وَ مَنۡ یَّقۡتُلۡ مُؤۡمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَآؤُہٗ جَہَنَّمُ خٰلِدًا فِیۡہَا وَ غَضِبَ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡہِ وَ لَعَنَہٗ وَ اَعَدَّ لَہٗ عَذَابًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۹۴﴾
وَمَن يَقۡتُلۡ مُؤۡمِنٗا مُّتَعَمِّدٗا فَجَزَآؤُهُۥ جَهَنَّمُ خَٰلِدٗا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِ وَلَعَنَهُۥ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُۥ عَذَابًا عَظِيمٗا
b. 25:69, 70. (close)
a. 25:69-70. (close)
The solidarity of Islam and the tie of brotherhood among believers have been made absolutely inviolable. One who knowingly kills a fellow Muslim is like one who kills a son of his own father under the very eyes of the latter. The father would have nothing to do with such a man. (close)
یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِذَا ضَرَبۡتُمۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ فَتَبَیَّنُوۡا وَ لَا تَقُوۡلُوۡا لِمَنۡ اَلۡقٰۤی اِلَیۡکُمُ السَّلٰمَ لَسۡتَ مُؤۡمِنًا ۚ تَبۡتَغُوۡنَ عَرَضَ الۡحَیٰوۃِ الدُّنۡیَا ۫ فَعِنۡدَ اللّٰہِ مَغَانِمُ کَثِیۡرَۃٌ ؕ کَذٰلِکَ کُنۡتُمۡ مِّنۡ قَبۡلُ فَمَنَّ اللّٰہُ عَلَیۡکُمۡ فَتَبَیَّنُوۡا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ کَانَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ خَبِیۡرًا ﴿۹۵﴾
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِذَا ضَرَبۡتُمۡ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ فَتَبَيَّنُواْ وَلَا تَقُولُواْ لِمَنۡ أَلۡقَىٰٓ إِلَيۡكُمُ ٱلسَّلَٰمَ لَسۡتَ مُؤۡمِنٗا تَبۡتَغُونَ عَرَضَ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا فَعِندَ ٱللَّهِ مَغَانِمُ كَثِيرَةٞۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كُنتُم مِّن قَبۡلُ فَمَنَّ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فَتَبَيَّنُوٓاْۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرٗا
a. 49:7. (close)
652. When a people offers peace or shows a peaceful attitude towards Muslims, the latter are enjoined to respect that attitude and refrain from hostilities. Moreover, as the Muslim Community at Medina was surrounded by hostile tribes, they were enjoined to presume a person who greeted them with Islamic salutation, to be a Muslim unless proved otherwise by investigation. (close)
653. That is to say, if you hold such a person to be a disbeliever without proper investigation, this would mean that you desire to kill him and take possession of his goods. Such conduct would show that you prefer worldly goods to God’s pleasure. (close)
b. 49:7. (close)
563. Important Words:
السلام (peace) means the Islamic salutation of salam; peace; security; submission, etc. (Aqrab & Lane). See also 2:113, 209; 3:20.
مغانم (good things) is derived from غنم meaning, he got or took spoil, or got a thing as spoil; he acquired or gained a thing without difficulty or inconvenience. غنیمة or مغنم means, spoil, booty or plunder; the acquisition of a thing without difficulty or inconvenience; the thing so acquired; what is obtained from disbelievers in war (Lane & Aqrab).
This verse does not mean that if any person greets a Muslim with the Islamic formula of salutation, he should be regarded as a believer. Many non-Muslims nowadays, and many Jews in the days of the Holy Prophet, greeted Muslims with the prescribed salutation but they cannot be, and indeed never were, regarded as Muslims merely on that ground. What the verse means is that when a people offers peace or shows a peaceful attitude towards Muslims, the latter should respect that attitude and refrain from hostility. The word سلام (peace) may also mean submission or security. Similarly, the word مومن (believer) may also be rendered as giver of security or offerer or afforder of peace.
