۡ أَرۡضُ ٱللَّهِ وَٰسِعَةٗ فَتُهَاجِرُواْ فِيهَاۚ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ مَأۡوَىٰهُمۡ جَهَنَّمُۖ وَسَآءَتۡ مَصِيرًا
a. 16:29. (close)
655. Islam would not be satisfied with a weak or passive belief. If the environments of a believer are not congenial to the Faith he must shift to a more congenial place and if he does not do so he will not be regarded as sincere in his Faith. (close)
The words فتھاجروا (for you to migrate) show that the people referred to here were not so weak as not to be able to migrate from their homes. They were thus not truly "disabled ones" as mentioned in 4:96 above. The present verse, therefore, strongly condemns them. Islam would not be satisfied with a weak or passive belief, for it is neither good for the believer nor for the community. If the environment of a believer is not suitable for him, he should shift to a different environment more congenial to his faith; and if he does not do so, he is not sincere in his faith. (close)
اِلَّا الۡمُسۡتَضۡعَفِیۡنَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَ النِّسَآءِ وَ الۡوِلۡدَانِ لَا یَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡنَ حِیۡلَۃً وَّ لَا یَہۡتَدُوۡنَ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿ۙ۹۹﴾
إِلَّا ٱلۡمُسۡتَضۡعَفِينَ مِنَ ٱلرِّجَالِ وَٱلنِّسَآءِ وَٱلۡوِلۡدَٰنِ لَا يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ حِيلَةٗ وَلَا يَهۡتَدُونَ سَبِيلٗا
a. 4:76. (close)
656. Those believers, who are unable to emigrate, are excepted from the class mentioned in the preceding verse. (close)
a. 4:76. (close)
567. Important Words:
حیلة (plan) is derived from حال i.e. it became changed or altered; it revolved and passed; it became complete, etc. حیلةmeans, mode or manner of changing from one state to another; a mode or means of evading a thing; a mode or means of attaining an object; a contrivance, device, artifice or plan (Lane).
There may be cases in which a person is really unable to migrate. For such this verse provides an exception to the class mentioned in the preceding one; for God is just and never overlooks extenuating circumstances.
The verse also shows that the word یھتدون (here translated as "finding any way" but generally rendered as "being rightly guided") is sometimes used in the sense of being saved, whether from the hardships of this world or from those of the next. (close)
فَاُولٰٓئِکَ عَسَی اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یَّعۡفُوَ عَنۡہُمۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ عَفُوًّا غَفُوۡرًا ﴿۱۰۰﴾
فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ عَسَى ٱللَّهُ أَن يَعۡفُوَ عَنۡهُمۡۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَفُوًّا غَفُورٗا
657. The particle ‘asa does not indicate doubt on the part of God but is used to keep the believers referred to here in a state of suspense—between hope and fear—so that they may not become lax in Prayer and good deeds. The expression is designed to hold out hope without creating a false sense of security or a state of complacency. (close)
568. Important Words:
عفوا (Effacer of sins) is derived from عفا meaning, it was or became effaced, erased or obliterated; it perished or came to naught or came to an end. They say عفت الریح الدار i.e. the wind effaced the traces of the house. سلوا الله العافیة means, ask ye of God the effacement of your sins or pray for forgiveness. The word عفا also means, it was or became much in quantity or many in number. An Arab would say اعفیت شعر البعیر i.e. I left the hair of the camel to become abundant and long. عفوا which is one of the attributes of God, means, One Who forgives much; the Very Forgiving; the Effacer of sins (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:110, 188, 220, 238; 3:135.
The words, Allah will efface their sins, mean not only that Allah will forgive them their weaknesses but that He will also put an end to their hardships by giving victory to Muslims and making them masters of those places where the weak among them were being oppressed and tormented by cruel disbelievers.
The expression عسی (maybe) does not indicate doubt on the part of God but is used to keep the believers, referred to here, in a state of suspense—between hope and fear—so that they may not become lax in prayer and good deeds. The expression is designed to hold out hope without creating a sense of security or a state of complete complacency. (close)