Introduction of Qaf
(Revealed before Hijrah)
This Surah is of Meccan origin. All competent authorities assign its revelation to the early Meccan period. Its tenor and contents support this view.
The Surah is the first of a group of seven chapters which end with Surah Al-Waqi‘ah. Like all Meccan Surahs, it lays special stress, in emphatic and prophetic language, on the Quran being the revealed Word of God, on Resurrection being an undoubted reality, and particularly on the ultimate triumph of the cause of Islam. The Surahpoints to the phenomena of nature and to the histories of the past Prophets as guides leading to this inevitable conclusion. The Surah takes its title from its initial abbreviated letter ق (Qaf).
The preceding two Surahs had dealt with the prospects of a great and glorious future for Islam, and also with the social and political problems that arise when power and wealth come to a people. The present Surah having the abbreviated letter ق (Qaf) in its beginning, points to the fact that the Almighty God has the power to make the weak and disorganized Arabs into a powerful nation, and that He will certainly bring about this consummation, using the Quran as the means and instrument for achieving that purpose.
The Surah opens with the abbreviated letter Qaf (ق) which is the last of the مقطعات (abbreviated letters) used in the Quran. It represents the Divine attribute قادر or قدیر (Qadir or Qadir) meaning, the Mighty, the Powerful, and at once starts to deal with the all-important subject of Resurrection; and in order to prove the truth of this primal fact uses as an argument the phenomenon that a people, who for long centuries were spiritually dead and defunct, received a new and vigorous life through the Quran. The Surah proceeds to say that the Holy Prophet’s enemies cannot bring themselves to accept the fact of a Warner appearing from among them to tell them that they will be raised to life after "they are dead and have become dust." They are told to study the wonderful creation of the celestial firmament with the beautiful stars and planets which adorn it and which work with a regularity and punctuality that knows no deviation. They are further told to ponder over the creation of the vast expanse of earth which grows all sorts of fruits and foods for its dwellers. The Author and Architect of this great and complex universe, the Surah says, possesses the power and wisdom to give man a new life after his physical habitat has disintegrated.
Next, the Surah points to the purposefulness of the creation of man—God’s supreme creature and His noblest handiwork—and to man’s freedom and complete responsibility and accountability for his actions, in a life after death, wherein he will be punished or rewarded according to the good or bad life he might have led in this world. Those who had wasted their lives in the quest of evil pursuits would be thrown into Hell, the punishments of which would be the representations of their evil deeds done in this life. And so would the rewards of Paradise be the representations of the good and noble actions of the righteous and the God-fearing in this life. Only the things of the next world would be of a nature different from those to which we are accustomed in this life.
The Surah ends on the note that the creation of the universe, and of man—the apex and acme of creation—shows that the wise Creator could not have brought into existence this complex universe without a great purpose behind it. This leads to the conclusion that there must be and there is a life beyond the grave and that all Divine Messengers and Prophets were raised to teach man this important religious doctrine, and that those who refuse to believe in this divine mission of the Prophets incur a liability in the Hereafter.
یہ سورت ابتدائی مکی دور میں نازل ہوئی۔ بسم اللہ سمیت اس کی چھیالیس آیات ہیں۔
یہ سورت مقطعات میں سے حرف ’’ق‘‘ سے شروع ہوتی ہے۔’’ق‘‘ کے متعلق جید علماء کا خیال ہے کہ لفظ قدیرکا اختصار ہے۔ اور اس کے بعد پہلا لفظ قرآن آیا ہے جو ’’ق‘‘ ہی سے شروع ہوتا ہے۔ اس کے بعد اللہ تعالیٰ کی قدرت کا انکار کرنے والوں کا یہ بیان مذکور ہے کہ اللہ تعالیٰ میں یہ قدرت کہاں سے آگئی کہ ہمیں مر کر مٹی ہوجانے کے بعد ایک دفعہ پھر قیامت کے دن اکٹھا کرے۔ ان کے نزدیک یہ ایک بہت دُور کی بات ہے یعنی بعید از عقل ہے۔ اللہ تعالیٰ فرماتا ہے کہ ہمیں معلوم ہے کہ زمین ان میں سے کیا کچھ کم کرتی چلی جارہی ہے لیکن اس کے باوجود ہم یہ قدرت رکھتے ہیں کہ ان کے منتشر ذرّات کو اکٹھا کردیں۔ ان کی توجہ آسمان کی وسعتوں کی طرف پھیری گئی ہے کہ اتنی عظیم الشان کائنات میں کوئی ایک نقص بھی وہ نہیں دکھا سکتے، پھر اس کے پیدا کرنے والے کی قدرتوں کا وہ کیسے انکار کرسکتے ہیں۔