The word مغانم (good things) does not mean only the spoils of war. It also means the good things of the world. In Bukhari(ch. on Tafsir) we have لحق ناس من المسلمین رجلا معه غنیمة له i.e. "some of the Muslims met a man who had with him some good things belonging to him." As explained under Important Words, any thing acquired without difficulty is also غنیمه.
The words کذالك کنتم (such were you) embody a very strong appeal to both sentiment and reason. The expression signifies that, like disbelievers, Muslims too were disbelievers at first, but God gave them time and opportunity and they were at last able to see the truth. So they should be patient with, and lenient to, others and give them time, so that they too may ponder over the truth and accept it if they choose. (close)
لَا یَسۡتَوِی الۡقٰعِدُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُؤۡمِنِیۡنَ غَیۡرُ اُولِی الضَّرَرِ وَ الۡمُجٰہِدُوۡنَ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ ؕ فَضَّلَ اللّٰہُ الۡمُجٰہِدِیۡنَ بِاَمۡوَالِہِمۡ وَ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ عَلَی الۡقٰعِدِیۡنَ دَرَجَۃً ؕ وَ کُلًّا وَّعَدَ اللّٰہُ الۡحُسۡنٰی ؕ وَ فَضَّلَ اللّٰہُ الۡمُجٰہِدِیۡنَ عَلَی الۡقٰعِدِیۡنَ اَجۡرًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿ۙ۹۶﴾
لَّا يَسۡتَوِي ٱلۡقَٰعِدُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ غَيۡرُ أُوْلِي ٱلضَّرَرِ وَٱلۡمُجَٰهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ بِأَمۡوَٰلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِهِمۡۚ فَضَّلَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُجَٰهِدِينَ بِأَمۡوَٰلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِهِمۡ عَلَى ٱلۡقَٰعِدِينَ دَرَجَةٗۚ وَكُلّٗا وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰۚ وَفَضَّلَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُجَٰهِدِينَ عَلَى ٱلۡقَٰعِدِينَ أَجۡرًا عَظِيمٗا
b. 9:19, 20; 57:11. (close)
654. The verse speaks of two classes of believers: (1) Those who sincerely accept Islam and then try to live up to its teachings but take no part in the struggle to defend and propagate the Faith. These are, as it were, passive believers—"sitters" as the verse calls them. (2) Those who not only live up to the teachings of Islam but also vigorously participate in the work of its propagation. These are active believers—the "strivers" or Mujahids as they are called. There is, however, a third class of believers who, even though they do not join their brethren in actually fighting disbelievers get an equal reward with those who take part in the actual struggle. They are heart and soul with the Muslims who are Mujahids, wherever the latter go to fight in the cause of God; but their particular circumstances––disease, poverty, etc., do not allow them to join the expeditions in person. (close)
a. 9:19-20; 57:11. (close)
The verse speaks of the different classes of believers only and not of hypocrites. Believers are of two classes: (1) Those who sincerely accept the truth and try to live up to the teachings of Islam but take no part in the struggle to defend and propagate the faith. These are, as it were, passive believers—"sitters" as the verse names them. (2) Those who not only live up to the teachings of Islam but also vigorously participate in the work of its propagation. These are active believers, the "strivers" or mujahids as they are called. The latter are far superior to the former in the sight of God. There is, however, a class of believers who, even though they do not join their brethren in actually fighting disbelievers, get an equal reward with those who take part in the actual struggle. These are referred to in the words "excepting the disabled ones". Their inability to take part in actual fighting is due to circumstances over which they have no control. They are heart and soul with the Muslims who are mujahid, wherever the latter go to fight in the cause of God; but their particular circumstances—disease, poverty, etc.—do not allow them to join the expeditions in person. Of these the Holy Prophet once told his Companions in one of his expeditions that there were men in Medina who were with them in every march they made and in every valley they traversed and who were getting the same reward. The Companions asked the Holy Prophet in surprise how that could be possible and who were those fortunate ones. "They are those of your brethren", replied the Holy Prophet, "who were eager to join us but were prevented from doing so by circumstances beyond their control." These are the ones in whose case the verse makes an exception in the words, excepting the disabled ones. But the actual "sitters", though entitled to good reward if true and sincere in their faith, were in no case on a par with the "strivers", neither in rank nor in reward. (close)
دَرَجٰتٍ مِّنۡہُ وَ مَغۡفِرَۃً وَّ رَحۡمَۃً ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿٪۹۷﴾
دَرَجَٰتٖ مِّنۡهُ وَمَغۡفِرَةٗ وَرَحۡمَةٗۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمًا
This verse further explains and emphasizes the distinction between the "sitters" at home without valid excuse and the "strivers" in the cause of God. The latter are not only superior to the former by "many degrees", but are much more entitled to God’s mercy and forgiveness. (close)
اِنَّ الَّذِیۡنَ تَوَفّٰہُمُ الۡمَلٰٓئِکَۃُ ظَالِمِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِہِمۡ قَالُوۡا فِیۡمَ کُنۡتُمۡ ؕ قَالُوۡا کُنَّا مُسۡتَضۡعَفِیۡنَ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ ؕ قَالُوۡۤا اَلَمۡ تَکُنۡ اَرۡضُ اللّٰہِ وَاسِعَۃً فَتُہَاجِرُوۡا فِیۡہَا ؕ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ مَاۡوٰٮہُمۡ جَہَنَّمُ ؕ وَ سَآءَتۡ مَصِیۡرًا ﴿ۙ۹۸﴾
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ تَوَفَّىٰهُمُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ ظَالِمِيٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ قَالُواْ فِيمَ كُنتُمۡۖ قَالُواْ كُنَّا مُسۡتَضۡعَفِينَ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ قَالُوٓاْ أَلَمۡ تَكُنۡ أَرۡضُ ٱللَّهِ وَٰسِعَةٗ فَتُهَاجِرُواْ فِيهَاۚ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ مَأۡوَىٰهُمۡ جَهَنَّمُۖ وَسَآءَتۡ مَصِيرًا
a. 16:29. (close)
655. Islam would not be satisfied with a weak or passive belief. If the environments of a believer are not congenial to the Faith he must shift to a more congenial place and if he does not do so he will not be regarded as sincere in his Faith. (close)
The words فتھاجروا (for you to migrate) show that the people referred to here were not so weak as not to be able to migrate from their homes. They were thus not truly "disabled ones" as mentioned in 4:96 above. The present verse, therefore, strongly condemns them. Islam would not be satisfied with a weak or passive belief, for it is neither good for the believer nor for the community. If the environment of a believer is not suitable for him, he should shift to a different environment more congenial to his faith; and if he does not do so, he is not sincere in his faith. (close)
اِلَّا الۡمُسۡتَضۡعَفِیۡنَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَ النِّسَآءِ وَ الۡوِلۡدَانِ لَا یَسۡتَطِیۡعُوۡنَ حِیۡلَۃً وَّ لَا یَہۡتَدُوۡنَ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿ۙ۹۹﴾
إِلَّا ٱلۡمُسۡتَضۡعَفِينَ مِنَ ٱلرِّجَالِ وَٱلنِّسَآءِ وَٱلۡوِلۡدَٰنِ لَا يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ حِيلَةٗ وَلَا يَهۡتَدُونَ سَبِيلٗا
a. 4:76. (close)
656. Those believers, who are unable to emigrate, are excepted from the class mentioned in the preceding verse. (close)
a. 4:76. (close)
567. Important Words:
حیلة (plan) is derived from حال i.e. it became changed or altered; it revolved and passed; it became complete, etc. حیلةmeans, mode or manner of changing from one state to another; a mode or means of evading a thing; a mode or means of attaining an object; a contrivance, device, artifice or plan (Lane).
There may be cases in which a person is really unable to migrate. For such this verse provides an exception to the class mentioned in the preceding one; for God is just and never overlooks extenuating circumstances.