اس کے بعد فرمایا کہ جو وساوس ان کے دل میں اٹھتے ہیں ہم کلیۃً ان سے باخبر ہیں کیونکہ ہم انسان کی شہ رگ سے بھی زیادہ اس کے قریب ہیں۔
پھر یہ پیشگوئی فرمائی گئی کہ ضرور تم لوگ اٹھائے جاؤگے اور اٹھائے جانے والوں کے ساتھ ان کو ایک ہانک کر لے جانے والا ہوگا اور ایک گواہ۔ جہنم کا ذکر کرتے ہوئے فرمایا کہ بے دین انسان یکے بعد دیگرے گروہ در گروہ جہنم کا ایندھن بننے والے ہیں۔ ایک ایسی جہنم کا جس کا کبھی پیٹ نہیں بھرے گا۔ جب تمثیلی طور پر اللہ تعالیٰ اس سے پوچھے گا کہ کیا تیرا پیٹ بھر گیا ہے تو وہ زبانِ حال سے جواب دے گی کہ کیا اَور بھی ایسے بدقسمت ہیں؟ میرے اندر اُن کی بھی گنجائش ہے۔ اور اس کے برعکس جنت متقیوں کے قریب تر کردی جائے گی۔ غَیْرَبَعِیْد کا یہ مفہوم بھی ہے کہ یہ بات ہرگز بعید از قیاس نہیں۔ پس آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کو نصیحت فرمائی گئی کہ ان کے طعن و تشنیع کو صبر کے ساتھ برداشت کریں۔ جو پیشگوئیاں قرآنِ کریم میں فرمائی گئی ہیں وہ لازماً پوری ہوکر رہیں گی۔ پس قرآنِ کریم کے ذریعہ تُو اس شخص کو نصیحت کرتا چلا جا جو میری تنبیہ سے ڈرتا ہو۔ یہاں یہ مرادنہیں کہ رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم چن چن کر صرف اس کو نصیحت کریں گے جو تنبیہ سے ڈرتا ہو۔ نصیحت تو آپ تمام بنی نوع انسان کو کر رہے ہیں مگر فائدہ وہی اٹھائے گا جو تنبیہ سے ڈرنے والا ہو۔
بِسۡمِ اللّٰہِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ الرَّحِیۡمِ﴿۱﴾
بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
a. 1:1. (close)
a. See 1:1. (close)
See 1:1. (close)
قٓ ۟ۚ وَ الۡقُرۡاٰنِ الۡمَجِیۡدِ ۚ﴿۲﴾
قٓۚ وَٱلۡقُرۡءَانِ ٱلۡمَجِيدِ
2799. The letter Qaf may stand for the Divine Attribute Qadir meaning, the Mighty God, or for the expression, Al-Qiyamatu Haqqun, i.e. the Resurrection is an undoubted reality. (close)
2800. The Qur’an is cited as an evidence that the Great Resurrection will, certainly, take place. (close)
b. 56:78. (close)
3856. Important Words:
The letter ق (Qaf) may stand for the Divine attribute قادر or قدیر (Qadir or Qadir) which means, the Mighty God; or the letter may stand for القیامة حق i.e. the Resurrection is an undoubted reality. This is the last abbreviated letter used in the Quran and therefore possesses a special significance. For a detailed explanation, however, of the abbreviated letters (المقطعات) see 2:2 & 19:2.
The letter و (by) among other things may mean, 'by' or 'I swear' or 'I cite as witness or evidence.' See also 37:2.
المجید (Glorious) is derived from مجد (majada) which means, he was or became possessed of or characterized by glory, honour, dignity, nobility, etc. or he was or became glorious, in a state of honour, dignity; noble. مجدتالابل means, the camels fed in a land abounding with pasture, and satiated themselves therewith, or lighted upon abundant herbage. أمجدہ means, he made it (a gift) large or abundant. They say أمجدنا فلان قری i.e. such a one gave us a sufficient and superabundant entertainment. The Arabs say أمجدہ سباً و ذماً i.e. he reviled and dispraised him much. أمجد الدایة means, he gave the beast of carnage much fodder. Thus the primary signification of the root word is abundance or superabundance. مجد (majdun) means, glory, honour, dignity, nobility; (syn. شرف و عز & کرم) or ample glory, nobility, honour, dignity, etc., or the acquisition of glory, honour, etc., or acquired or personal glory, honour, etc., transmitted by one’s ancestors. مجید means, a man possessing or characterized by glory, honour, dignity; nobility. المجید as an epithet of God signifies the Glorious or Great in dignity, Who gives liberally or bountifully.مجید is also applied in the Quran as an epithet to the Throne (عرش) of God and to the Quran itself and signifies exalted, sublime, noble, glorious (Lane & Aqrab). Sec also 38:2. The words القرآن المجید thus may mean, the Glorious Quran, the great Quran, the Quran possessing great and abundant good. In the last sense the word مجیدmay be synonymous with مبارک which is also one of the epithets used by the Quran for itself (6:156). Elsewhere the Quran has been called the Quran full of wisdom (36:3), the Quran full of exhortation (38:2), the Noble Quran (56:78), the Quran which explains things fully (12:3).