The verse also shows that the word یھتدون (here translated as "finding any way" but generally rendered as "being rightly guided") is sometimes used in the sense of being saved, whether from the hardships of this world or from those of the next. (close)
فَاُولٰٓئِکَ عَسَی اللّٰہُ اَنۡ یَّعۡفُوَ عَنۡہُمۡ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ عَفُوًّا غَفُوۡرًا ﴿۱۰۰﴾
فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ عَسَى ٱللَّهُ أَن يَعۡفُوَ عَنۡهُمۡۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَفُوًّا غَفُورٗا
657. The particle ‘asa does not indicate doubt on the part of God but is used to keep the believers referred to here in a state of suspense—between hope and fear—so that they may not become lax in Prayer and good deeds. The expression is designed to hold out hope without creating a false sense of security or a state of complacency. (close)
568. Important Words:
عفوا (Effacer of sins) is derived from عفا meaning, it was or became effaced, erased or obliterated; it perished or came to naught or came to an end. They say عفت الریح الدار i.e. the wind effaced the traces of the house. سلوا الله العافیة means, ask ye of God the effacement of your sins or pray for forgiveness. The word عفا also means, it was or became much in quantity or many in number. An Arab would say اعفیت شعر البعیر i.e. I left the hair of the camel to become abundant and long. عفوا which is one of the attributes of God, means, One Who forgives much; the Very Forgiving; the Effacer of sins (Lane & Aqrab). See also 2:110, 188, 220, 238; 3:135.
The words, Allah will efface their sins, mean not only that Allah will forgive them their weaknesses but that He will also put an end to their hardships by giving victory to Muslims and making them masters of those places where the weak among them were being oppressed and tormented by cruel disbelievers.
The expression عسی (maybe) does not indicate doubt on the part of God but is used to keep the believers, referred to here, in a state of suspense—between hope and fear—so that they may not become lax in prayer and good deeds. The expression is designed to hold out hope without creating a sense of security or a state of complete complacency. (close)
وَ مَنۡ یُّہَاجِرۡ فِیۡ سَبِیۡلِ اللّٰہِ یَجِدۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ مُرٰغَمًا کَثِیۡرًا وَّ سَعَۃً ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّخۡرُجۡ مِنۡۢ بَیۡتِہٖ مُہَاجِرًا اِلَی اللّٰہِ وَ رَسُوۡلِہٖ ثُمَّ یُدۡرِکۡہُ الۡمَوۡتُ فَقَدۡ وَقَعَ اَجۡرُہٗ عَلَی اللّٰہِ ؕ وَ کَانَ اللّٰہُ غَفُوۡرًا رَّحِیۡمًا ﴿۱۰۱﴾٪
۞وَمَن يُهَاجِرۡ فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ يَجِدۡ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مُرَٰغَمٗا كَثِيرٗا وَسَعَةٗۚ وَمَن يَخۡرُجۡ مِنۢ بَيۡتِهِۦ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ ثُمَّ يُدۡرِكۡهُ ٱلۡمَوۡتُ فَقَدۡ وَقَعَ أَجۡرُهُۥ عَلَى ٱللَّهِۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمٗا
658. Islam accepts no excuse from believers to stay in environments hostile to their Faith if they can afford to leave such localities. (close)
569. Important Words:
مراغما (place of refuge) is derived from رغم. They say رغم أنفه meaning his nose clove to the dust, i.e. he became abased and humbled. رغمه means, he disliked it. ارغم اھله or راغم اھله means, he forsook or deserted his family against their wish. رغامmeans, earth or dust. مرغم or مراغم means, a road by travelling on which a man separates himself from his people against their wish or so as to displease them; a place to which one migrates; a place of refuge; a safe and fortified place (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse promises those sincere believers who are forced by circumstances to migrate from their homes in the cause of God abundant place of refuge and plentifulness. There is, therefore, no excuse for the people to stay at home surrounded by hostile disbelievers. But the motive must be good and the migration sincere.
The Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "Whoso migrates from his home for the sake of God and His Messenger, his migration will be regarded as having been performed for the sake of God and His Messenger and will be rewarded as such. But whoso leaves his home for the sake of a worldly gain which he wishes to get or for a woman whom he wishes to marry, will be considered to have migrated for the sake of the object for which he migrated, and his migration will not be considered as having been performed in the cause of God" (Bukhari, ch. on Bad’ul Wahy). (close)
وَ اِذَا ضَرَبۡتُمۡ فِی الۡاَرۡضِ فَلَیۡسَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ جُنَاحٌ اَنۡ تَقۡصُرُوۡا مِنَ الصَّلٰوۃِ ٭ۖ اِنۡ خِفۡتُمۡ اَنۡ یَّفۡتِنَکُمُ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا ؕ اِنَّ الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ کَانُوۡا لَکُمۡ عَدُوًّا مُّبِیۡنًا ﴿۱۰۲﴾
وَإِذَا ضَرَبۡتُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَلَيۡسَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقۡصُرُواْ مِنَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ إِنۡ خِفۡتُمۡ أَن يَفۡتِنَكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْۚ إِنَّ ٱلۡكَٰفِرِينَ كَانُواْ لَكُمۡ عَدُوّٗا مُّبِينٗا
b. 2:240. (close)
659. The subject of Prayers in time of fear has been dealt with in the Qur’an in three separate verses, viz. (1) in 2:240 which deals with Prayers performed in time of extreme fear when no formal Prayer is possible; (2) in the present verse which deals with Prayers performed individually in time of ordinary fear; and (3) in the following verse which deals with Prayers performed in congregation in time of fear. The "shortening of Prayer" as mentioned in the present verse, which relates to the saying of Prayers individually, does not here signify the lessening of the number of Rak‘ats which has from the very beginning been fixed at two in a state of journey. It only signifies the saying of the prescribed Prayers quickly when there is danger of an attack from the enemy. The number of Rak‘ats to be said when a man is on a journey has ever been two; but in time of danger when one has to say one’s Prayers individually, even these two Rak‘ats may be gone through quickly (Kathir). This view is endorsed by Mujahid, Dahhak, and Bukhari (ch. on Salatul-Khauf). ‘A’ishah is reported to have said, 'At first the number of Rak‘ats enjoined was two, whether one was on a journey or at home. Later on, however, it was increased to four for those staying at home, but for those on journey it continued to be the same as before' (Bukhari, ch. on Salat). ‘Umar said, 'The Prayer to be said on a journey is two Rak‘ats; the Prayer of the two ‘Ids is also two Rak‘ats each; the Friday Prayer is also two Rak‘ats; this is the full number of Rak‘ats without having undergone any curtailment. We learnt this from the very lips of the Holy Prophet' (Musnad, Nasa’i, & Majah). Khalid bin Sa‘id once asked Ibn-e-‘Umar where was Prayer for the wayfarer mentioned in the Qur’an which prescribes only the Prayer in time of fear. To this Ibn-e-‘Umar replied that they did what they saw the Holy Prophet doing, i.e. saying two Rak‘ats of Prayer while on a journey (Jarir, v. 144; Nasa’i ch. on Salat). (close)
a. 2:240. (close)
The subject how Prayers are to be performed when one is on a journey or when there is fear of an attack from the enemy has been incidentally introduced here in connection with the subject of migration dealt with in the previous verses. At the conclusion of this subject, which has been incidentally brought in, the Quran will again refer to the main theme dealing with hypocrites and the weak of faith.
The subject of Prayers in time of fear has been dealt with in the Quran in three separate verses viz. (1) in 2:240 which deals with Prayers performed in times of extreme fear when no formal prayer is possible; (2) in 4:102, i.e. the present verse which deals with Prayers performed individually in times of ordinary fear; and (3) in 4:103, i.e. the following verse which deals with Prayers performed in congregation.
The "shortening of Prayer" as mentioned in the present verse, which relates to the saying of Prayers individually, does not here signify the lessening of the number of Rak‘ats which has from the very beginning been fixed at two in a state of journey. It signifies the saying of the prescribed Prayers quickly and hurriedly when there is danger of an attack from the enemy. Ordinarily, a Muslim is enjoined to say his Prayers slowly and attentively, but he may say them quickly and hurriedly when an attack from the enemy is apprehended. The number of Rak‘ats to be said when a man is on a journey has ever been two, in the case of those Prayers which are ordinarily performed in four Rak‘ats; but in time of danger when one has to say one’s Prayers individually, even these two Rak‘ats may be gone through quickly. This is what is meant by the "shortening of Prayer" in the verse under comment. Ibn Kathir says: "Some of the learned theologians hold that by the "shortening of Prayer" here is meant not the shortening of the quantity, i.e. the number of Rak‘ats, but of the quality, i.e. time passed in Prayer, which, in other words, means saying the Prayers quickly without lessening the number of Rak‘ats or reducing the additional prayers which one ordinarily offers in the prescribed Prayers in one’s own words." This view is endorsed by Mujahid, Dahhak, and other authorities; and Imam Muhammad bin Isma‘il also expresses the same view, for in Bukhari he couples this verse with the next one, which deals with the subject of congregational Prayers in time of fear, under the common heading of Salatul-Khauf, (i.e. Prayers in time of fear).
The above view is further supported by the following traditions: ‘A’ishah is reported to have said, "At first the number of Rak‘ats enjoined was two, whether one was on a journey or at home. Later on, however, the number was increased to four for those staying at home, but the number of Rak‘ats said on a journey continued to be the same as before" (Bukhari, ch. on Salat). Again ‘Umar says, "The Prayer to be said on a journey is two Rak‘ats; the Prayer of the two ‘Ids is also two Rak‘ats each; similarly, the Friday Prayer is two Rak‘ats; this is the full number of Rak‘ats without having undergone any curtailment. We learnt this from the very lips of the Holy Prophet" (Musnad, Nasa’i, & Majah).
The number of Rak‘ats whether the Prayer is performed in a state of fear or when one is on a journey is not expressly dealt with in the Quran. It is found detailed in Sunnah or Hadith, which confine the number of Rak‘ats to two in the case of those Prayers which ordinarily have four Rak‘ats. For instance, there is a saying to the effect that Khalid bin Sa‘id once asked Ibn ‘Umar where was صلوة المسافر (Prayer of the wayfarer) mentioned in the Quran, which prescribes only the صلوة الخوف (Prayer in time of fear). To this Ibn ‘Umar replied that in this respect they did what they saw the Holy Prophet doing, i.e. saying two Rak‘ats of Prayer while on a journey (Jarir, v. 144, also see Nasa’i, ch. on Salat). (close)
وَ اِذَا کُنۡتَ فِیۡہِمۡ فَاَقَمۡتَ لَہُمُ الصَّلٰوۃَ فَلۡتَقُمۡ طَآئِفَۃٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ مَّعَکَ وَ لۡیَاۡخُذُوۡۤا اَسۡلِحَتَہُمۡ ۟ فَاِذَا سَجَدُوۡا فَلۡیَکُوۡنُوۡا مِنۡ وَّرَآئِکُمۡ ۪ وَ لۡتَاۡتِ طَآئِفَۃٌ اُخۡرٰی لَمۡ یُصَلُّوۡا فَلۡیُصَلُّوۡا مَعَکَ وَ لۡیَاۡخُذُوۡا حِذۡرَہُمۡ وَ اَسۡلِحَتَہُمۡ ۚ وَدَّ الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا لَوۡ تَغۡفُلُوۡنَ عَنۡ اَسۡلِحَتِکُمۡ وَ اَمۡتِعَتِکُمۡ فَیَمِیۡلُوۡنَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ مَّیۡلَۃً وَّاحِدَۃً ؕ وَ لَا جُنَاحَ عَلَیۡکُمۡ اِنۡ کَانَ بِکُمۡ اَذًی مِّنۡ مَّطَرٍ اَوۡ کُنۡتُمۡ مَّرۡضٰۤی اَنۡ تَضَعُوۡۤا اَسۡلِحَتَکُمۡ ۚ وَ خُذُوۡا حِذۡرَکُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ اَعَدَّ لِلۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ عَذَابًا مُّہِیۡنًا ﴿۱۰۳﴾
وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمۡ فَأَقَمۡتَ لَهُمُ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ فَلۡتَقُمۡ طَآئِفَةٞ مِّنۡهُم مَّعَكَ وَلۡيَأۡخُذُوٓاْ أَسۡلِحَتَهُمۡۖ فَإِذَا سَجَدُواْ فَلۡيَكُونُواْ مِن وَرَآئِكُمۡ وَلۡتَأۡتِ طَآئِفَةٌ أُخۡرَىٰ لَمۡ يُصَلُّواْ فَلۡيُصَلُّواْ مَعَكَ وَلۡيَأۡخُذُواْ حِذۡرَهُمۡ وَأَسۡلِحَتَهُمۡۗ وَدَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَوۡ تَغۡفُلُونَ عَنۡ أَسۡلِحَتِكُمۡ وَأَمۡتِعَتِكُمۡ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيۡكُم مَّيۡلَةٗ وَٰحِدَةٗۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ إِن كَانَ بِكُمۡ أَذٗى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوۡ كُنتُم مَّرۡضَىٰٓ أَن تَضَعُوٓاْ أَسۡلِحَتَكُمۡۖ وَخُذُواْ حِذۡرَكُمۡۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلۡكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٗا مُّهِينٗا
660. Whereas the preceding verse spoke of Prayer in time of fear in the case of individuals, the present one gives the details of the manner of its performance when the Faithful are in the form of a company or group and the Prayer is to be performed in congregation. As many as eleven different forms in which the Prayer was said on different occasions are described in the Hadith (Muhit). (close)
661. The verse observes a difference between Aslihah (arms) and Hidhr (precautions). Whereas the former may be put aside in moments of comparative security, the latter should never be neglected. See also 4:72. (close)
Whereas the preceding verse spoke of the Prayer in time of fear in the case of individuals, the present one gives the details of the manner of its performance when the Faithful are in the form of a company or group and the Prayer is to be performed in congregation. Apparently the Holy Prophet alone seems to have been addressed here, but really the verse possesses general application. When a Muslim army is about to say their Prayer in congregation, half of them should say the Prayer with the Imam, carrying their arms, and the other half should stand facing the enemy, to fight him or repulse his attack, as the case may be. When the first half have finished one Rak‘at, they should retire to take the place of those who are facing the enemy. The latter should then come forward and say one Rak‘at with the Imam.
As many as eleven different ways in which these Prayers were said on different occasions are described in the Hadith(for details see Al-Bahrul-Muhit). In some cases, each of the two parties said only one Rak‘at of Prayer, while the Imam said two. In other cases, each of the parties said two Rak‘at, one Rak‘at with the Imam and the other alone, thus all saying two Rak‘at. On yet other occasions each of the two parties said two rak‘at of Prayer with the Imam, the Imam himself having said four Rak‘at—two Rak‘at with each party. These different methods were observed in different circumstances. If the danger was great, each of the parties said only one Rak‘at of Prayer with the Imam while the Imam himself said two; but if the danger was not so great, each party said two Rak‘ats while the Imam said four. Again, methods varied with the varying position of the army. If the enemy, for instance, was in front of the Imam, the congregation followed a method different from that which they followed on other occasions.
To sum up, whereas Prayer in a state of simple journey consists of two Rak‘ats in such Prayers as ordinarily consist of four Rak‘ats, the Prayer in time of fear may assume different forms, the more important being:
(a) Splitting up the worshippers into two parties, each party either saying one part of its Prayer with the Imam and then retiring, or saying one part of its Prayer with the Imam and the other part separately, the number of Rak‘ats performed by the worshippers being either one or two as the case may be (the present verse);
(b) Shortening the duration of Prayers only (the preceding verse);
(c) Doing away with all form and repeating the words of Prayer while walking, running or riding (2:240).
The verse observes a difference between: اسلحة (arms) and حذر (means of defence or simply precautions). Whereas the former may be put aside in moments of comparative security, the latter should always be adhered to and never neglected. See also 4:72. (close)