The construction of this verse exactly resembles that of 38:2. Taking the abbreviated letter ق as signifying 'the Powerful God,' the versemay mean that the Powerful God swears by the Quran, or that He cites the Quran as witness, that by acting upon its teaching and making it a rule of their lives, its followers will achieve glory, greatness and spiritual and material grandeur. And by taking the letter as signifying القیامة حق i.e. the Resurrection is an undoubted reality, the verse would signify that Resurrection will certainly take place and that the Glorious Quran can be cited as an evidence to prove this claim. The proof consists in the fact: (1) that the Quran has made two claims, viz. that by acting upon its teaching the weak, oppressed and persecuted followers of the Holy Prophet will achieve glory, greatness and spiritual and material eminence and an honoured place in the comity of the world’s great nations; and (2) that Resurrection will undoubtedly take place. The fulfilment of the first prophecy, the verse implies, will substantiate and establish the truth of the second claim. (close)
بَلۡ عَجِبُوۡۤا اَنۡ جَآءَہُمۡ مُّنۡذِرٌ مِّنۡہُمۡ فَقَالَ الۡکٰفِرُوۡنَ ہٰذَا شَیۡءٌ عَجِیۡبٌ ۚ﴿۳﴾
بَلۡ عَجِبُوٓاْ أَن جَآءَهُم مُّنذِرٞ مِّنۡهُمۡ فَقَالَ ٱلۡكَٰفِرُونَ هَٰذَا شَيۡءٌ عَجِيبٌ
a. 7:64. (close)
The verse purports to say that in spite of the fact that from time immemorial God has been sending His Messengers and Prophets to guide men to the path of truth and righteousness, the people, whenever there appeared a Prophet, wondered, and considered it highly improbable that God should commission as His Messenger an ordinary man from among themselves. This attitude of disbelievers towards Divine Messengers has been referred to at several other places also in the Quran (7:64; 10:3; 38:5). (close)
ءَاِذَا مِتۡنَا وَ کُنَّا تُرَابًا ۚ ذٰلِکَ رَجۡعٌۢ بَعِیۡدٌ ﴿۴﴾
أَءِذَا مِتۡنَا وَكُنَّا تُرَابٗاۖ ذَٰلِكَ رَجۡعُۢ بَعِيدٞ
b. 13:6; 23:37. (close)
b. 13:6; 23:36; 27:68; 37:17. (close)
Greater is the disbelievers’ wonder at the idea, says the verse, that when they are dead and are reduced to dust, they will get a new life. (close)
قَدۡ عَلِمۡنَا مَا تَنۡقُصُ الۡاَرۡضُ مِنۡہُمۡ ۚ وَ عِنۡدَنَا کِتٰبٌ حَفِیۡظٌ ﴿۵﴾
قَدۡ عَلِمۡنَا مَا تَنقُصُ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ مِنۡهُمۡۖ وَعِندَنَا كِتَٰبٌ حَفِيظُۢ
2801. The verse refutes the disbelievers’ objection mentioned in the preceding verse, viz. how when they are dead and reduced to broken bones and particles of dust they would be raised again. It is the physical body, it says, that disintegrates and perishes. The soul is imperishable and will be given a new body in the next world to account for the deeds done in this world which are recorded in 'a Book that preserves everything.' The verse may also mean that even the particles of objects which the earth disintegrates are well preserved in God’s knowledge. It may also signify that as complete knowledge about all the details of a thing presupposes the power to create it, and God is the Possessor of full knowledge of human anatomy and of the process of its disintegration, He, therefore, could and would recreate it after it had perished. (close)
The verse refutes the disbelievers’ objection mentioned in the preceding verse, viz. that when they are dead and reduced to broken bones and particles of dust they would be raised again. It is the physical body, says the verse, that disintegrates and perishes. The soul is imperishable and will be given a new body to account for the deeds done in this world which are recorded in "a Book that preserves everything." The verse may also mean that even the particles of objects which the earth disintegrates are well preserved in God’s knowledge. It may also signify that as complete knowledge about all the details of a thing presupposes the power to create it, and God being the Possessor of full knowledge of human anatomy and the process of its disintegration could recreate it after it had perished.
The verse may also signify that just as the earth corrupts and swallows up dead bodies, it also possesses the means of nourishing living ones. (close)
بَلۡ کَذَّبُوۡا بِالۡحَقِّ لَمَّا جَآءَہُمۡ فَہُمۡ فِیۡۤ اَمۡرٍ مَّرِیۡجٍ ﴿۶﴾
بَلۡ كَذَّبُواْ بِٱلۡحَقِّ لَمَّا جَآءَهُمۡ فَهُمۡ فِيٓ أَمۡرٖ مَّرِيجٍ
3860. Important Words:
مریج (state of confusion) is derived from مرج (maraja) which means, he mixed a thing with another thing or two things together. مرج الامر (marija) means, the affair became corrupt, spoiled, disordered or in a confused or disordered state. مرج الناسmeans, the people became confused so that they could not extricate themselves from their perplexity (Lane & Aqrab).
The verse means that though disbelievers always reject the Divine Message, their rejection or denial does not rest on sure ground. They are always in a confused state of mind. They do not know what they should make of the Message. They call it poetry, sorcery, the day-dreaming of an ambitious visionary, the confused vapourings of an unhinged mind, or the forgery of an impostor (21:6). But the Holy Prophet and his followers stand on the bedrock of certainty and sure knowledge. (close)
اَفَلَمۡ یَنۡظُرُوۡۤا اِلَی السَّمَآءِ فَوۡقَہُمۡ کَیۡفَ بَنَیۡنٰہَا وَ زَیَّنّٰہَا وَ مَا لَہَا مِنۡ فُرُوۡجٍ ﴿۷﴾
أَفَلَمۡ يَنظُرُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلسَّمَآءِ فَوۡقَهُمۡ كَيۡفَ بَنَيۡنَٰهَا وَزَيَّنَّـٰهَا وَمَا لَهَا مِن فُرُوجٖ
a. 37:7; 41:13; 67:6. (close)
2802. This and the following few verses draw attention to the marvels of creation—the wonderful design in the universe, the celestial firmament with its countless beautiful planets and stars, the earth and its wide expanse teeming with human and animal life—and then points to the inevitable inference that the Great and Wise Designer, the Architect and the Controller, Who could bring into being this wonderful universe and Who placed man at its centre, does possess the power to recreate it after its disintegration and to give man a new life after he is dead. (close)
a. 15:17; 37:7; 41:13; 67:6. (close)
3861. Important Words:
فروج (flaws) is the plural of فرج which means, a cleft, an opening, a gap, and hence a flaw or defect (Lane & Aqrab).
This and the following few verses draw attention to the marvels of creation, the wonderful design in the universe, to the celestial firmament with its countless beautiful planets and stars, to earth and its wide expanse teeming with human and animal life, and points to the inevitable inference that the Great and Wise Designer, the Architect and the Controller, Who could bring into being this wonderful universe and who placed man at its centre, does possess the power to recreate the universe after its disintegration, and to give man a new life after he is dead. (close)
وَ الۡاَرۡضَ مَدَدۡنٰہَا وَ اَلۡقَیۡنَا فِیۡہَا رَوَاسِیَ وَ اَنۡۢبَتۡنَا فِیۡہَا مِنۡ کُلِّ زَوۡجٍۭ بَہِیۡجٍ ۙ﴿۸﴾
وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ مَدَدۡنَٰهَا وَأَلۡقَيۡنَا فِيهَا رَوَٰسِيَ وَأَنۢبَتۡنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوۡجِۭ بَهِيجٖ
b. 31:11. (close)
b. 13:4; 15:20; 31:11; 77:28. (close)
c. 27:61; 31:11. (close)
تَبۡصِرَۃً وَّ ذِکۡرٰی لِکُلِّ عَبۡدٍ مُّنِیۡبٍ ﴿۹﴾
تَبۡصِرَةٗ وَذِكۡرَىٰ لِكُلِّ عَبۡدٖ مُّنِيبٖ
2803. It is logical to assume a purpose behind physical nature. The concept of God as Designer and Creator of all things gives a coherent and complete picture of origin, design and purpose. And the existence of a purpose behind the creation implies the existence of a Life after death because the very idea, that with the dissolution of its physical tabernacle the human soul suffers death, militates against the whole design and wisdom of God and against His purpose in creating the universe. (close)
It is logical to assume a purpose behind physical nature. The concept of God as Designer and Creator of all things gives a coherent and complete picture of origin, design and purpose. And the existence of a purpose behind the creation implies the existence of a life after death because the very idea that with the dissolution of its physical tabernacle the human soul suffers death militates against the whole design of God and the purpose in creating the universe. (close)
وَ نَزَّلۡنَا مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً مُّبٰرَکًا فَاَنۡۢبَتۡنَا بِہٖ جَنّٰتٍ وَّ حَبَّ الۡحَصِیۡدِ ۙ﴿۱۰﴾
وَنَزَّلۡنَا مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءٗ مُّبَٰرَكٗا فَأَنۢبَتۡنَا بِهِۦ جَنَّـٰتٖ وَحَبَّ ٱلۡحَصِيدِ
c. 25:49. (close)
d. 24:44; 25:49. (close)